DEFINITIONS



MYSTERY/DETECTIVE/THRILLER/ESPIONAGE DEFINITIONS


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update of 31 December 2003; 356 Kilobytes
|Introduction
|A: Abbacinare to Avionics
|B: Ballad to Buy and Bust 
|C: Cadaver Dogs to Cyberterrorism
|D: Dactylography to Dumpster Diving
|E: Ecclesiastical to Eyewitness
|F: Fabliau to Free Verse
|G: G.P.S. to Gun Control
|H: Habeas Corpus to Hyperbole
|I: ICAM to Islamic Law
|J: Jacobean to Justifiable Homicide
|K: Kidnapping to Kiss
|L: L.K.A. to Lyric
|M: Masque to Myth
|N: Narcoanalysis to Number
|O: Objective to Onomatopoeia
|P: Pantomime to Purple
|Q: Question to Questioned Documents
|R: Rank to Runaway
|S: Sabotage to Synesthesia
|T: Tactical Officer to True Crime
|U: UDSL to Utopia
|V: VIN to Void
|W: Waiver to Wrongful Death
|X: X-ray to xxx
|Y: Yellow Dog Contract to Youth
|Z: Zadig to Zero
|References: Books Useful

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Introduction

Anthony Boucher, when he was the Mystery Critic for the New York Sunday Times Book Review, divided Mystery Novels into Five Categories. Several of these are further divided into subcategories:
  1. The Puzzle Mystery
  2. The Hard-boiled Mystery
  3. The Straight Mystery
  4. The Novel of Pursuit
  5. a) the Spy Mystery b) the Man-on-the-run Mystery c) the Metaphysical Mystery d) the Doomsday Mystery
  6. The Whodunnit
  7. a) the Sociopolitical Mystery b) the Private Eye Mystery c) the Psychological Mystery d) the Mechanistic Mystery e) the Vigilante Mystery f) the Caper Mystery g) the Camp Mystery h) the Period Mystery
Each of these is defined, with examples, in the Dictionary, below. Other classifications of Mystery Fiction:
  1. Amateur
  2. Cozies
  3. Crime Novel
  4. Golden Age
  5. Hard Boiled
  6. Noir
  7. Police Procedural
  8. Private Detective
  9. Soft-boiled
  10. Suspense
  11. Thriller
Each of these is defined, with examples, in the Dictionary, below.
A

Definitions: A

AAMVANET: abbreviation for American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators Network; which links USA and Canadian state/province agencies on highway safety/usgae issues. AFIS: Acronym for Automated Fingerprint Identification System AIDS: Acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Sydrome, see also Human Immunodeficiency Virus A.K.A.: abbreviation for Also Known As ALS: Acronym for Alternative Light Systems A.S.A.: Abbreviation for "assistant state's attorney." An assistant state's attorney, acting on behalf of the state's attorney, represents the state in criminal proceedings. In Cook County, an assistant state's attorney must review all felony charges before they are approved. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] ASCLD: Acronym for American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors Abbacinare: A barbaric form of corporal punishment meted out in the Middle Ages where persons would be permanently blinded by the pressing of hot irons to the open eyes. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Abduction: To take someone away from a place without that person's consent or by fraud. See also: kidnapping Abet: The act of encouraging or inciting another to do a certain thing, such as a crime. For example, many countries will equally punish a person who aids or abets another to commit a crime. Abstract: {to be done} see: Concrete and Abstract Accelerant: compound or falmmable fluid which speeds the start and spread of a fire. Synonym: Booster. See: Arson; Burn Indicators Accelerant Detection Canines: Dogs which are able to detect accelerants (associated with arson) by scent. See: Explosives Detection Canines; Cadaver Dogs Accountability: The doctrine by which one is liable for the criminal conduct of another. Example: A agrees to help B rob a store, but only on condition that there be no violence. B assures A that no one will be hurt in the robbery. B nevertheless kills a clerk in the commission of the robbery. Both A and B may be criminally liable for the murder. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Acquittal: A final judgment by a judge or jury that the prosecution has not proven a criminal defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. This is not a guilty verdict. Act: (1) a major division in the action of a play, as introduced in England by dramatists of the Elizabethan era, in imitation of Roman playwright Seneca. Acts are often divided into scenes. (2) By analogy, if a novel is like a play, then the drama in the novel is implicitly or explicitly divided into Acts, while the scenes roughly correspond to chapters. (3) In the sense of "criminal act", see: crime. (4) A statute or law (an Act by the State Legislture). (5) An activity, such as a "sex act." See Prostitution Act of God: An event which is caused solely by the effect of nature or natural causes and without any interference by humans whatsoever. Insurance contracts often exclude "acts of God" from the list of insurable occurrences as a means to waive their obligations for damage caused by hurricanes, floods or earthquakes, all examples of "acts of God". See: Force Majeure Action: See Civil Action; Criminal Action; Law Suit; Litigation Action Stereotyping: when an officer sees events the way he/she expects them to unfold, rather than as the actually do. Active System: Category of vehicle antitheft devices which demands that the driver do something to activate/deactivate each time the vehcile is started or parked. See: Theft Deterrent Addict: Either Physical Dependence or Psychological Dependence on Drugs, or both. See: Drugs; Contrast: Recreational Drug User ADR: Abbreviation for alternative dispute resolution. Adjudication: The decision (decree or judgment) by the court concerning the defendant(s) involved in the case. Administrative Log: Written record of actions performed by Crime Scene Coordinator, with assignments, release of the scene, and everything else. Admissible: to be admissible, evidence must be material (it must go to a substantial issue in the case) and relevant (it must go to the truth or falsity of a matter asserted). May also require competence. Admission: A person's acknowledgment of his/her involvement in criminal behavior, but not in itself sufficient to establish guilt. Example: a suspect acknowledges having been at the crime scene, but does not confess to having committed the crime. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Adultery: Voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and another person who is not their married spouse. In most countries, this is a legal ground for divorce. The person who seduces another's spouse is known as the "adulterer." In old English law, this was also known as criminal conversation. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Advance Reading Copy (ARC): The text of a forthcoming book, issued by the publisher in a form resembling a trade paperback, for booksellers and reviewers so they will be familiar with the story when it is published. Usually subject to final editing. Also referred to as proof copy, uncorrected proof, galley, or galley proof. [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] Adversarial System: The state and defense represent their evidence as vigorously as possible, competing agsainst each other before a judge or jury. The other main approach is that of the Inquisitorial System, where the judge is the one asking the questions, to determine the truth. The USA uses the Adversarial System; France uses the Inquisitorial System. Aestheticism: a literary movement, of the late 19th century, based in France, but evolved from the German theory of Kant [1790] that aesthetic contemplation is "disinterested" -- indifferent to utility and reality, but only concerned with Beauty. This also grew from "The Poetic Principle" [1850] of Edgar Allan Poe, who is the father of the modern detective story. see also Decadence. AFIS: Abbreviation of Automated Fingerprint Identification System, a computer based fingerprint identification system. Affective Fallacy: (1) The error of evaluating a poem by its effects, especially its emotional effects, upon the reader. Thus, the poem itself disappears as an object of criticism, as does the poet. We are left with "impressionism and relativism." This was defined by W. K. Wimsatt, Jr., and Monroe C. Beardsley, in an essay [1946] of the same name. (2) By analogy, a bogus claim for critical objectivity sometimes applied to Mystery Novels and stories. Affidavit: A statement which before being signed, the person signing takes an oath that the contents are, to the best of their knowledge, true. It is also signed by a notary or some other judicial officer that can administer oaths, to the effect that the person signing the affidavit was under oath when doing so. These documents carry great weight in Courts to the extent that judges frequently accept an affidavit instead of the testimony of the witness. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] An Affidavit by an oficer is a prerequisite to a judge issuing an arrest warrant. Affirmation: witness acknowledges understanding and accepting the obligations of an oath, including the risks of perjury. Age: see Periods of English Literature Age of Sensibility: (1) The literary era between Alexander Pope's death [1744] and Wordsworth and Colerdge's "Lyrical Ballads" [1798]. Also known as the Age of Johnson, due to the power of Dr.Johnson [1709-1784] and his neoclassical followers: James Boswell, Edmund Burke, Edward Gibbon, Olivber Goldsmith. This era marked a positive view of the Middle Ages, cultural primitivism, folk literature, "original genius", the bardic, the sublime, and the visionary. (2) By analogy, a corresponding period in the late 20th century for Mystery fiction. See: Periods of English Literature Age-progression Photos: "Photographs that are "aged" (in simulation of the subject being aged) through the use of computer software. See: Age Progression and Photoenhancement Agent: (1) the Agent finds and negotiates a contract between author and publisher. (2) Short for FBI Agent, or Secret Agent, or the like. [Bill Pronzini, "On Agents", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition (3) A person who has received the power to act on behalf of another, binding that other person as if he or she were themselves making the decisions. The person who is being represented by the agent is referred to as the "principal." [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] (4) Biological Agent or Chemical Agent Aggravated (offense; e.g. aggravated assault, aggravated battery): A condition which makes an offense more serious, and subjects the offender to greater punishment. Example: using a deadly weapon, or wearing clothing that conceals one's identity, in the commission of an assault constitutes aggravated assault. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Aggravated Assault: see: Aggravated; Assault; Violent Crime Contrast: Simple Assault Aggravated Damages: Special and highly exceptional damages awarded by a court where the circumstances of the tortious conduct have been particularly humiliating or malicious towards the plaintiff/victim. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Agricultural: In Criminalistics, means any chemical used on farms, such as fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides. Agroterrorism: Use of bioweapons aginst food supply or agriculture industries. See: Terrorism Airport Bookshops: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, are the sites where 2% of romance readers purchase books. Alcohol/DUI: Measuring the quantity of alcohol in the blood is one of the three methods available to assess alcohol impairment. This is usually accomplished by an instrumental chemical analysis of the blood to measure the blood alcohol concentration. A practical method for monitoring alcohol impairment in driving is breath analysis via breath testing devices. These breath analyzers measure the amount of alcohol in breath and translate it to blood alcohol levels. [Office of the Attorney General, State of California, Dept. of Justice] Alec Jeffreys: This biologist was the first person to use DNA in a criminal case in order to identify a suspect. Algor Mortis: the decrease in a human body's temperature following death. Alimony: An amount given to one spouse to another while they are separated. Allan Pinkerton: First detective for Chicago, Illinois [1849]. Founder of the Pinkerton Agency [first USA detective agency]. Allegory: Narrative where actions, agents, and settings not only make sense as themselves, but more importantly point to or signify a correlated system of persons, places, and things. This may be for historical, political, religious, or other usually didactic purpose. See also: Fable; exemplum; parable. Alligatoring: The alligator-skin appearance of charred wood, with its characteristically checked texture. See: Arson Alliteration: In a sequence of words close to each other in speech or on the page, the repetition of a speech sound, usually recurring at the start or other key stressed syllable or part of the words. Usually applies only to consonents. Most common in poetry, but also a technique useful in speech-making and in establishing character or atmosphere in a Mystery fiction. see also Assonance,Consonance Allocution: The right a victim has to make a statement (written or spoken) at felony sentencing hearings and parole hearings Alphonse Bertillon: Founder of anthropometrics. See: Anthropometry Alternative Dispute Resolution: Also known as "ADR"; methods by which legal conflicts and disputes are resolved privately and other than through litigation in the public courts, usually through one of two forms: mediation or arbitration. It typically involves a process much less formal than the traditional court process and includes the appointment of a third-party to preside over a hearing between the parties. The advantages of ADR are speed and money: it costs less and is quicker than court litigation. ADR forums are also private. The disadvantage is that it often involves compromise. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Alternative Light Systems: abbreviated ALS, the portable lasers or handheld ultraviolet lighting devices utilized in locating physical evidence at the Crime Scene, particularly trace evidence. See also: Basic Yellow 40 Amateur Burglers: Impulse- or opportunity-burglers, who lack planning, typically use force to enter and ransack premises, and can become violent offenders of secondary crimes such as rape or murder if caught in the act. Amateur Detectives: In these stories, nosy and inquisitive civilians with private occupations not associated with law enforcement, get caught up in mysteries. The Usually cooperate with authorities, but are viewed as meddling annoyances by police. [formerly on now-abandoned site http://staff.queens.lib.ny.us/central/my_html/Mystery.htm] * Diane Mott Davidson (Goldy Bear) * Agatha Christie (Jane Marple) * Lawrence Block (Bernie Rhodenbarr) * Simon Brett (Mrs. Pargeter, Charles Paris) * Jonathan Gash (Owen Lovejoy) * Ellis Peters (Brother Cadfael). Ambience: see Atmosphere American West: see {hotlink}{to be done} Ambush: Type of robbery depending on surprise, rather than planning, and which uses force or threat of force against victim, typically for a small score. Amusement: "...the literature we read for amusement or purely for pleasure may have the greatest influence upon us." [T. S. Eliot] American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors: International society for maintaining the highest standards of practice at crime laboratories. It conducts an accreditation program for labs, plus education programs for lab personnel. Abbreviated ASCLD Amido Black: Blood-sensitive dye used in developing fingerprints contaminated with blood. Amphetamines: Class of stimulants that boost blood pressure, heart arte, respiratory rate, metabolic rate; while decreasing appetite, making senses hyperalert, and causing stress that lasts a long timne. Addictive. Perhaps larger in dollar value that heroin or coacaine in amount sold today in USA. See: drugs; Crystallized Methamphetamine; Crystal Meth; Ice; Speed Anatomically Correct Dolls: Dolls with all anatomical features used to assist in interviews with children who may have been sexually molested. Anglo-Saxon Period: see Periods of English Literature Angry Young Men: a set of 1950s British playwrights and novelists, generally reflecting a jaundiced view of "the Establishment." Includes Kinglsey Amis [Lucky Jim, 1950]; John Braine [Room at the Top, 1957]; Alan Sillitoe [Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, 1960]; John Osborne [Look Back in Anger, 1957]. Anthology: a book consisting of a collection of stories, typically by different authors. Anthrax: A biowar agent weaponized from acute infectious disease with three forms: (1) cutaneous; (2) intestinal; (3) inhalation. These three differ in three ways by means of (1) transmission; (2) symptoms; (3) lethality. Anthropometry: The combination of anthropology and measurements to identify a person. See: Alphonse Bertillon; Bertillon Measurements; Will West Case Antithesis: Parallel grammatical structure used to emphasize and opposition or contrast in meaning. A/O: Abbreviation, often used in case reporting, for "arresting officer." [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Appeal: To ask a more senior court or person to review a decision of a subordinate court or person. In some countries such as Canada, the USA and Australia, appeals can continue all the way up to the Supreme Court, where the decision is final in that it can no longer be appealed. That is why it is called "supreme" (although, in Australia the supreme court is called the High Court). [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Judicial Review Appearance: The act of showing up in court as either plaintiff, defendant, accused or any other party to a civil or criminal suit. It implies that you accept the power of the court to try the matter (i.e. "jurisdiction"). Appearances are most often made by lawyers on their clients behalf... [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Arbitration: An alternative dispute resolution method by which an independent, neutral third person ("arbitrator") is appointed to hear and consider the merits of the dispute and renders a final and binding decision called an award. The process is similar to the litigation process as it involves adjudication, except that the parties choose their arbitrator and the manner in which the arbitration will proceed. The decision of the arbitrator is known as an "award." Compare with: mediation Archaism: using in literature, for stylistic effect, words that are obsolete in ordinary usage. Archaeological Looting: Removal by illegal and unscientific methods of historical resources from tribal, public, or private land. See also Bone Rustlers Archetype: Elemental pattern of myth, legend, or ritual. A theory developed by anthropologists (especially in J. G. Frazer's The Golden Bough] and the Depth Psychology of Carl G. Jung. Literary critics such as Northrop Frye, Joseph Campbell, and others developed this critical theory. The Mystery genre is one where the archetypes of hunter and hunted, the deranged killer, the person haunted by a guilty conscience, the cop as authorty figure, the innocent victim, and the rational or intuitive detective are central. Area: A group of five police districts which share a detective unit, a youth investigation unit, and male and female lock-up facilities. Chicago is divided into five areas. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Arraignment: In USA criminal law, the formal appearance of an accused person to hear, and to receive a copy of, the charge against him or her, in the presence of a judge, and to then enter a plea of guilty or not guilty. The arraignment is the final preparatory step before the criminal trial. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Arrest: To take a person into custody, by authority of law, for the purpose of charging him/her with a criminal offense. An arrest is proper when an officer observes criminal behavior or reasonably believes the individual has engaged in criminal behavior; or upon warrant issued by a judge or magistrate. Arrest Warrant: Judicial order that a specified person be arrested and brought before court to answer criminal charge(s). Arresting Officer: see A/O Arson: Some countries define "arson" as the intentional setting of a fire to a building in which people live; others include as "arson" the intentionally setting of a fire to any building. In either case, this is a very serious crime and is punishable by a long jail sentence. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Arson: Unlawfully damaging real or personal property by means of fire or explosives. The property must have a value of $150 or more. This offense includes damaging one's own property with the intent to defraud an insurer. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] See: Incendiary Material; Plants; Accelerant; Alligatoring; Booster; Point of Origin; Burn Indicators; Charring; Effective Fire Temperature; Trailers See: Property Crime Arson/Explosives: Arson investigation is the science of determining the cause of a fire. It is necessary for experts in this field to be knowledgeable in scientific, as well as non-scientific areas. Such scientific areas include physics, chemistry, and electronics. An extensive knowledge of the construction of buildings would be an example of a non-scientific area. It is also important for an arson investigator to be aware of the psychological disorders that are related to fire-setting behavior. Investigation of explosives is similar since the explosion scene requires extensive reconstruction efforts. The investigator must be knowledgeable in the areas of manufacture, materials, and detonation of explosive materials. Another important aspect is the knowledge of the mental states and psychological disorders that lead to random and intentional bombings. [Office of the Attorney General, State of California, Dept. of Justice] See also: Chemical Explosions; Explosion Assault: The touching of another person with an intent to harm, without that person's consent. See: Aggravated Assault; Simple Assault Assault and Battery: Two distinct offenses which can occur independently or together. Assault is placing someone in reasonable apprehension of a battery, e.g. by making threatening statements or raising a fist. Battery is causing bodily harm to a person by any means, or making physical contact with a person of an insulting or provocative nature. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Assignment Sheet: Person assigned at a crime scene must make such written report to document the tasks he/she's done and those things found. Associative Evidence: evidence that (bidirectionally) connects the perpetrator to the victim or crime scene. Assonance: In a sequence of words close to each other in speech or on the page, the repetition of a vowel sound, usually recurring at the start or other key stressed syllable or part of the words. Most common in poetry, but also a technique useful in speech-making and in establishing character or atmosphere in a Mystery fiction. see also Alliteration Atmosphere: the ambience, mood, or tone pervading a work of fiction. Atmosphere establishes a reader's expectations. Atmosphere is an essential element of style in Mystery fiction, as it also is in related genres such as Gothic, Horror, Romance. [Dorothy Salisbury Davis, "Background and Atmosphere", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Attorney: An alternate word for lawyer or "barrister & solicitor", used mostly in the USA. A person that has been trained in the law and that has been certified to give legal advice or to represent others in litigation. NOTE: Your Humble Webmaster is NOT an attorney, and is not giving legal advice. Augustan Age: (1) the literary era of Horace, Vergil, and Ovid in the reign of Roman Emperor Augustus [27 B.C. - 14 A.D.] (2) By analogy, the period in English literasture from roughly 1700 to 1745, when authors such as Addison, Pope, Steele, and Swift self-consciously aped the social themes, decorum, moderation, and urbanity of their ancient predecessors. See: Periods of English Literature Authentic: {to be done} [Barbara Frost, "How to Make It Authentic", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Auto Theft: {to be done} See: Property Crime; Vehicle; VIN; Confidential VIN Autobiography: a biography written by the author about himself or herself, as distinguished from Memoir (where the emphasis is not on oneself, but on people met or events witnessed) or Diary (intended for private use). Autoerotic Death: Accidental asphyxiation, causing death, rersulting from masochistic activity of the deceased. Synonym: Sexual Asphyxia Automated Fingerprint Identification System: {to be done} Author: the author writes the manuscript that becomes the book. See ROMANCE Authors Table of Contents. Author: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, is the #4 most important selling point for readers when deciding what book to buy. See also: description on the back cover, word-of-mouth, Personal flip-through, price. Automated Fingerprint Identification System: A computer based fingerprint identification system, abbreviated as AFIS. Maintained by the FBI, it stores and quickly compares millions of fingerprints in order to find matches for purpose of identification of victims or perpetrators. Autopsy: Medical examination of human body for determining time of death and cause of death. This is legally required for any suspicious or violent death. Avionics: Abbreviation for Aviation Electronics, meaning any electronic equipment on aircraft, such as navigation, radio, IFFN, jamming. B

Definitions: B

BEA: acronym for Behavioral Evidence Analysis BOLO: acronym for Be On the Lookout Background: {to be done} [Dorothy Salisbury Davis, "Background and Atmosphere", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Bad faith: Intent to deceive. A person who intentionally tries to deceive or mislead another in order to gain some advantage. Bail: Criminal law: a commitment made (and possibly secured by cash or property) to secure the release of a person being held in custody and suspected of a crime, to provide some kind of guarantee that the suspect will appear to answer the charges at some later date. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] The deposit -- money, property, or bond -- that is put up by, or on behalf of, an arrested person to secure his or her release from jail before or after court proceedings begin. The California State Constitution declares all arrested persons, other than those charged with a death penalty offense, are entitled to bail. See: Property Bond Ballad: (1) roughly synonymous with folk ballad, popular ballad, traditional ballad. An orally transmitted song which tells a story. (2) By analogy, a work of fiction that attempts to capture the musical and popular style of such a song. (3) Related literary terms include: ballad stanza, broadside ballad, literary ballad. Ballistics: The scientific study of firearms and projectiles in thee phases: (1) Interior Ballistics: the projectile behavior in the gun barrel; (2) Exterior Ballistics: the projectile behavior in flight; (3) Terminal Ballistics: the projectile behavior when it hits the target. Barbituates: category of depressents of short, intermediate, or long-lasting depression, i.e. Secobarbital, amobarbital, etc. These can, on abrupt withdrawal, cause convulsions or death, and usually nicknamed by the color of the pill/capsule or the name of the manufacturer. Barrister: A litigation specialist; a lawyer that restricts his or her practice to the court room. In England and some other Commonwealth jurisdictions, a legal distinction is made between barristers and solicitors, the latter with exclusive privileges of advising clients, providing legal advice, and the former with exclusive privileges of appearing in a court on behalf of a client. In other words, solicitors don't appear in court on a client's behalf and barristers don't give legal advice to clients. In England, barristers and solicitors work as a team: the solicitor would typically make the first contact with a client and if the issue cannot be resolved and proceeds to trial, the solicitor would transfer the case to a barrister for the duration of the litigation. Lawyers in some states, such as Canada, sometimes use the title "barrister and solicitor" even though, contrary to England, there is no legal distinction between the advising and litigating roles. Canadian lawyers can litigate or give legal advice, as is the case in the USA, where lawyers are referred to as "attorneys." [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Basic Yellow 40: After superglue fuming, this dye is used to make latent prints fluoresce under alternative lighting systems. See also: Crystal Violet; D.F.O. Bastard: An illegitimate child, born in a relationship between two persons that are not married (ie. not in wedlock) or who are not married at the time of the child's birth. Bathos: From the Greek term for "depth", critics since Alexander Pope use the word to mean an unintended descent from an author's intended elevation or passion, by clumsiness or overshooting, to the ridiculous or the painfully trivial. See also: Bombast Battered Child Syndrome: Clinical language for those injuries caused to a physically abused child. Battery: see: Assault and Battery Be On the Lookout: The notification broadcast to officers, containing detailed information about vehicles or the suspects in them, which is technically part of the preliminary investigation. Abbreviated BOLO. Beat: A geographic area assigned to specific officers for patrol. There are 279 beats in Chicago. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Beat Car: A police car assigned to patrol a specific beat. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Beat Community Meeting: A forum held at least quarterly, and often monthly, on each of Chicago's 279 beats. Police and community members jointly identify, prioritize, and develop strategies to address local crime and disorder problems. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Beat Drugs: Substances sold to buyers in place of actual drugs, (i.e. "phony drugs") Beat Integrity: A Chicago Police Department strategy to keep officers on their own beat as much as possible (rather than assisting in emergencies on other beats). This allows officers to get to know both residents and problems on their beat. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Beat Plan: A plan of action developed by the beat team, with input from the community, on significant problems on the beat and how to address them. The framework of analysis is the "crime triangle," which views each problem in terms of three legs: victim, offender, and location. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Beat Team: The eight or nine officers from all three watches assigned to the same beat, and the sergeant who serves as team leader. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] "Beauty is only skin deeep." Or is it? Beauty: #2 of the top 3 character traits that romance readers like to see in the heroine about whom they read (in 1998), according to Romance Writers of America statistics. See also: intelligence, attractiveness, handsomeness, kindness, muscle bound, and strength of character. Behavioral Evidence Analysis: Type of criminal profiling by a deductive method wherein the perpetrator's characteristics are determined from crime scene evidence. abbreviated BEA. Benzodiaapines: see Date-rape Drugs Berne Convention: An international copyright treaty called the Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works signed at Berne, Switzerland in 1886 (amended several times and as late as 1971) and to which now subscribe 77 nations including all major trading countries including China, with the notable exception of Russia. It is based on the principle of national treatment. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Alphonse Bertillon: Founder of anthropometrics. Bertillon Measurements: A specific set of 11 measurements of various parts of the body to identify a person. See: Alphonse Bertillon; Anthropometry Bigamy: Being married to more than one person at the same time. This is a criminal offence in most countries. Biggers-Brathwaite Factors Test: Method to balance the reliability of eyewitness identification, based on five factors listed by the U.S. Supreme Court, against the corrupting influence of suggestive processes. It enables a highly reliable means of identification in court, even after some misbehavior by officers put the fairness of the identification in jeaopardy. Biography: (1) "The history of particular men's lives." [Dryden] (2) The genre of books, short works, or collections of such histories. (3) Subgenres include: * Autobiography: a biography written by the author about himself or herself, as distinguished from Memoir (where the emphasis is not on oneself, but on people met or events witnessed) or Diary (intended for private use). * Chronicle: especially about a King or a Saint. Biological Agents: Toxins or microorganisms such as anthrax, botulism, plague, smallpox, which can cause human illness or death, and could be used by terrorists for biowar. Typically slow-acting compared to Chemical Agents. Biometrics: The use of personal biological measurements for entry into computer systems. Biowar: see Biological Agents Blacked Out:(noun) A vehicle being driven at night without any lights. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Blamestorming: (verb) Sitting around in a group, discussing what went wrong, and who (if anyone) should be held responsible. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Blank Verse: Poetic lines of iambic pentameter. Blend: To become part of surrounding activities or culture, for investigative purposes. Blending Operations: Assimilating police officers into their surroundings. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: The study of the origin, trajectory and patterns of bloodstains. Bobbies: slang for British Police Constables, based on name of Sir Robert Peel. Body Language: The display of certain gestures, demeanor, facial expressions, and/or body movements as brought about by deception or truthfulness. Keen observers can analyze involuntary body language during conversation, interrogation, or testimony. Bombast: (1) Original meaning was "cotton stuffing." (2) By analogy, a fiction, drama, or poetry style which is inflated, verbose, inflated in an attempt to be heroic. See also: Bathos. Bone Rustlers: Fossil hunters without authorization, who loot private or public land. See also Archaeological Looting Book: Books are the final printed objects that publishers release, from the manuscripts sold to them by authors. The kinds of books that the Romance industry are interested in include: anthologies, single-title romances, series romances. Book clubs: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, are the way that 9% of romance readers purchase books. Book Store: one of several types of retail outlets where a reader buys one or more books. Booster: see Accelerant Booster Bag: Used by shoplifter, this is a big shopping bag lined with aluminum foil and duct tape, which blocvks the electronic security tags of items placed inside, allowing them to be smuggled past detectors at exits. Bore: the interior diameter of a gun barrel in between its opposing high sides. See also: Caliber; Firearm Bow Street Runners: 18th Century unpaid private citizens who received rewards for identifying thieves. These volunteers were established in 1748 by Henry Fielding, and were thus the first modern detective force. Some, by 1785, were directly employed as detectives by the government. Bowdlerize: Derived from Reverend Thomas Bowdler, who left out the rude bits in his "Family Shakespeare" [1815], omitting as he put it: "whatever is unfit to be read by a gentleman in a company of ladies." Hence, any overly delicate censorship. Brady Material: Also known as discovery. See: Brady v. Maryland Brady v. Maryland: The Supreme Court case allowing the accused to discover all opposing evidence for trial. See: Brady Material Brands: the registered combinations of letters, marks, numbers, and shapes used to uniquely identify ownership of livestock. Brainpower: (noun) Intellectual capacity (or lack thereof). [A.P. Duli Investigations] Brainwork: (noun) Intellectual activity, especially as an aspect of a person's profession. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Brideswell: see Workhouse Brown v. Mississippi: Supreme Court Decision ending brutality and "third degree" interrogation tactics. Bug: (noun) Hidden microphone connected to a radio transmitter or directly wired to a listening post. [A.P. Duli Investigations] See: Wiretap Bullet: {to be done} see also: Caliber, Gun Bumper Beeper: (noun) Radio transmitter attached inside a vehicle's bumper used as a beacon or homing device for mobile surveillance. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Burden of Going Forward: The responsibility of the defense in a criminal trial to present sufficient evidence to raise reasonable doubt in the minds of jurors. This is optional, as the defense is not formally required to present any evidence at all. Burden of Proof: A rule of evidence that makes a person prove a certain thing or the contrary will be assumed by the court. For example, in criminal trials, the prosecution has the burden of proving the accused guilt because innocence is presumed. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Burgler: a criminal who commits a burglary. Burglary: Illegally entering or remaining in a building, vehicle, or water craft, with intent to commit any felony or theft. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] See: Property Crime Burglary Tools: Used by burglers to commit crimes, usually ordinary household tools, sometimes modified to be more effective in aiding breaking and entering. Burlesque: (1) a type of Satire, roughly synonymous with parody or travesty, where the author inongruously imitates the manner or matter of a serious work of literature, and where the more the disparity between the subject matter and the style or form, the more fun and amusement is gained. Some critics draw fine distinctions, claiming that "Burlesque" is the more general term, and other terms above are specialized sub-types. They further subdivide as follows: * High Burlesque: Elevated style for undignified low subject: * Mock Epic, or Mock Heroic * Parody (usually of a specific literary work or author) * Low Burlesque: Undignified low style for serious and dignified subject: * Hudibrastic: doggeral mocking Chivalric Romance * Travesty: mocks an elevated work in lowly language and style (2) The modern use for a form of theatre derives from incongruous imitations of serious drama, such as John Gay's "Begger's Opera" [1728] which skewered Italian Opera. Gilbert & Sullivan were the masters of Burlesque musical theatre in the Victorian era, sometimes using plots with Mystery elements. (3) In America, the second definition above declined to designate mere slapstick, bawdry, and ultimately the striptease. Burn Indicators: Those effects of heat or partial burning which indicate the rate of development of a fire, its points of origin, its duration, its time of occurrence, or the presence of accelerants. See: Arson Burned: The act of being observed by the person being surveilled. Also known as "made." Buy and Bust: The apprehension of a drug seller upon the purchase of drugs. Thomas Byrnes: Commander of the Central Detective Office in New York City [1880] C

Definitions: C

CFE: abbreviation for Certified Fraud Examiner (Investigators who are certified to conduct fraud investigations. CIB: acronym for Criminal Identification Bureau CID: acronym for Criminal Investigation Department CODIS: acronym for Combined DNA Index System CUPPI: acronym for Circumstances Undetermined Pending Police Investigation Cadaver Dogs: The highly trained canines who assist in locating bodies submerged in water, or underground, based on sensitivity the the smell of decomposing human remains. See also: Accelerant Detection Canines; Explosives Detection Canines Cadaveric Spasm: Popularly known as Death Grip, this is the instantaneous tightening of an extremity or other body part at the time of death. Caliber: a bullet's diameter, slightly larger than the bore of the weapon that fired that bullet. The Camp Mystery: "The rules and appurtenances of any of the foregoing [Whodunnit] subtypes turned inside-out and played strictly for belly laughs." Considered a sub-type of the Whodunnit. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition See also: Burlesque. Characteristic Camp Mystery Authors: * Ed McBain * Robert L. Fish * Donald E. Westlake Canon Law: The law of the Christian Church. Has little or no legal effect today. Canon law refers to that body of law which has been set by the Christian Church and which, in virtually all places, is not binding upon citizens and has virtually no recognition in the judicial system. Some citizens resort to canon law, however, for procedures such as marriage annulments to allow for a Christian church marriage where one of the parties has been previously divorced. Many church goers and church officers abide by rulings and doctrines of canon law. Also known as ecclesiastical law. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Canvass: To interview a large number of potential witnesses. The Caper Mystery: "(The yin-yang opposite of the Straight Whodunnit). A step-by-step analysis of a crime as it is planned by the man who is going to bring it off." Considered a sub-type of the Whodunnit. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Caper Mystery Authors: * Eric Ambler [Topkapi] * Richard Stark * Lionel White Caper Novel: One of the newer forms, centered on the commission of some type of crime or scam, usually outrageous and frequently humorous. Will it succeed, and will the scoundrels get away with it? Gives us an opportunity to root for characters we might not root for in real life. [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] Capital Punishment: The most severe of all sentences: that of death. Also known as the death penalty, capital punishment has been banned in many countries. In the United States, an earlier move to eliminate capital punishment has now been reversed and more and more states are resorting to capital punishment for serious offenses such as murder [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] CAPS: Acronym for Chicago's Alternative Policing Strategy. This is the Department's community policing strategy, based on a partnership between the police and the community. Although it is officially called an alternative policing strategy, it is the Department's principal strategy for addressing crime and disorder problems. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Career Criminal: One who keeps breaking the law, again and again, regardless of how often arrested or incarcerated. See: Professional Criminal; Crimogen Career Criminal Programs: The investigation of career criminals. Cargo Theft: The theft of things in or from a commercial motor vehicle. Carjacking: The crime of taking a motor vehicle away from a passenger or motorist, in that victim's presence, bu using force or threat, with the intent of permanently or temporarily depriving the owner of the use of the vehicle. Carrier Current Device: (noun)Transmits a low-power AM signal along wires (electrical or phone). [A.P. Duli Investigations] Carnivore: (1) Literally, meat-eater; (2) USA Federal device used to intercept information through the internet. Caroline Age: Literary period during the reign of Charles I [1625-1649], during which was the English Civil War between Royalist "Cavaliers" and allies of Parliament ("Roundheads"). Authors of the age included John Milton, George Herbert, and the court-connected Cavalier Poets (Thomas Carew, Richard Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Robert Herrick [although he was an unconnected country parson]). Most of these were admirers of Dr.Johnson (hence called "Sons of Ben"). See also Jacobean Age; Periods of English Literature Carpe Diem: Latin phrase meaning "seize the day" [Horace, Odes, I.ix], which is now a common literary motif. Case Folder: A file used for the collection and organization of investigation documents. Case Investigator: also known as Primary Investigator or Lead Investigator; The criminal investigator responsible for the proper investigation of the crime scene. Case Law: The entire collection of published legal decisions of the courts which, because of stare decisis, contributes a large part of the legal rules which apply in modern society. If a rule of law cannot be found in written laws, lawyers will often say that it is a rule to be found in "case law". In other words, the rule is not in the statute books but can be found as a principle of law established by a judge in some recorded case. The word jurisprudence has become synonymous for case law. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Case Management: The procedure for collecting, recording, organizing, and perserving investigative information. Catalytic Combustion Detector: a criminalistic portable device that oxidizes a smaple's combustible gases. It is used to detect residues of accelerants at fire scenes. Synonyms: Combustible Gas Indicator; Explosimeter; Sniffer; Vapor Detector See also: Arson. Caveat: (Latin) "let him beware." A formal warning. Caveat emptor means let the buyer beware or that the buyers should examine and check for themselves things which they intend to purchase and that they cannot later hold the vendor responsible for the broken condition of the thing bought. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Celtic Renaissance: The period, roughly 1885 to William Butler Yeats' death [1939], also known as the Irish Literary Renaissance. Authors included AE (G. W. Russell), James Stephens, Oliver St.John Gogarty. Playwrights included Yeats, Lady Gregory, John Millington Synge, Sean O'Casey. Certified Fraud Examiner: Investigators who are certified to conduct fraud investigations; abbreviated CFE. Ceteris Paribus: (Latin) all things being equal or unchanged. Chain of Custody: "A continuous, logical chain of evidence possession" without which a defense attorney will argue that the evidence was tampered with during some break in the chain." This should, ideally, be a written, unbroken, chronological record that also accounts for any changes in the evidence. Character and Characterization: {to be done} [John D. MacDonald, "How a Character Becomes Believable", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Charging: formally asserting that a specific person shall be prosecuted for a crime. See: Cleared By Arrest Charring: the way that materials are scorched by a fire. By analysis of relative depth of scorching throughout the fire scene, an investigator can determine the direction of fire spread. See: Arson Chaste: A person who has never voluntarily had sexual intercourse outside of marriage, such as unmarried virgins. Chattel: Moveable items of property which are neither land nor permanently attached to land or a building, either directly or vicariously through attachment to real property. A piano is chattel but an apartment building, a tree or a concrete building foundation are not. The opposite of chattel is real property which includes lands or buildings. All property which is not real property is said to be chattel. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Check Fraud: The creation or use of altered or phony bank checks in any activity such as counterfeiting, identity theft, or a payroll check scheme. See: Check Washing Check Washing: process of altering bank checks with the use of an acidic chemical solution in order to erase the amount or the payee information, so that false numbers or names may be written in their place. See: Check Fraud Chemical Agents: Rapidly acting biowar weapons such as mustard gas, sarin, V agents, which cause a variety of incapacitating symptoms or death, and which can cause mass casualties. See: WMD; Biological Agents Chemical Explosions: Events in which high-pressure gas is produced by chemical reactions which involve alteration of the nature of the fuel, as commonly occurs in burning of hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, or lubricating oils, when a polymer is broken down by heat into a monomer or shorter polymer gas. Child: person under the age of 18. See: infant; juvenile; minor; youth Child Pornography: As defined by statute, any sexually explicit visual depiction of a minor, including magazines, movies, negatives, photographs, videotaped, and computerized images. Children: may result from marriage, may result from love, almost always result from sex. Children's Books: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, such merchandise is purchased by 27% of romance readers when they're in a bookstore buying romance fiction. Chivalric Romance or Medieval Romance: {to be done} Chop Shops: Criminal garages that strip stolen cars of usable parts to repair damage vehicles. The goal is that the illegal dissassembly of cars allows the traceable parts to be disposed of or altered, so that the remaining untraceable parts can be sold to repair shops, salavage yards, or other buyers. See: Auto Theft; VIN; Confidential VIN Chorus: {to be done} Chronicle: {to be done} See: Biography Chronicle Plays: {to be done} Crystallized Methamphetamine: a long-acting amphetamine stimulant that started in injectible form or pill, but has been modified to a smokable odorless version in solid form which looks like a chip of ice and liquifies when lighted. Synonym: Crystal Meth; Ice; Speed See also: Amphetamine Circumstances Undetermined Pending Police Investigation: a case where the medical examiner has performed an autopsy, but requests clarification before signing a death certificate. Abbreviated CUPPI. Circumstantial Evidence: Evidence which may allow a judge or jury to deduce a certain fact from other facts which have been proven. In some cases, there can be some evidence that can not be proven directly, such as with an eye-witness. And yet that evidence may be essential to prove a case. In these cases, the lawyer will provide the judge or juror with evidence of the circumstances from which a juror or judge can logically deduct, or reasonably infer, the fact that cannot be proven directly; it is proven by the evidence of the circumstances; hence, "circumstantial" evidence. Fingerprints are an example of circumstantial evidence: while there may be no witness to a person's presence in a certain place, or contact with a certain object, the scientific evidence of someone's fingerprints is persuasive proof of a person's presence or contact with an object. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Citation: An order of a court to either do a certain thing or to appear before it to answer charges. The citation is typically used for lesser offences (such as traffic violations) because it relies on the good faith of the defendant to appear as requested, as opposed to an arrest or bail. The penalty for failing to obey a citation is often a warrant for the arrest of the defendant. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Civil Action: A lawsuit in which a private party, rather than the state, is plaintiff, and where the plaintiff's remedy is either money damages or an injunction. In some cases, the same conduct can give rise to both a civil or criminal action. See: Civil Law Civil Law: Law inspired by old Roman Law, the primary feature of which was that laws were written into a collection; codified, and not determined, as is common law, by judges. The principle of civil law is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Civil Action Class Characteristics: Aspects of physical evidence which are common to a set of objects or persons. Cleared By Arrest: That category of offense where the suspect has been arrested but there was insufficient evidence to file any formal charge. Cliche: {to be done} ["Avoiding Cliches Like the Plague", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Clandestine: Something that is purposely kept from the view or knowledge of others either in violation of the law or to conduct or conceal some illegal purpose. See: French Method of Detective Work Clandestine Drug Laboratory: an illicit operation which produces a variety of illegal drugs for distribution and sale. Because of the chemicals used, and the lack of expertise by the workers, these seriously endanger the public, as well as police and firefighters. Clean Hands: A maxim of the law to the effect that any person, individual or corporate, that wishes to ask or petition a court for judicial action, must be in a position free of fraud or other unfair conduct. Cloning: the illegal programming of a cellular phone by overwriting the access code with that of some legitimate cellular customer, by means of a personal computer or specialized cloning "black box." Close Tail: "Following a person, must be undetected, a constant surveillance" -- also known as "Tight Tail." See also: Loose Tail; Rough Tail Clues: see Leads; Evidence Cocaine: a natural stimulant extracted from coca leaves. It is sold illegally as a white, translucent crystal power, and is usually adulterated (stepped on). Abbreviated: Coke See: Drugs; Crack; Rock Cocaine Code of Ethics: (noun) Rules of conduct to which members must adhere in order to remain in good standing with a professional organization. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Codeine: an opiate in injectible, liquid, or tablet form which is preferred to morphine because it causes less analgesia, sedation, and respiratory depression. CODIS: Acronym for "Combined DNA Index System." Coffee or cafe items: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, such merchandise is purchased by 15% of romance readers when they're in a bookstore buying romance fiction. A prolific author is a machine where you put in coffee and get out manuscripts. Cognitive Interview: Technique used to enhance accuracy in a witness's information. Coke: see Cocaine Cold Case Investigations: The investigation of old and unsolved crimes. Collusion: A secret agreement between two or more persons, who seem to have conflicting interests, to abuse the law or the legal system, deceive a court or to defraud a third party. Colonial America: see Romance Subgenres Combined DNA Index System: Database developed and maintained by the FBI which includes records of convicted offenders' DNA profiles, and known-subject DNA profiles, and unknown-subject DNA profiles, which is used by investigators to find matches in order to link unsolved crimes across multiple jurisdictions. Abbreviated CODIS Combustible Gas Indicator: Synonyms: Catalytic Combustion Detector; Explosimeter; Sniffer; Vapor Detector See also: Arson. Comedy: the second of the two great dramatic forms, according to Aristotle, the other being Tragedy. see Wit Comedy of Humors: {to be done} Comic Relief: {to be done} Commedia Dell'Arte: {to be done} Commercial: see Romance Subgenres Commercial Shoplifters: people who steal merchandise in order to resell it. Also known as Boosters. Commercial Vehicle Theft: stealing of tractor units or trailers. Common Law: Unwritten legal precedents created through everyday practice and which is supported by court decisions. Community Adjustment: Disposition of a juvenile offense which involves releasing the offender to a parent or guardian, with follow-up assistance by either the police or a community agency. A community adjustment is an alternative to juvenile court, made in the discretion of the police, for less serious offenses. Also referred to as a "station adjustment." [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Common Law: Judge-made law. Law which exists and applies to a group on the basis of historical legal precedents developed over hundreds of years. Because it is not written by elected politicians but, rather, by judges, it is also referred to as "unwritten" law. Judges seek these principles out when trying a case and apply the precedents to the facts to come up with a judgement. Common law is often contrasted with civil law systems which require all laws to be written in a code or written collection. Common law has been referred to as the "common sense of the community, crystallized and formulated by our ancestors". [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Commonwealth Period: see Periods of English Literature Comparative Negligence: A principle of tort law which looks at the negligence of the victim and which may lead to either a reduction of the award against the defendant, proportionate to the contribution of the victim's negligence, or which may even prevent an award altogether if the victim's negligence, when compared with the defendant, is equal to or greater in terms or contributing to the situation which caused the injury or damage. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Competency: Evidence that is admissible contrasted with that which is inadmissible. Competency: (of a Witness) Personal qualifications or circumstances for court testimony, depending on the legal ability to act as a sworn witness, for intance: age or mental state. Complaint: (1) (Police) A statement under oath whereby a witness accuses an individual of criminal behavior. Although a complaint may trigger an arrest, it is not in itself sufficient in Illinois and most jurisdictions to bring the offender before a criminal court. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] (2) (Law) The Complaint and Subpoena are served and filed at the start of a Civil Action. (3) A written accusation filed by a prosecutor in a justice or municipal court that accuses one or more persons of committing one or more crimes. [California] Component Swapping: A practice of fraud where manufacturewrs of, for instance, computers, use parts from a low-cost supplier but do not inform the buyer of that, pretending instead that the parts are expensive and standard. Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970: The act that defines the legality or illegality of drugs. Computer-aided Investigation: Computer programs used to analyze criminal information and to prepared investigative plans. Computerized Case Management: Computer software used to collect, record and organize investigative information. Computerized Report Writing: Digital dictation systems for computerized report writing. Con Men: see Confidence Artists Conceit: {to be done} Concentric Fractures: An impact on a glass window leaves these lines that approximately circle the point of impact. Concrete and Abstract: {to be done} Confabulation: When a subject is hypnotized and asked to recall events, the subject will fabricate details to edit the incomplete actual memories for continuity. Confession: A person's admissions of enough facts to establish his or her guilt of a particular crime. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Note: if the admissions cover each and every element of the offense, then there should be no reasonable doubt as to guilt. Confidant: {to be done} Confidence Artists: People who employ guile an a person-to-person interaction in order to swindle the victim by gaining the victim's conficence. Synonym: Con Men Confidential Informant: A professional person who provides information to law enforcement, usually on a one time basis. Confidential Information: People who provide the police with information and remain anonymous Confidential VIN: an extra Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) stamped someplace on the vehicle's body or frame in a location known onlky to the manufacturer and law enforcement experts in auto theft. This is a way of protecting against chop shops. Connotation and Denotation: {to be done} Conspiracy: (1) An agreement between two or more persons to commit a criminal act. Those forming the conspiracy are called conspirators. (2) Agreement with another, or others, to commit a crime, and an act by any party to the agreement in furtherance of the agreement. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Contact: An investigator who maintains contact with the undercover officer Contact Burn: damage to the skin caused by contact with a flame or hot object such as tip of lit cigarette, or hot iron. Contaminated: The state of evidence or crime scene being contaminated, or spoiled. Contrast: PristineContamination: processes by which evidence is contaminated. See: Cross-Contamination Contaminated Fingerprint: see Fingerprint Contemporary: see Romance Subgenres Contempt of Court: An act of defiance of court authority or dignity. Contempt of court can be direct (swearing at a judge or violence against a court officer) or constructive (disobeying a court order). The punishment for contempt is a fine or a brief stay in jail (i.e. overnight). Continuance: A delay of court proceedings. Contract: An agreement between persons which obliges each party to do or not to do a certain thing. Technically, a valid contract requires an offer and an acceptance of that offer, and, in common law countries, consideration. In general, Mystery fiction is bought from an author by a publisher (sometimes hrough an agent) via a contract. The Contract almost always involves a cash advance, and then a royalty pay-out. Contract Law: That body of law which regulates the enforcement of contracts. Contract law has its origins thousands of years as the early civilizations began to trade with each other, a legal system was created to support and to facilitate that trade. The English and French developed similar contract law systems, both referring extensively to old Roman contract law principles such as "consensus ad idem" or caveat emptor. There are some minor differences on points of detail such as the English law requirement that every contract contain consideration. More and more states are changing their laws to eliminate consideration as a prerequisite to a valid contract thus contributing to the uniformity of law. Contract law is the basis of all commercial dealings from buying a bus ticket to trading on the stock market. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Contract Security Investigations: Contracted external companies which provide numerous security services. Convenience: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, is the #2 most important shopping factor for romance readers, in order of importance. Contrast: selection of books, price, help. Conventions: {to be done} Copyright: The exclusive right to produce or reproduce (copy), to perform in public or to publish an original literary or artistic work. Many countries have expanded the definition of a "literary work" to include computer programs or other electronically stored information. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Coroner: A public official who holds an inquiry into violent or suspicious deaths. A coroner has the power to summon people to the inquest. Coroner: The term Coroner has been in use in England since about the year 900. It derives from the term coruner (root word corona, Latin for crown, "officer of the crown", meaning worked for the King). The position of Coroner has evolved over the centuries as a public official responsible for the investigation and certification of cause and manner of cases of sudden and unnatural death. Much of American law derives from the English system and the office of the Coroner has remained in use in the United States to date. The use of the office of the Coroner varies widely throughout the U.S. Some are elected positions, others are appointed. Many are open to lay persons, others require that the Coroner be a physician, and a few require that the Coroner be a forensic pathologist. See: Medical Examiner Corporal Punishment: A punishment for some violation of conduct which involves the infliction of pain on, or harm to the body. A fine or imprisonment is not considered to be corporal punishment (in the latter case, although the body is confined, no punishment is inflicted upon the body). The death penalty is the most drastic form of corporal punishment and is also called capital punishment. Some schools still use a strap to punish students. Some countries still punish habitual thieves by cutting off a hand. These are forms of corporal punishment, as is any form of spanking, whipping or bodily mutilation inflicted as punishment. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Corpus Delicti: (Latin) The "body of the crime"; i.e. all the elements that make up the crime. Corpus Delicti Evidence: Substantiation of elements of a crime, which evidence of elements must be proved by the prosecution to prove the case and possibly convict the accused. Court: {to be done} Court Advocacy: A CAPS program in which community volunteers identify and track court cases and attend court proceedings that are of concern to the community. Attendance at court shows support for victims and lets the judge and defendants know that the community is concerned about the outcome of the case. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Court Martial: A military court set up to try and punish offenses taken by members of the Army, Navy or Air force. Court of Admiralty: A rather archaic term used to denote the court which has the right to hear shipping, ocean and sea legal cases. Also known as "maritime law". Courtly Love: {to be done} Courtroom Drama: see Romance Subgenres Cover Story: An fictional explanation of one's presence or activities. See: Pretexting Covert Operations: Undercover investigations (conducted in secret ). See: Clandestine; Overt Cozies: English villages or country houses, with peaceful and genteel exteriors are usually the setting for these mysteries. There is little violence involved (apart from a murder), no gory details and everything is wrapped up in a satisfactory conclusion. [formerly on now-abandoned site http://staff.queens.lib.ny.us/central/my_html/Mystery.htm] * Charlotte Macleaod (Peter Shandy, the Bittersohns, Dittany Henbit) * John Sherwood (Celia Grant) * Agatha Christie (Jane Marple) Cozy: Think Agatha Christie. Think cats. Think culinary. The cozy is a mystery in which a murder, perhaps violent, is committed without bringing significant unpleasantness to the reader, or to the other characters in the story. In her entertaining 1977 book, Murder Ink, Dilys Winn described the cozy as "a small village setting, a hero[ine] with faintly aristocratic family connections, a plethora of red herrings, and a tendency to commit homicide with sterling silver letter openers and poisons imported from Paraguay." [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] Crack: synonym for Rock Cocaine Credibility: the credibility of a witness is that quality which renders his or her testimony worthy of belief, based upon the attentiveness, consciousness, presence, and other aspects of that witness in interviews or at trial. The judge can make a "credibility determination", and the jury must also decide for themselves how credible a witness is. Credit Card Fraud: Activities including creation of altered, fake, stolen, or fraudulently obtained credit cards. See: Fraud; Check Fraud Crime: An act or omission which is prohibited by criminal law. Each state sets out a limited series of acts (crimes) which are prohibited and punishes the commission of these acts by a fine, imprisonment or some other form of punishment. In exceptional cases, an omission to act can constitute a crime, such as failing to give assistance to a person in peril or failing to report a case of child abuse. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Crime Analysis: Application of systematic analytical methodologies in order to obtain pertinent and timely information on crime patterns, and correlation of trends regarding crimes. This includes: (1) Administrative Crime Analysis; (2) Strategic Crime Analysis; (3) Tactical Crime Analysis; Crime Analyst: a person who performs Crime Analysis: Crime Bulletins: Publications written by Crime Analysts to disseminiate knowledge by print or electronically on topics such as: (1) Active Criminals: the persons topping the list; (2) Crime Series (i.e. multiple crimes with similar location, time, M.O.); (3) Trends regarding crimes. Crime Lab: abbreviation for Crime Laboratory. A scientific organization which performs analysis of materials collected from a crime scene and from suspects and victims, in order to assist in determining whether or not a crime was comitted, and, if it was: (1) How; (2) When; (3) By whom. See: ASCLD Crime Laboratories: see Crime Lab; ASCLD Crime Novel: "Mysteries" and more. Perhaps a better term than "mystery novel" to describe the category today, with its implication of a broad variety of approaches to the issue of crime and its implications, less dependence on the four essential elements. A notable example of the newer type of construction is the story told from the standpoint of the criminal -- hit man (or woman), con artist, or whatever. Often in a crime novel, the "good guys" and the "bad guys" share equal time -- you know whodunit -- but you don't know how the story will be resolved. [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] See: Mystery Novel Crime Scene: The geographic location where a crime has been committed. Crime Scene Coordinator: {to be done} Crime Scene Entry Log: Written chronological record of each and every person who enters or leaves a crime scene. Crime Scene Unit: A unit of investigators trained to secure, analyze, and process crime scenes. Crime Scene Investigation/Reconstruction: Crime Scene Investigation deals with the preservation and collection of evidence located at the scene of a crime. Crime Scene Reconstruction is the interpretation of the evidence to recreate the circumstances of the crime. Each crime scene is unique and must be evaluated individually. [Office of the Attorney General, State of California, Dept. of Justice] Crime Scene Release: The formal end of Crime Scene: processing, which is then followed by returning the area or premises to a responsible person (i.e. owner), as determined by the Crime Scene Coordinator. Crime Scene Vehicle: A vehicle used to transport crime scene investigators and crime scene processing supplies. Criminal Action: A lawsuit in which the state or the public, rather than a private party, is plaintiff, and the defendant faces punishment such as a fine or incarceration if convicted. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] See: Civil Action Criminal Conversation: Synonymous with adultery. In old English law, this was a claim for damages the husband could institute against the adulterer. Criminal Identification Bureau: In Chicago, 1884, this was the first municipal organization in the USA exclusively for helping detectives with criminal identification. Abbreviated CIB Criminal Investigation Department: Created in 1878 London, this was a centralized group of detectives at Scotland Yard which was, for strategic, ethical, and administrative reasons, kept separate from the Metropolitan Police. Abbreviated CID Criminal Investigative Analysis: The processes formerly known as Psychological Profiling. This is used to determine the behavior and personality of offenders of serial rape or serial murder. Criminal Law: That body of the law that deals with conduct considered so harmful to society as a whole that it is prohibited by statute, prosecuted and punished by the government. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Penal Law Criminal Personality Profiling: The attempt to identify a person's mental, emotional, and psychological characteristics. Also known as Criminal Profiling Criminal/noncriminal Investigation: The investigation of criminal and noncriminal matters. Criminalist: A forensic scientist who examines physical evidence. Criminalistics: Scientific discipline directed to the recognition, identification, individualization, and evaluation of evidence. The sciences used include: (1) Biology; (2) Chemistry; (3) Computer Science; (4) Geology; (5) Mathematics; (6) Physics. Criminal Profiling: see Criminal Personality Profiling Crimogen: (1) an individally identified offender who has comitted a large number of crimes; (2) an individual victim who reports a large number of crimes. Criminology: {to be done} Criss-cross or reverse directories: Directories that allow various means of referencing information. For example, a Reverse Phone Directory allows you to look up the address of a person if you known his/her phone number. Critical: see Criticism Critical Criminology: see Radical Criminology Criticism: {to be done} Cross-Contamination: The undesired transfer of material between multiple sources of physical evidence. See: Contaminated Cross-examination: In trials, each party calls witnesses. Each party may also question the other's witness(es). When you ask questions of the other party's witness(es), it is called a "cross-examination" and you are allowed considerably more latitude in cross-examination then when you question your own witnesses (called an "examination-in-chief"). For example, you are not allowed to ask "leading questions" to your own witness whereas you can in cross-examination. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Cryptanalysis: Procedures for accessing secured information by breaking the encryption, i.e. cracking the code. Today, this is done primarily by the use of special software, sometimes on specially designed computers. Crystal Violet: a dye utilized for developing latent prints on the adhesive side of sticky tape. See also: Basic Yellow 40; D.F.O. Culpa Lata: see Gross Negligence Cultivated Sources: People who have special information regarding a particular crime. Cybercrime: Any illegal act in which knowledge of computer technology is used to commit the offense. Cyberlaw: {to be done} Cyberstalking: The harassment of others through the use of a computer. This may include threatening victims by e-mail, in internet chat rooms, or in news groups. Cyberterrorism: Terrorism which is perpetrated through the internet This may include: disruption or shut-down of critical infrastructure facilities of energy, government operations, or transportation. D

Definitions: D

DEA: see Drug Enforcement Administration D.N.A.: abbreviation for Deoxyribonucleic Acid; genetic molecule used in forensics to identify identity of biological evidence. See: DNA/Serology; Genetic Fingerprint; MtDNA D.F.O.: abbreviation for Diazafluren-9-one, an especially effective chemical for developing latent prints on paper. It produces red prints that may be visible to the naked eye, but which also fluoresce brightly under laser and alternative lighting systems. D.O.A.: Abbreviation for "dead on arrival," as applied to a person who expires before reaching a medical facility. D.O.B.: Abbreviation for "date of birth." D.U.I.: Abbreviation for "Driving Under the Influence" see Alcohol/DUI Dactylography: Study and comparison methodoloies on fingerprints for criminal identification, as first used regularly in 1900 England, but used occasionally for at least 2,000 years. Damages: A cash compensation ordered by a court to offset losses or suffering caused by another's fault or negligence. Damages are a typical request made of a court when persons sue for breach of contract or tort. Date-rape Drugs: Chemicals that facilitate rape by debilitating the victim. These include: (1) Rohypnol; (2) GHB; (3) various depressants; (4) various benzodiazapines Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical Inc: U.S. Supreme Court decision stating that federal courts should generally allow admission of all relevant evidence. Death Grip: see Cadaveric Spasm Death Penalty: Also known as capital punishment, this is the most severe form of corporal punishment as it is requires law enforcement officers to kill the offender. Forms of the death penalty include hanging from the neck, gassing, firing squad and has included use of the guillotine. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Decapitation Decadence: a literary movement; see Aestheticism, from which it evolved. Decapitation: The act of beheading a person, usually instantly such as with a large and heavy knife or by guillotine, as a form of capital punishment. This form of capital punishment is still in use in some Arab countries, notably Saudi Arabia. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Decorum: How properly or fittingly the actions and characters, on the one hand, match the dialog and narration style, on the other hand. This is a classical theory, expinded in "The Art of Poetry" by Horace. It was elaborated in the Renaissance, and again in the Neoclassical Age. When violated, this leads to Burlesque and Bathos. Decoy Operations: The use of police officers as "victims", a proactive attempt to detect criminal activity. Deductive Reasoning: [in Crminology] Mental processing that starts with general suppositions and evolves to specific details. For instance, a hypothesis about the crime is imagined, and then tested mentally against the facts as established by evidence, in order to arrive at a conclusion. Contrast: Inductive Reasoning Deed: A written and signed document which sets out the things that have to be done or recognitions of the parties towards a certain object. Under older common law, a deed had to be sealed; that is, accompanied not only by a signature but with an impression on wax onto the document. The word deed is also most commonly used in the context of real estate because these transactions must usually be signed and in writing. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Defamation: An attack on the good reputation of a person, by slander or libel. For example, Your Humble Webmaster was both slandered and libelled by two perpetrators named "Paul C. Turner" and "Ronald M. Jones" and I battled against them in court for almost 15 years. In Mystery fiction, the crime is usually theft, or kidnapping, or murder, or the like -- but Defamation can be extremely serious. See: Self-defense Defense: (noun)(1)The act of defending against attack, danger, or injury. (2) A means or method of defending or protecting. [A.P. Duli Investigations] See also: Burden of Going Forward Defense Wounds: those wounds suffered by a victim while trying to protect themselves against an assault, usually inflicted by a blunt instrument or a knife, often on the hands or forearms. Defendant: The person, company or organization who defends a legal action taken by a plaintiff and against whom the court has been asked to order damages or specific corrective action redress some type of unlawful or improper action alleged by the plaintiff. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Deism: see Enlightenment Delay-in-Arraignment Rule: From a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1943, the legal principle that failing to take a prisoner before a committing magistrate, without unnecessary delay, will render even a freely obtained confession inadmissible. Demurrer: This is a motion put to a trial judge after the plaintiff has completed his or her case, in which the defendant, while not objecting to the facts presented, and rather than responding by a full defence, asks the court to reject the petition right then and there because of a lack of basis in law or insufficiency of the evidence... [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Dental Identification: Identifying a person by comparing dental records, or photographs of teeth-visible smiling, or bite-marks, to spot a match between before-death records and after-death findings, as done by a forensic dentist. Dental Stone: criminalist's favorite material for making casts of footprints or tire tracks, because it sets faster than the traditional plaster of paris, and makes a higher resolution impression. Deoxyribonucleic Acid: see DNA Deposition: The official statement by a witness taken in writing (as opposed to testimony which where a witnesses give their perception of the facts verbally). Affidavits are the most common kind of depositions. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Depressants: Drugs which depress the central nervous system, thereby reducing tension, disinhibiting behavior, and inducing sleep. These can result, after years of chronic use, in loss of balance, faulty judgment, and volatile temper. Overdoses cause unconsciouness and death. See Drugs; Date-rape Drugs Description on the back cover: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, is the #1 most important selling point for readers when deciding what book to buy. See also: personal flip-through, word-of-mouth, author, price. Detection Agencies: See: Detective; Investigation Services Detective: (noun) (1) A person, usually a member of a police force, who investigates crimes and obtains evidence or information. (adjective) (1) Of or relating to detectives or their work: detective novels. (2) Suited for or used in detection. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Detective: A sworn member of the Department responsible for the follow-up investigation of crime. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] also see: Bow Street Runners; Romance Subgenres Deus Ex Machina: Latin for "god from a machine." Greek playwrights, including Euripdes, enjoyed ending dramas by having an actor dressed as a god lowered mechanically to the stage, and by divine intervention, resolving the problems of the characters. Thus, today, we use the phrase to mean an improbale way of forcing the end to a story without properly working out the plot. We see this in, for example, "Oliver Twist" by Dickens, and "Tess of the d'Ubervilles" by Hardy. It was parodied by Brecht in the climax of "Threepenny Opera." In a bad Mystery novel, it happens if one character is suddenly revealed to be another, or someone gets a vast ingeritance, or a lost clue is suddenly found, or the Detecdtive announces that everything hinges on a fact which he trots out for the first time, or the like. Dialogue: "When is he going to write this definition?" "Later." [Margery Allingham and Carl G. Hodges, "Dialogue", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Diary: we distinguish between Autobiography (a biography written by the author about himself or herself), Memoir (where the emphasis is not on oneself, but on people met or events witnessed) or Diary (intended for private use). Dicta or Dictum: (Latin) an observation by a judge on a matter not specifically before the court or not necessary in determining the issue before the court; a side opinion which does not form part of the judgment for the purposes of stare decisis. May also be called "obiter dictum." [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Didactic Literature: fiction intended to teach a practical or theoretical lesson or doctrine, usually for philosophical, religious, or moral purpose. This is as opposed to mimetic literature, designed by imagination for its own purpose. See also: Allegory; Propaganda Digital Forensic Analysis: Acquiring, preserving, analyzing, and/or presenting evidentiary data germane to any investigation or prosecution. Direct Evidence: Directly establishes the main facts at issue in a case. Direct Examination: A witness in trial being questioned by whichever party (defense or prosecution) called that witness to testify. Contrast: Cross-Examination Disposition: [of an Incident Report] After an Incident Report is filed and approved, a determination is made on how the case will be handled, as made normally by the supervisor of the officer who wrote the report. Options include: (1) Unfounded; (2) Inactivated; (3) Retained for investigation by officers; (4) Referred to plainclothes investigators. Discovery: A pretrial procedure in which the prosecuting or defense attorney receives evidence in the possession of the other, including witness statements, police reports, scientific examinations, etc. Discovery permits the attorneys to prepare their cases and helps to ensure a fair trial. Dismissal: A decision by a judge to end the prosecution of a case without deciding whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty. Disorderly Conduct: An act which unreasonably alarms or disturbs another and provokes as breach of the peace. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Disposition: A final disposition is a legal action which takes place following an adult or juvenile felony arrest. Examples are dismissal, acquittal, or conviction. Examples of intermediate dispositions are suspended proceedings or the placement of a defendant in one or more programs. [California] Dissertation: contrast Essay Dissociation of Sensibility: a notion in literary criticism invented by T. S. Eliot in "The Metaphysical Poets" [1921]. {to be done} Distance and Involvement: {to be done} Divorced: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, 10.7% of romance readers are divorced (7% in 1998). Contrast: married, single, widowed, separated. DNA: Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. A chromosome molecule which carries genetic coding unique to each person with the only exception of identical twins (that is why it is also called "DNA fingerprinting"). Through laboratory process, DNA can be extracted from body tissue such a strand of hair, semen, blood and matched against DNA discovered at a crime scene or on a victim to scientifically implicate an accused. Can also be used to match DNA between parents in a paternity suit. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] DNA Profiling: also known as Genetic Fingerprinting: "The "matching" of or DNA Typing. DNA profiles between suspects, victims, evidence, and locations. DNA/Serology: Serology is the study of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and urine. From biological evidence left at a crime scene, such as hair or semen, DNA analysis (or DNA typing) can be used to identify an individual. The most widely used methods of DNA typing are Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The RFLP process is a long, labor intensive procedure that involves extracting DNA from the biological sample, fragmenting the DNA with special (restriction) enzymes and separating the molecular pieces by gel electrophoresis. PCR is a technique by which a miniscule and/or degraded amount of DNA can be quickly amplified. This is beneficial in cases where only small quantities of evidence are discovered. [Office of the Attorney General, State of California, Dept. of Justice] DNA Typing: The procedure for isolating and reading DNA for criminal identification. Synonyms: DNA Profiling; Genetic Fingerprinting Doctrine: A rule or principle or the law established through the repeated application of legal precedents. Document: Anything on which a person can make a mark in order to transmit a message. Documentary Evidence: Tangible writings, pictures and audible sounds. Documented Vessel: any boat registered by the U.S. Coast Guard. Doggerel: crude, rough, heavy-footed, jerky, inept verse; or very sophisticated verse in that form for purpose of Burlesque. Domestic Terrorism: Terrorism committed by citizens of the United States. That is, more generally, use or threat of violence against property or persons by any individual or group whose operations are entirely within the nation of the victim(s), without directions from foreign power(s), and which are committed to advance a social or political goal. See: International Terrorism Domestic Violence: Violence within the family, or between husband and wife or partners. Domicile: The permanent residence of a person; a place to which, even if he or she were temporary absent, they intend to return. In law, it is said that a person may have many residences but only one domicile. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] The Doomsday Mystery: "A geopolitical study of the way a protagonist copes with such world-destroyers as atom bombs, nerve gas, and mutant microbes." Considered a sub-type of the Novel of Pursuit by Boucher and Cassidy. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Doomsday Mystery Authors: * Tom Ardies * John Lange * Robert Traver Drama: {to be done} See also: Act; Comedy; Tragedy Dramatic Monologue: {to be done} Dream Vision: {to be done} Drug Enforcement Administration: A federal law enforcement agency which investigates drug offenses; abbreviated DEA. It was created in 1973, and goes beyond investigation to enforce laws about illicit drugs, to fight international drug traffic; and to train local and state police about illicit drugs and how to do relevant investigation, development of informants, and survellance. Drug Identification/Toxicology: Toxicology is the study of substances that are harmful to humans. Toxicologists examine body fluids and organs for the presence of poisons, alcohol, and drugs. A toxicologist detects, identifies, and quantifies minute amounts of these substances for further evaluation. [Office of the Attorney General, State of California, Dept. of Justice] Drug Testing: Drug screening of employees to see if they are using drugs, or under the influence. Drugs: see Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970 See: Amphetamines; Recreational Drug User; Clandestine Drug Laboratory; Cocaine; Ecstasy; Opiates; Psychedelics; Stimulants; Depressants Drugstores: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, are the sites where 2% of romance readers purchase books. Duces Tecum: (Latin) "bring with you." Used most frequently for a species of subpoena (as in "subpoena duces tecum") which seeks not so much the appearance of a person before a court of law, but the surrender of a thing (eg. a document or some other evidence) by its holder, to the court, to serve as evidence in a trial. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Due Process: A term of US law which refers to fundamental procedural legal safeguards of which every citizen has an absolute right when a state or court purports to take a decision that could affect any right of that citizen. The most basic right protected under the due process doctrine is the right to be given notice, and an opportunity to be heard. The term is now also in use in other countries, again to refer to basic fundamental legal rights such as the right to be heard. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Due Process Revolution: Due process guaranteed to suspects and defendants pursuant to U.S. Supreme Court decisions. Mostly about the period 1961-1966, when those decisions changed the rules for search and seizure, and for legal representation. Dumpster Diving: Searching through dumpsters (large refuse bins) for identification-related material. E

Definitions: E

E-commerce: see software, internet bookstore. Ecclesiastical Law: Synonymous to Canon Law: the body of church-made law which binds only those persons which recognize it, usually only church officers, and based on aged precepts of canon law. Ecstasy: see Methylenedioxy Methamphetamine; Drugs Editor: {to be done} [Eleanor Sullivan, "How to Please an Editor", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Edwardian Period: the literary epoch after the death of Queen Victoria, yet before the start of World War I [1914], so named for the briefly reigning [1901-1910] King Edward VII. Top Edwardian novelists included Joseph Conrad, Ford Maddox Ford, Henry James, Galsworthy, Rudyard Kipling, and H. G. Wells. Top Edwardian plawrights included James Barrie, John Galsworthy, George Bernard Shaw and others of the Celtic Renaissance. Top Edwardian poets included Thomas Hardy, Rudyard Kipling, Alfred Noyes, and W. B. Yeats. see: Periods of English Literature Effective Fire Temperature: For structural fires, those identifiable temperatures which indicate those physical effects within specific ranges of temperature. See: Arson Einfuhlung: [German] "feeling into"; see "Empathy and Sympathy" Elegy: (1) in Greek and Roman literature, any poem written in the "elegiac meter", alternating lines between hexamneter and pentameter. (2) in England, to the 17th Century, any poem of solemn meditation; (3) in modern use, a formal poem of lamentation for a specific person; contrast: Dirge (shorter, less formal, or intended as a song); Threnody (modern use: synonym of dirge); Monody (modern use: elegy or dirge to be spoken by, or reprsented as spoken by, a specific person); Elizabethan Age: While Queen Elizabeth reigned (1558-1603) England expanded it commerce-based economy, its navy-based military power, and its nationalism. England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. At the same tine, literature reached a peak, especially in drama, thanks to Bacon, Ben Jonson, Marlowe, Raleigh, Shakespeare, Spenser and their colleagues. see Periods of English Literature E-mail Intercept: Technique in Intelligence whereby e-mail is intercepted and analyzed to determine data about criminals, hackers, pornographers, or terrorists. This requires a showing of reasonable cause, to get a warrant. Emancipation: Term used to describe the act of freeing a person who was under the legal authority of another (such as a child before the age of majority) from that control (such as child reaching the age of majority). The term was also used when slavery was legal to describe a former slave that had bought or been given freedom from his or her master. When Abraham Lincoln outlawed slavery he did so in a law called the "emancipation proclamation". [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Embargo: This is an act of international military aggression where an order is made prohibiting ships or goods from leaving a certain port, city or territory and may be enforced by military threat of destroying any vehicle that attempts to break it or by trade penalties. The word has also come to refer to a legal prohibition of trade with a certain nation or a prohibition towards the use of goods or services produced by or within a certain nation. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Embezzle: The illegal transfer of money or property that, although possessed legally by the embezzler, is diverted to the embezzler personally by his or her fraudulent action. For example, an employee would embezzle money from the employer or a public officer could embezzle money received during the course of their public duties and secretly convert it to their personal use. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Emergency Communications: (verb) Sending a message when time is critical. The message may be transmitted via verbal (speech), electrical (radio, telephone, ... etc.) or mechanical means (hand signals, fist, baseball bat, pipe, firearm, etc...). [A.P. Duli Investigations] Emolument: A legal word which refers to all wages, benefits or other benefit received as compensation for holding some office or employment. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Emotional Approach: a technique in interrogation, particularly effective with first-time offenders and with women, where the interrogator appeals to the suspect's family pride, honor, morals, religion, and the like. Empathy and Sympathy: (1) Empathy (and its German equivalent Einfuhlung) is identification with the object of a perception, vicariously participating in its feelings, motion, or posture; inner mimicry; (2) Sympathy is fellow-feeling, feeling along with the object of a perception, especially for thoughts or emotions (or even those ascribed to an inanimate object). Employee Polygraph Protection Act: Prohibits the use of polygraphs for private sector employment screening. (Abbreviated EPPA). Encryption: Methods of encoding information to prevent unauthorized use by others. This approach to data security involves transforming the data into what looks like nonsense, storing or transmitting it, and allowing it to be reverse-transformed back into the original "plaintext" when needed by legitimate users. Enderby Cases: In England, these two rape-murder cases first used DNA typing for criminal investigation, in 1987. DNA samples from both victims led to the release of an innocent man, and to the arrest and conviction of the killer. England: see: Periods of English Literature see Romance Subgenres Enhancement: Additional confinement time added to the base prison term, based on specific circumstances such as use of a gun or knife when committing a crime. Enlightenment: Western European intellectual movement in the 17th century, reaching a zenith in the 18th century. The central idea was belief in reason for solving all problems, and using reason to replace barbarism, ignorance, and prejudice. It also was an approach to undermining authority and tradition. The quintessential type of reason was Science. This movement was spearheaded by Bacon, Descartes, Diderot, Godwin, Kant, Leibnitz, Locke, Voltaire, and their colleagues. In Christianity, it led to Deism; in Judaism, to Freethinkers. see Periods of English Literature Entrapment: The inducement, by law enforcement officers or their agents, of another person to commit a crime for the purposes of bringing charges for the commission of that artificially-provoked crime. This technique, because it involves abetting the commission of a crime, which is itself a crime, is severely curtailed under the constitutional law of many states. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] (2) Inducing a individual to commit an uncontemplated crime. Epic: (1) in formal critical use, an Epic Poem is synonymous with a Heroic Poem in these criteria: (a) Long; (b) Narrative; (c) Serious or great subject; (d) Elevated style; (e) centers on a heroic or nearly divine person; (f) tribe, nation, or human world hangs in the balance. (2) Folk Epics, or Traditional Epics, or Primary Epics, sprung from oral traditions, history, legends, as with Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, or the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf. (3) Literary Epics, or Secondary Epics were highly-crafted imitating Primary Epics, as with Vergil's Aeneid, Milton's Paradise Lost, Keats' Hyperion, Blake's Prophetic Books, or Tolkien's Lord of the Rings. (4) By analogy, a prose work or film sharing many of these criteria. Epigram: (1) the original Greek meaning was "an inscription"; (2) later, any very short poem, usually amorous, anecdotal, complimentary, elegiac, meditative, or satiric, which is quite condensed and polished to a memorable point; (3) since late 18th century, broadened to any prose or verse statemernt of Wit. Epiphany: (1) [Greek] manifestation; (2) in Christianity, a manifestation of God's presence in the world; (3) in literature, since James Joyce's "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man", any secular experience of sudden revelation or radiance while observing a commonplace object or scene. Epithalamion: [Greek] Epithalamion means literally "at the bridal chamber"; [Latin] spelled Epithalamium; verses to be sung outside the bedchamber of a newly married couple. The first major English examples included Sir Philip Sydney's [1580], and Spenser's [for his own marriage]. Other notable examples by Auden, Donne, Herrick, Hoseman, Jonson, Suckling, Tennyson. Epithet: [from Greek "epitheton" meaning "something added"]; In literary criticism, an adjective or adjectival phrase that pinpoints the special qualities of a specific person. Homeric epithets include "fleet-footed Achilles", "wine-dark sea"; the latter parodied by James Joyce in Ulysses as "snot-green sea." Contrast: invective (which confuses some people into thinking that all epithets are negative); Espionage: Spying. see: Industrial Espionage see Romance Subgenres Essay: Short prose composition intended for a general audience, discussing a specific matter, or to expain a point of view, or to persuade the reader to accept some thesis. contrast: treatise or dissertation, which attempt to be complete, systematic, and addressed to a specialized audience. Ethics: (noun) (1) The discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation. (2) (a) a set of moral principles or values (b) a theory or system of moral values (c) the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group (professional ethics) see Code of Ethics (d) a guiding philosophy [A.P. Duli Investigations] (3) The practical normative study of the rightness and wrongness of human conduct. Eugene Vidocq: French criminal and informant who turned from the Dark Side to Law and Order, and then led the French Surete. Euphemism: [Greek] to speak well; use of a polite phrase to substitute for a colloquial, direct, disagreeable, irreligious, offensive, or terrifying term, as with "to pass away" instead of "die", or "darn" instead of "damn", or "friend" instead of sex-partner. Euphony and Cacophony: (1) Euphony is musical, pleasant, smooth language in terms of both subject and sound combinations; (2) Cacophony is unmusical, unpleasant, rough, discordant language, somtimes due to clumsiness of the writer. Euphuism: elaborate formal English style of the 1580s. named for John Lyly's "Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit" [1578]. Evidence: Proof of fact(s) presented at a trial. The best and most common method is by oral testimony; where you have an eye-witness swear to tell the truth and to then relate to the court (or jury) their experience. Evidence is essential in convincing the judge or jury of your facts as the judge (or jury) is expected to start off with a blank slate; no preconceived idea or knowledge of the facts. So it is up to the opposing parties to prove (by providing evidence), to the satisfaction of the court (or jury), the facts needed to support their case. Besides oral testimony, an object can be deposited with the court (eg. a signed contract). This is sometimes called "real evidence." In other rarer cases, evidence can be circumstantial... Most legal cases are decided on the strict rule of law. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Evidence: Oral statements, documents, sound and video recordings, and objects admissible in court. To be admissible, evidence must be material (it must go to a substantial issue in the case) and relevant (it must go to the truth or falsity of a matter asserted). [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Evidence: "The means by which an alleged fact, the truth of which is submitted to scrutiny, proven or disproven." See also: Trace Evidence; Fingerprint; DNA/Serology; Drug Identification; Questioned Documents; Chain of Custody; Associative Evidence; Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical Inc; Direct Evidence; Opinion Evidence; Prima Facie Evidence; Real Evidence; Relevance; Strickler v. Greene; Burden of Going Forward; Cleared By Arrest; Corpus Delicti Evidence; Exchangeable Traces; Evidence Recovery Log: Chronological record of every item of evidence, who collected it, where and when collected, witnessed by whom, and cross-referenced to any diagrams or photographs made. Evidentiary Intelligence: precise facts and information that can be presented in court. Evidentiary Privileges: Types of communications with defendants and witnesses which they have a right to bar from disclosure in court, types being: (1) Professional Privileges; (2) Political Privileges; (3) Social Privileges; (4) Judicial Privileges. Examination-in-chief: The questioning of your own witness under oath. Witnesses are introduced to a trial by their examination-in-chief, which is when they answer questions asked by the lawyer representing the party which called them to the stand. After their examination-in-chief, the other party's lawyer can question them too; this is called cross-examination. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Exceptionally Cleared: An offense as classified by a factor outside the investigation, which results in no charges being filed against the suspect. Exchangeable Traces: Used to help identify specific brands or use; chemicals added by a condom manufacturer such as lubricants, particulatees, spermacides. Important type of trace evidence Exculpate: Something that excuses or justifies a wrong action. See: Strickler v. Greene Excusable Homicide: A classification of a killing of a person where the killer, although to some extent at fault, is not so at fault as to become a criminal homicide. Executor: A person specifically appointed by a testator to administer the will ensuring that final wishes are respected (i.e. that the will is properly "executed"). An executor is a personal representative. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Exempt Staff: Senior-level executive staff who serve at the pleasure of the Superintendent of Police. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Exhibit: A document or object shown to the court as evidence in a trial. They are each given a number or letter by the court clerk as they are introduced for future reference during the trial. For example, weapon are frequently given as exhibits in criminal trials. Except with special permission of the court, exhibits are locked up in court custody until the trial is over. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Exotic Locations: see Romance Subgenres Expert Witness: Because of special skills of experience, an Expert Witness is called to give testimony in court. Such a person is allowed to interpret facts and render opinions about how and why those facts matter, in order to assist a jury in understanding some complicated or technical matter. Explosimeter: Synonyms: Catalytic Combustion Detector; Combustible Gas Indicator; Sniffer; Vapor Detector See also: Arson. Explosion: a physical, chemical reaction characterizewd by: (1) High-pressure gas; (2) Rapid release of pressure; (3) Change or damage to a confining container, structure, or vessel. See: arson Explosives Detection Canines: Dogs that can detect explosive residues by scent. See: Accelerant Detection Canines; Cadaver Dogs Expressionism: Artistic movement that started in Germany around 1900, spearheaded by Swedish dramatist Strindberg [1849-1912], and reaching a zenith roughlyt 1915-1925. It applied to literature, painting, music, and cinema. It was a radical revolt against Realism. Its criteria include: (a) expresses the world subjectively according to state of mind; (b) abnormal, anxious, emotional, or troubled view-point character; (c) may critique the chaotic techno-industrial modern age; (d) dialogue is stylized; (e) time-sequence is scrambled; (f) characters may be masked; (g) stage-sets, lighting, and sound may be very distorted. Important examples in cinema include "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari" [Austria, 1920]; or much later films by Antonioni, Bergman, Fellini; also led to Theatre of the Absurd. Expunge: To physically erase; to white or strike out. To "expunge" something from a court record means to remove every reference to it from the court file. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Extortion: Forcing a person to give up property in a thing through the use of violence, fear or under pretense of authority. Extradition: The arrest and delivery of a fugitive wanted for a crime committed in another country, usually under the terms of a extradition treaty. See: Fugitive Eyewitness Identification: Identfying something or someone involved in a crime, as reported by a witness who preceives the thing or person through one or several senses. F

Definitions: F

F.C.R.A.: see Fair Credit Reporting Act F.O.I.A.: see Freedom of Information Act Fabliau: {to be done} Facts: {to be done} Contrast opinions; see Expert Witness Fair Credit Reporting Act: An act which regulates the use of credit reports used in hiring decisions. (Abbreviated FCRA). Fancy and Imagination: {to be done} Fantasy: see Romance Subgenres Felony: An offense for which a sentence of death or a term of imprisonment for one year or more is provided. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] A serious crime for which the punishment is prison for more than a year or death. Crimes of less gravity are called misdemeanours. This term is no longer used in England or other Commonwealth countries but remains a major distinction in the United States. Historically, in England, the term referred to crimes for which the punishment was the loss of land, life or a limb. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Forcible Felony; Misdemeanor Female: see woman. Fiction: a book, or a story in a book or a periodical. Contrast: nonfiction. Figurative Language: {to be done} Fingerprint: The three categories of fingerprints include: * latent * plastic * contaminated Latent fingerprints are the invisible prints made by the deposit of oils or perspiration from the friction ridges of one's fingers onto another substance. Plastic prints are those fingerprints impressed into easily malleable surfaces -- like plasticine or putty. Contaminated fingerprints are the result of material transfers, such as liquid blood, from the fingers to a surface. See: Genetic Fingerprint; IAFIS; Basic Yellow 40 United States v. Byron C. Mitchell; Will West Case Dactylography Fingerprint Services See: Investigation Services Firearm: (noun) A weapon, especially a pistol or rifle, capable of firing a projectile and using an explosive charge as a propellant. [A.P. Duli Investigations] FIREARM: Any pistol or revolver, commonly referred to as a handgun, capable of being concealed on the person, constructed or arranged so as to be capable of being loaded with gun powder or other explosive substances, cartridges, shots, slugs or balls and being exploded, fired or discharged. [http://www.ci.lenexa.ks.us/codemaster/Title_2/9/D/1.html] See also: Bore; Bullet; Caliber Firearms/Toolmarks Identification: The basic principle of firearms examination is based on the fact that most machined parts will have unique marks, which can be transfered to other surfaces. Almost all gun barrels, as well as the machined areas in the weapon's firing mechanism, leave unique marks on bullets fired through the barrel and on cartridge cases worked through the firearm. A firearms examiner deals with the analysis of both firearms and ammunition of all types. The Firearms Examiner also determines whether a bullet originated from a suspect firearm. Impacted items which were on the receiving end of a discharged bullet are also examined for discharge residues in an attempt to ascertain muzzle distance. As each machined gun barrel is unique, so too are all machined tools. These tools leave distinct marks on most objects they contact. A toolmark is any machined impression transfer caused by the tool coming into contact with an object. A toolmark examiner compares toolmarks in order to determine what type of tool, or what exact tool, was used to make a specific mark. [Office of the Attorney General, State of California, Dept. of Justice] First Edition / First Printing:  A frequently-confused distinction. Strictly speaking, all copies of a book are First Editions until the text is somehow altered from that of the first copies printed for sale. The alteration of text, resulting in second, or revised, editions occurs mostly in non-fiction. In works of fiction, the first edition is often the only one which ever exists; later copies will be printed without altering the text, and these will still technically be First Editions, though not First Printings. Only the original copies are First Printings, and these, of course, are what collectors want. Most dealers and collectors understand this distinction, but many glibly say "First Edition" when they mean "First Printing," often adding to the confusion by referring simply to "Firsts." Visually identifying a First Printing, or even a First Edition, is often difficult, as publishers use a variety of means to clarify –- or obfuscate –- the situation. [A handy reference book is A Pocket Guide to the Identification of First Editions, compiled by Bill McBride, 6th Ed., $13.95] (First Printing usually refers to a hardcover, but can apply to a paperback original – see below. [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] First Officer: The first police officer responding to a crime scene. Flash Message: An informal broadcast message transmitted via police radios, sent by an officer at the scene of a crime/incident, to alert other officers in the vicinity. It is not a distress call. Example: following a hit-and-run traffic accident, the first officer at the scene may send out a flash message regarding the offender's vehicle, description, and direction of flight. Other officers in the area can watch for the offender. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Flip-through: see Personal flip-through. Folklore: {to be done} Follow-up Investigation: An investigation involving all aspect of the investigative process. see: Latent Investigation Follow-up Report: A report used to report additional investigative activities. For Hire: Includes all compensation paid directly or indirectly. [http://www.ci.lenexa.ks.us/codemaster/Title_2/9/D/1.html] (as in "This Gun For Hire") Force Majeure: French for an Act of God; an inevitable, unpredictable act of nature, not dependent on an act of man. Used in insurance contracts to refer to acts of nature such as earthquakes or lightning. Forcible Felony: Treason and any felony which involves the use or threat of physical force or violence against a person. If a felony is classified as forcible, it may have significance for other aspects of the criminal law. Examples: a homicide committed in the course of another forcible felony is classified as first-degree murder. On the other hand, a homicide may be justified if committed to prevent a forcible felony. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Forensic Death Investigation: The investigation of questionable deaths. Forensic Photogrammetry: 3-D measurements of the real world directly from photographs for use in courts of law. Forensic Pathology: branch of medicine that applies the principles and knowledge of the medical and related sciences to problems that concern the general public and issues of the law. A forensic pathologist is a physician with specialized medical and forensic science training and knowledge. In practice, forensic pathologists concentrate closely on the understanding of types and causation of injuries and causes of sudden and unnatural death. The American Board of Pathology was established in 1936 and recognized forensic pathology as a formal sub-specialty in 1958. Forensic pathologists are commonly involved in death scene investigations, the performance of forensic autopsies (forensic autopsies have a different focus than that of hospital autopsies conducted in cases of natural death), review of medical records, interpretation of toxicology and other laboratory studies, certification of sudden and unnatural deaths, and court testimony in criminal and civil law proceedings. Forensic Psychophysiology: Recording stress in deception with a polygraph device. Forensic Science: A multitude of scientific disciplines used to answer scientific questions in court. Forensic Science: includes: * Ballistics * Criminalistics * DNA Analysis * Documents -- see Questionable Documents * Drug Chemistry -- see Drug Identification * Forensic Pathology * Serology * Ultraviolet Forensic Imaging * more {to be done} Form and Structure: {to be done} Format of a Book: {to be done} Formulaic Fiction: see Popular Literature Fraud: Deceitful conduct designed to manipulate another person to give something of value by (1) lying, (2) by repeating something that is or ought to have been known by the fraudulent party as false or suspect or (3) by concealing a fact from the other party which may have saved that party from being cheated. The existence of fraud will cause a court to void a contract and can give rise to criminal liability. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Certified Fraud Examiner; Check Fraud; Component Swapping; Con Men; Credit Card Fraud Free Verse: {to be done} Freedom of Information Act: An Act recognizing the public's "right to know" information. Abbreviated F.O.I.A. Freethinkers: see Enlightenment French Method of Detective Work: Various clandestine methods against political and criminal suspects by using informers. Frisk: see Stop and Frisk Frye v. United States: The U.S. Supreme Court Decision regarding scientific procdures needing to be accepted within the scientific community to be relevant to a trial. Fugitive: One who runs away to avoid arrest, prosecution or imprisonment. Many extradition laws also call the suspect a "fugitive" although, in that context, it does not necessarily mean that the suspect was trying to hide in the country from which extradition is being sought. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Futuristic: see Romance Subgenres G

Definitions: G

GHB: see Date-rape Drugs G.P.S.: see Global Positioning System Galley: see Advance Reading Copy (ARC) Garnishment: The seizing of a person's property, credit or salary, on the basis of a law which allows it, and for the purposes of paying off a debt. The person who possesses the assets of the debtor and is the subject of the seizure is called a "garnishee". This is frequently used in the enforcement of child support where delinquent debtors will be subjected to salary garnishment. A percentages of their wages is subtracted directly off their pay-check and directed to the person in need of support (the employer being the garnishee). [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Gavel: A wooden mallet used by a judge to bring proceedings to a start or to an end or to command attention in his or her court. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Genetic Fingerprinting: also known as DNA Profiling: "The "matching" of DNA profiles between suspects, victims, evidence, and locations. Genre: see Romance Subgenres Georgian: see Periods of English Literature Genre Literature: see Popular Literature. Global Positioning System: A satellite system used to locate any position on the map by directly providing a person with their latitude and longitude. Abbreviated GPS. Golden Age of Mystery: These are classic whodunits, usually cozies. [formerly on now-abandoned site http://staff.queens.lib.ny.us/central/my_html/Mystery.htm] * Josephine Tey (Inspector Alan Grant) * Margery Allingham (Albert Campion) * Agatha Christie (Jane Marple, Hercule Poirot) * Dorothy Sayers (Lord Peter Wimsey) * Ngaio Marsh (Inspector Roderick Alleyn) Gothic Novel: {to be done} [Phyllis A. Whitney, "What Do You Mean. Gothic?", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Grand Jury: A panel of registered voters which considers charges a prosecutor has filed against an accused, and/or investigates criminal activity on its own direction. The use of the grand jury varies throughout the country. In some states, it is mandatory for all felony charges. In others, there is no grand jury system at all. Illinois has a grand jury system, but its use in a particular case is a matter of prosecutorial discretion. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] An American criminal justice procedure whereby, in each court district, a group of 16-23 citizens hold an inquiry on criminal complaints brought by the prosecutor and decide if a trial is warranted, in which case an indictment is issued. If a Grand Jury rejects a proposed indictment it is known as a "no bill"; if they accept to endorse a proposed indictment it is known as a "true bill". [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Graveyard Poets: {to be done} Great Chain of Being: {to be done} Grocery stores: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, are the sites where 18% of romance readers purchase books. Many also buy food, beverages, and other retail items there. Gross Negligence: Any action or an omission in reckless disregard of the consequences to the safety or property of another. Sometimes referred to as "very great negligence" and it is more then just neglect of ordinary care towards others or just inadvertence. Also known as the Latin term culpa lata. Guillotine: A device developed in France to inflict the death penalty through decapitation by the dropping of a weighted and sharp metal blade onto the restrained neck of a convict. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Guilty: see Verdict Gun: see Firearm; Handgun; Bore; Caliber. Gun Control: (verb) Being able to hit your target! [A.P. Duli Investigations] H

Definitions: H

Habeas Corpus: (Latin) a court petition which orders that a person being detained be produced before a judge for a hearing to decide whether the detention is lawful. Habeas corpus was one of the concessions the British Monarch made in the Magna Carta and has stood as a basic individual right against arbitrary arrest and imprisonment. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Habitual Offender: A person who is convicted and sentenced for crimes over a period of time and even after serving sentences of incarceration, such as demonstrates a propensity towards criminal conduct. Reformation techniques fail to alter the behaviour of the habitual offender. Many countries now have special laws that require the long-term incarceration, without parole, of habitual offenders as a means of protecting society in the face of an individual that appears unable to comply with the law. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Handgun: (noun) "Any firearm designed to be fired with one hand. Term also used as a rallying point for all liberal pinko commie radicals that wish to deprive United States citizens of their 2nd amendment rights." [A.P. Duli Investigations] Handsomeness: The hero or the villain may be handsome, so looks do not necessarily reveal anything useful about the character; the may be misleading. Contrast this to another genre: Handsomeness is #1 of the top 3 character traits that romance readers like to see in the heroes about whom they read (in 1998, was #2 in 2002), according to Romance Writers of America statistics. See also: intelligence, beauty, Muscle Bound, kindness, Strength of Character, and attractiveness. The Hard-boiled Mystery: "Occasionally a puzzle, usually a whodunnit, but primarily an adventure story of the violent exploits of a vigorous super-hero, generally a private detective. [Boucher listed several authors] Boucher noted that he hard puposely left out Dashiell Hammett, who stood alone in his craft. More than two decades have treated the 'hard-boiled' novel rather unkindly. The tough, disillusioned hero found just as much to be disillusioned about after World War II as he did in the [1930s]. It now features a detective, insurance investigator, skip-tracer, or whatever as the protagonist, and tends to use harsher, tougher prose than the ordinary private eye novel." [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Hard-boiled Mystery Authors: * Raymond Chandler * Michael Collins * Joe Gores * Brett Halliday * John D. MacDonald * Ross Macdonald * Mickey Spillane * Ross Thomas Hard Boiled: The opposite of cozies, these are gritty "noir" novels involving grim details and tough, hard-bitten detectives. * Dashiell Hammett (Continental Op, Sam Spade) * Raymond Chandler (Philip Marlowe) * Bill Pronzini (Nameless Detective) * Mickey Spillane (Mike Hammer). [formerly on now-abandoned site http://staff.queens.lib.ny.us/central/my_html/Mystery.htm] Hard-boiled:  Murder taken out of the drawing room and into the streets. Realism. Chandler wrote about authors who "gave murder back to the kind of people that commit it for reason, not just to provide a corpse." "Generally, but not always, featuring a private detective; usually, but not always, pervaded by pessimism. The humor, if any, will be dark. Lawrence Block’s Matt Scudder novels are excellent examples. This style has been made into movies for decades (The Big Sleep, The Maltese Falcon, Out of the Past) and can also be characterized by the same term, noir. Like crime novels, hardboiled stories tend to be urban. [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] Hardcover: {to be done}. Contrast: paperback. Harassment: Unsolicited words or conduct which tend to annoy, alarm or abuse another person. An excellent alternate definition can be found in Canadian human rights legislation as: "a course of vexatious comment or conduct that is known or ought reasonably to be known to be unwelcome." Name-calling ("stupid", "retard" or "dummy") is a common form of harassment. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See also: Sexual Harassment Hearsay: Any evidence that is offered by a witness of which they do not have direct knowledge but, rather, their testimony is based on what others have said to them. For example, if Bob heard from Susan about an accident that Susan witnessed but that Bob had not, and Bob attempted to repeat Susan's story in court, it could be objected to as "hearsay." The basic rule, when testifying in court, is that you can only provide information of which you have direct knowledge. In other words, hearsay evidence is not allowed. Hearsay evidence is also referred to as "second-hand evidence" or as "rumor." You are able to tell a court what you heard, to repeat the rumor, and testify that, in fact, the story you heard was told to you, but under the hearsay rule, your testimony would not be evidence of the actual facts of the story but only that you heard those words spoken. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Heart: the human organ capable of being broken, or the basis of love. See: lips. Help, or recommendation from bookstore staff: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, this is the #4 most important shopping factor for romance readers, in order of importance. Contrast: selection of books, price, convenience. Henry Fielding: 18th century novelist who laid the foundation for the first modern police force. See: Bow Street Runners Historical: see Romance Subgenres Hero: the leading man character in a romance. Contrast: Heroine. Heroic: {to be done} Heroic Couplet: {to be done} Heroic Drama: {to be done} Heroin: {to be done} see Opiate; Codeine; Morphine Heroine: the leading woman character in a romance. Contrast: Hero. Holding Order: A decision by a judge ordering one or more persons to stand trial after a preliminary hearing. A holding order is based on findings that one or more crimes have been committed and that there is sufficient cause to believe that one or more persons identified at the preliminary hearing committed the crime(s). HOLMES: Acronym for Home Office Large Major Enquiry System. Home Security Surveys: Methodologies to determine the security features of a home or business Homicide: The unlawful killing of a human being. Includes both murder and manslaughter. [Thomas M. McDade, "Homicide and Other Investigations", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition The word includes all occasions where one human being, by act or omission, takes away the life of another. Murder and manslaughter are different kinds of homicides. Executing a death-row inmate is another form of homicide, but one which is excusable in the eyes of the law. Another excusable homicide is where a law enforcement officer shoots and kills a suspect who draws a weapon or shoots at that officer. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Excusable Homicide; Justifiable Homicide; Kill; Murder Hostile Environment Sexual Harassment: A workplace which promotes or tolerates sexual harassment. Hostile Witness: During an examination-in-chief, a lawyer is not allowed to ask leading questions of their own witness. But, if that witness openly shows hostility against the interests (or the person) that the lawyer represents, the lawyer may ask the court to declare the witness "hostile", after which, as an exception of the examination-in-chief rules, the lawyer may ask their own witness leading questions. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Humanism: {to be done} Humor: see Wit Hung Jury: A jury is required to make a unanimous or near unanimous verdict. When the jurors, after full debate and discussion, are unable to agree on a verdict and are deadlocked with differences of opinion that appear to be irreconcilable, it is said to be a "hung jury". The result is a mistrial. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Husband: the primary goal for the heroine in most romances. Unless she starts out married to the wrong one. Then a husband 2.0 model is to be substituted. See: divorce. Hyperbole and Understatement: {to be done} I

Definitions: I

I.R. Number: Abbreviation for Individual Record Number. The number assigned to an individual upon his or her arrest. This number is used in any subsequent arrests of the same individual. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] IAFIS: Acronym for Intergrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. ICAM: Acronym for Information Collection for Automated Mapping. An award-winning computer program developed by the Chicago Police Department, which allows officers to do their own crime mapping and analysis. Maps generated by ICAM are also shared with the community at beat community meetings. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Ice: (1) slang for diamonds; (2) Crystallized Methamphetamine Ideas: {to be done} ["Where Do You Get Your Ideas?", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Identify Theft: The criminal act of assuming another person's full identity. Imagery: {to be done} Imagism: {to be done} Imitation: {to be done} Immunity: An exemption that a person (individual or corporate) enjoys from the normal operation of the law such as a legal duty or liability, either criminal or civil. For example, diplomats enjoy "diplomatic immunity" which means that they cannot be prosecuted for crimes committed during their tenure as diplomat. Another example of an immunity is where a witness agrees to testify only if the testimony cannot be used at some later date during a hearing against the witness. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Incident Report: A report used to report a particular incident, especially one associated with a crime. Incorporeal: Legal rights which are intangible (i.e., as copyrights, patents...) See: Intellectual Property Rights Indeterminate Sentence: Sentences that are not fixed and may be imposed for severe felony crimes, such as murder. examples of these sentences may be fifteen to life or twenty-five to life. Actual release dates are set by the Board of Prison Terms after a parole hearing. [California] Indictment: An accusatory document presented by a grand jury to the court, charging a named individual with a crime. Industrial Espionage: The covert collection of industrial secrets or processes. The legal relative of this is called Competitor Analysis. Infanticide: Murder of an infant soon after its birth. Infiltration: Gaining entry into criminal organizations. Informant: A person who provides law enforcement with information in return for money or other motivations. See: Pretexting Information: An accusatory document filed in court by a prosecutor, without indictment, charging a named individual with a crime. The term derives from the prosecutor's statement that he makes his charges based on his "information and belief" rather than firsthand knowledge. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Information Brokers: Persons or organizations that provide detective databases. Injunction: A court order that prohibits a party from doing something (restrictive injunction) or compels them to do something (mandatory injunction). Incendiary Material: Items used to produce fire, matches, candles, chemical, gases. See: Arson; Accelerant Inspirational: see Romance Subgenres Insurance Fraud: Investigations involving fraud of healthcare, insurance, workers compensation and others. Insurance Investigator: One who pursues Insurance Fraud. Integrity Shoppers: Investigators who test the integrity of retail personnel. Intellectual Property Rights: Protective trademarks, patents, or copyrights. See: Incorporeal Intelligence: #1 of the top 3 character traits that romance readers like to see in the heroine about whom they read (in 2002 and in 1998), according to Romance Writers of America statistics. It is #3 of the top 3 character traits that romance readers like to see in the heroes about whom they read (in 2002 and in 1998). See also: attractiveness, beauty, handsomeness, kindness, muscle bound, and strength of character. Intelligence: [in the sense of surveillance] see: E-mail Intercept; Evidentiary Intelligence Intentional Fallacy: {to be done} Interdiction: The interception and seizure of illegal things such as contraband or drugs. Interloper: A person who, without legal right, runs a business (e.g. without mandatory licenses), or who wrongfully interferes or intercepts another's business. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] International Law: A combination of treaties and customs which regulates the conduct of states amongst themselves. The highest judicial authority of international law is the International Court of Justice and the administrative authority is the United Nations. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] International Terrorism: Terrorism on an international level. See: Domestic Terrorism Internet Book Stores: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, are the way that 9% of romance readers purchase books. Amazon is the biggest Internet Book Stores, followed by #2 Barnes & Noble. See: e-commerce. Internet Fraud Complaint Center: A location where fraud complaints can be lodged. Interrogation: An adversarial interview with opposing goals, the truth versus deception. See: Emotional Approach Interview: A amicable interview with common goals. (contrast Interrogation) Intimidation: To threaten another in order to influence his behavior. The threat may include physical harm, restraint, confinement, or accusations of crime (even if true). [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Investigare: (Latin) "to search into." Investigate: (verb transitive) To observe or inquire into in detail; examine systematically. (verb intransitive) To make a detailed inquiry or systematic examination. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Investigation Services: This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing investigation and detective services. Official U.S. Census NAICS (North American Industry Classication System) categories: Investigator: (noun) One, especially a detective, who investigates. [A.P. Duli Investigations] See: P.I. Irony: {to be done} Islamic Law: The law according to the Muslim faith and as interpreted from the Koran. Islamic law is probably best known for deterrent punishment, which is the basis of the Islamic criminal system and the fact that there is no separation of church and state. Under Islamic law, the religion of Islam and the government are one. Islamic law is controlled, ruled and regulated by the Islamic religion. Islamic law purports to regulate all public and private behavior including personal hygiene, diet, sexual conduct, and child rearing. Islamic law now prevails in countries all over the middle east and elsewhere covering twenty per cent of the world's population. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: International Law; Tazirat Crimes J

Definitions: J

J.D.: Abbreviation for "juris doctor" or "doctor of jurisprudence" and the formal name given to the university law degree in the United States. It is a prerequisite to most bar admission exams. J. Edgar Hoover: Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation [1924 to 1972] J.P.: (1) Justice of the Peace; (2) Junior Partner; (3) (humor) based on previous: Husband. Jacobean Age: see Periods of English Literature Jammer: (noun) A device that produces noise in microphones and pickup devices to make conversations unintelligible. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Alec Jeffreys: This biologist was the first person to use DNA in a criminal case in order to identify a suspect. Jewelry: gold, silver, gems, rings, necklaces, and the like -- which a man inevitably gives a woman in a romance. See: Kiss. Joint Terrorism Task Force concept: The combination of resources of various federal agencies. Joseph D. Pistone: An FBI Special Agent known for his undercover work. Judicial Notice: Facts which do not need to be proven, facts accepted by the judge. Judicial Review: When a court decision is appealed, it is known as an "appeal." But there are many administrative agencies or tribunals which make decisions or deliver government services of one sort or another, the decisions of which can also be "appealed." In many cases, the "appeal" from administrative agencies is known as "judicial review" which is essentially a process where a court of law is asked to rule on the appropriateness of the administrative agency or tribunal's decision. Judicial review is a fundamental principle of administrative law. A distinctive feature of judicial review is that the "appeal" is not usually limited to errors in law but may be based on alleged errors on the part of the administrative agency on findings of fact. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Appeal Jugular: {to be done} Jurisdiction: Refers to a court's authority to judge over a situation usually acquired in one of three ways: over acts committed in a defined territory (e.g. the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Australia is limited to acts committed or originating in Australia), over certain types of cases (the jurisdiction of a bankruptcy court is limited to bankruptcy cases), or over certain persons (a military court has jurisdiction limited to actions of enlisted personnel). [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Jurisprudence: Technically, jurisprudence means the "science of law". Statutes articulate the bland rules of law, with only rare reference to factual situations. The actual application of these statutes to facts is left to judges who consider not only the statute but also other legal rules which might be relevant to arrive at a judicial decision; hence, the "science". Thus, jurisprudence" has come to refer to case law, or the legal decisions which have developed and which accompany statutes in applying the law against situations of fact. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Jury: A group of citizens randomly selected from the general population and brought together to assist justice by deciding which version, in their opinion, constitutes "the truth" given different evidence by opposing parties. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Sequestered Jury; Peremptory Challenge Justice: (1) Fairness. A state of affairs in which conduct or action is both fair and right, given the circumstances. (2) In law, it more specifically refers to the paramount obligation to ensure that all persons are treated fairly. Litigants "seek justice" by asking for compensation for wrongs committed against them; to right the inequity such that, with the compensation, a wrong has been righted and the balance of "good" or "virtue" over "wrong" or "evil" has been corrected. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] (3) A title for certain judges, as in "Justice of the Court of Appeal; Supreme Court Justice; Chief Justice Justifiable Homicide : A homicide based on the perpetrator's reasonable belief that he had no alternative but to use deadly or substantial force to protect himself from immanent death or great bodily harm, or to prevent a forcible felony. See: Homicide Juvenile: A person under 17 years of age, also referred to as a youth. Also see Minor; Tender Age Youth [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] K

Definitions: K

Kidnapping: The detention and taking of a person against his or her will. Kill: {to be done} see: Homicide; Murder Killer: {to be done} Kin: A blood or marriage relative; "next of kin" means the closest relative. Kindness: #2 of the top 3 character traits that romance readers like to see in the heroes about whom they read (in 1998), according to Romance Writers of America statistics. See also: intelligence, beauty, Muscle Bound, Handsomeness, Strength of Character, and attractiveness. Kiss: something that men give to women, or vice versa, often indicating love, but less immediately expensive than jewelry. See: lips. Knock Off Goods: also called Copycat Goods, Counterfeited products. L

Definitions: L

L.K.A.: Abbreviation for "last known address." [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Lai: {to be done} Larceny: An old English criminal and common law offence covering the unlawful or fraudulent removal of another's property without the owner's consent. The offence of theft now covers most cases of larceny. But larceny is wider than theft as it includes the taking of property of another person by whatever means (by theft, overtly , by fraud, by trickery, etc.) if an intent exists to convert that property to one's own use against the wishes of the owner. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Property Crime Latent Fingerprint: see Fingerprint See also: Basic Yellow 40; Crystal Violet,D.F.O. Latent Investigation: An investigation involving all aspect of the investigative process. see: Follow-up Investigation Law: All the rules of conduct that have been approved by the government and which are in force over a certain territory and which must be obeyed by all persons on that territory (eg. the "laws" of Australia). Violation of these rules could lead to government action such as imprisonment or fine, or private action such as a legal judgement against the offender obtained by the person injured by the action prohibited by law. Synonymous to act or statute although in common usage, "law" refers not only to legislation or statutes but also to the body of unwritten law in those states which recognize common law. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] see Case Law, Canon Law, Civil Law, Common Law; Criminal Law; International Law; Islamic Law; Natural Law; Penal Law; Procedural Law; Statutory Law; Substantive Criminal Law Law Enforcement Incident: (noun) An incident, caused by intentional acts, that results in the intensive response by community law enforcement agencies and that has produced, or can be expected to produce, large numbers of casualties, evacuation of affected individuals, and/or substantial human needs that may be ameliorated by the timely application of human and/or material resources. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Law Suit: see Action; Litigation Lawyer: A person that has been trained in the law and that has been certified to give legal advice or to represent others in litigation. Also known as a "barrister & solictor" [British] or an attorney. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Lead Investigator: also known as Primary Investigator or Case Investigator; The criminal investigator responsible for the proper investigation of the crime scene. Leading Question: A question which suggests an answer; usually answerable by "yes" or "no". For example: "Did you see David at 3 p.m.?" These are forbidden to ensure that the witness is not coached by their lawyer through his or her testimony. The proper form would be: "At what time did you see David?" Leading questions are only acceptable in cross-examination or where a witness is declared hostile. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Leads: Clues or pieces of information that aid in the progress of an investigation. Legal Thriller: see Romance Subgenres Legislation: Written and approved laws. Also known as "statutes" or "acts." In constitutional law, one would talk of the "power to legislate" or the "legislative arm of government" referring to the power of political bodies (eg: house of assembly, Congress, Parliament) to write the laws of the land. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Libel: The form of defamation by writing such as in a newspaper, magazine, book, or a letter. License: A special permission to do something on, or with, somebody else's property which, were it not for the license, could be legally prevented or give rise to legal action in tort or trespass. A common example is allowing a person to walk across your lawn which, if it were not for the license, would constitute trespass. Licenses are revocable at will (unless supported by a contract) and, as such, differs from an easement (the latter conveying a legal interest in the land). Licenses which are not based on a contract and which are fully revocable are called "simple" or "bare" licenses. A common example is the shopping mall to which access by the public is on the basis of an implied license. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Lie Detection Services See: Lie Detector; Investigation Services Lie Detector: see Polygraph; Lie Detection Services Light Verse: {to be done} Lips: human organs used to whistle, to sip, or to kiss. See: heart. Literature of the Absurd: {to be done} Literature of Sensibility: {to be done} Literary: see Romance Subgenres Litigation: A dispute is in "litigation" ( or being "litigated") when it has become the subject of a formal court action or law suit. Livestock: see Brands Local Color: {to be done} Lockup: A temporary detention facility. While in lockup, the prisoner is photographed and fingerprinted. Each Chicago district station has a male lockup, while each district headquarters has both a male and female lockup. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Loose Tail: Following a person, must be undetected, not a constant surveillance. See: Tight Tail; Rough Tail Love: the single most important word in romance. I can't possibly define it to you better than your favorite books -- or favorite people. Lyric: {to be done} M

Definitions: M

M.C.I.: Abbreviation for Managing Criminal Investigations MDTs: Abbreviation for Mobile Data Terminals M.O.: Abbreviation for "modus operandi," Latin for method of operation. The pattern of behavior which is typical of how a particular offender commits a specific type of crime. Example: An offender who always wears dark glasses in the commission of a bank robbery. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Magazines: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, such merchandise is purchased by 40% of romance readers when they're in a bookstore buying romance fiction. Also called periodicals. Mail Cover: (noun) Interception of mail by the Post Office by a governmental agency. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Mail Drop: A method used to leave information for other investigators. Or, for that matter, for a spy to leave for another spy. Mail Ordering: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, is the way that 3% of romance readers purchase books. Mainstream: see Romance Subgenres Mall bookstores: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, are the sites where 33% of romance readers purchase books. The Man-on-the-run Mystery: "The reactions of a man suddenly thrust into an international situation, with or without social and/or political overtones, in which the suspense is based on the question What is happening, and how the hell do I get out of it?" Considered a sub-type of the Novel of Pursuit by Boucher and Cassidy. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Man-on-the-run Mystery Authors: * Eric Ambler * Frederick Forsythe * Geoffrey Household * Alistair Maclean Managing Criminal Investigations: Places an investigator's time and effort into important solvable cases. Abbreviated MCI. Manslaughter: The unintentional killing of another through a reckless act. Illinois recognizes only an involuntary killing as manslaughter. If the act causing death is voluntary, the Illinois Criminal Code classifies the offense as either first or second degree murder. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] See: homicide Married: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, 49.5% of romance readers are married (56% in 1998). Contrast: single, divorced, widowed. See also: wedding. Masque: {to be done} Mass-market: see Paperback Original Mass merchandisers: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, are the sites such as Target or Walmart where 20% of romance readers purchase books. Materiality: The significance and importance of evidence to the outcome of the case. The Mechanistic Mystery: "A novel stressing the mechanics and techniques of a larger-than-life endeavor in the business and/or political world, with method and technology overshadowing the people. This is the macrocosm of the same world the socio-political mystery views in microcosm." Considered a sub-type of the Whodunnit. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Mechanistic Mystery Authors: * Michael Crichton * Paul E. Erdman * Frederick Forsythe Medical Examiner: The concept of the Medical Examiner developed in 1877 in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The public was dissatisfied with layman Coroners and the system changed to one of appointed physicians. One medical doctor was appointed to each district (similar to a county jurisdiction) to be the public official responsible for the investigation of sudden and unnatural death. Medical examinations were a part of the investigation and the term "Medical Examiner" has been in use since. The Medical Examiner concept is used in many states. All are appointed, not elected positions, and all Medical Examiners are physicians, but not necessarily trained in forensic pathology. The modern medical examiner system developed in 1915 in New York City. A forensic pathologist was appointed to be the Medical Examiner with statutory authority to investigate death and provided with a dedicated facility, support staff, and toxicology laboratory. Medieval: see Romance Subgenres Melodrama: {to be done} Memetic Viruses: Hoaxes, chain letters, erroneous alerts... Memoir: we distinguish between Autobiography (a biography written by the author about himself or herself), Memoir (where the emphasis is not on oneself, but on people met or events witnessed) or Diary (intended for private use). Men: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, 7% of all romance readers are men. One in 50 North American men have read a romance novel in 2002. Merchandise: the other stuff besides romance books that a reader can buy in a bookstore. This includes: other fiction (see genres); nonfiction books; magazines; stationary or greeting cards; children's books; novelty books; software; coffee or cafe items. The Metaphysical Mystery: "An offspring of the classic gothic of 'Monk' Lewis and the Mesdames [Mary] Shelley and Radcliffe, dealing with the possession of souls, Black Masses, ghosts and the occult, with the pursuit modeled on the Greek drama -- man hectored by demons or gods." "Note: the Metaphysical Mystery, although an offspring of the classic gothic, bears little resemblence to the 'modern gothic,' the romantic mystery novel discussed with skill, affection, and knowledgability by Phyllis Whitney, one of its noted practioner..." [elsehere in this Dictionary] Considered a sub-type of the Novel of Pursuit by Boucher and Cassidy. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Pursuit Authors: * William Peter Blatty * Ira Levin * Tom Tryon Metaphysical Poets: {to be done} Meter: {to be done} Middle English: see Periods of English Literature Minor: A person under 21 years of age. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Also see juvenile; youth; Tender Age Youth Miracle Plays: {to be done} Miranda Rules: The rights which must be read to a suspect once in custody. Misdemeanor: An offense for which the maximum term of incarceration is less than one year. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] See: Felony Missing Person: {to be done} Missing person tracing services: See: Investigation Services Mitigating Circumstances: Factors that a judge may consider in reducing the penalty for committing a crime. Modern Period: see Periods of English Literature Modus Operandi: see M.O. Mood: see Atmosphere Motif and Theme: {to be done} Morphine: see Opiate; Codeine; Heroin MtDNA: Mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), which is inherited from a person's mother. see: DNA; Genetic Fingerprint Mug Shot: A photograph taken of a suspect. Murder: unlawful killing of a person. see: Homicide; Infanticide; Manslaughter; Violent Crime Murder, First Degree: The killing of another with intent to cause death or great bodily harm; or with knowledge that the conduct in question will cause the death of another person; or with knowledge that the conduct in question is likely to cause death or great bodily harm to another person; or in the commission of a forcible felony. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Murder, Second Degree: The killing of another such as would constitute first degree murder, with specified, mitigating circumstances: the offender was acting under sudden and intense passion resulting from serious provocation; or the offender believed there were circumstances which, if they had existed, would have been legally sufficient to justify the killing. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Muscle Bound: #1 of the top 3 character traits that romance readers like to see in the heroes about whom they read (in 2002), according to Romance Writers of America statistics. See also: intelligence, beauty, handsomeness, kindness, Strength of Character, and attractiveness. Mystery: see Romance Subgenres Mystery Novel:  A work of fiction which should meet all the requirements of any novel, and is additionally expected to include four essential elements: * Crime (usually, but not necessarily, murder), * Detective(s), whether professional (police or private) or amateur, * An investigative process, and * The identification of the culprit(s). [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] see also: Novel; Crime Novel Mystery Shoppers: Undercover agents posing as shoppers to detect theft. Myth: {to be done} N

Definitions: N

NCIC: Abbreviation for National Crime Information Center NCJRS: Abbreviation for National Criminal Justice Reference Service NCVS: Abbreviation for National Crime Victimization Survey NEOTWY: An acronym formed by using the last letter of when, where, who, what, how and why. Narcoanalysis: The use of truth serum. Narcoterrorism: A political alliance between terrorist organizations and drug supplying cartels. The cartels provide financing for the terrorists, who in turn provide quasi-military protection to the drug dealers. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Natural Law: Rules of conduct inherent in human nature and in the natural order which are thought to be knowable through intuition, inspiration, and the exercise of reason, without the need for reference to man-made laws. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Neglected Child: A child who is not receiving the proper level of physical or psychological care from his or her parents or guardian, or who has been placed up for adoption in violation of the law. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Negligence: In legal usage, generally, a state of mind accompanying a person's conduct such that he or she is not aware, though a reasonable person should be aware, that there is a risk that the conduct might cause a particular harmful result. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Negligent Manslaughter: Defined in the FBI's UCR as: "Causing death of another by recklessness or gross negligence." See: Manslaughter; Negligence Neoclassic and Romantic: see Periods of English Literature New Criticism: {to be done} New Police: Also known as the Metropolitan Police of London, were formed in 1829 under the command of Sir Robert Peel. Peel's police became the model for modern-day police forces throughout the Western world. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Night Vision Devices: Devices used to see in the dark by using available light or infrared. No True Bill: The decision by a grand jury that it will not return an indictment against the person(s) accused of a crime(s) on the basis of the allegations and evidence presented by the prosecutor. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Noir: see Hard-boiled Nolle Prosequi: A formal entry upon the record of the court, indicating that the prosecutor declares that he or she will proceed no further in the action. The terminating of adjudication of a criminal charge by the prosecutor's decision not to pursue the case, in some jurisdictions requiring the approval of the court. See: Prosecutorial Discretion Nolo Contendere: A plea of "no contest." A no contest plea may be used where the defendant does not wish to contest conviction. Because the plea does not admit guilt, however, it cannot provide the basis for later civil suits that might follow upon the heels of a criminal conviction. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Nonfiction: contrast: fiction. Nonfiction: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, such merchandise is purchased by 47% of romance readers when they're in a bookstore buying romance fiction. Non-lethals: (noun) Devices used to inflict pain in order to subdue those less than cooperative. [A.P. Duli Investigations] North American: in the book business, this means USA plus Canada. Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity: The plea of a defendant or the verdict of a jury or judge in a criminal proceeding, that the defendant is not guilty of the offense(s) charged because at the time the crime(s) was committed the defendant did not have the mental capacity to be held criminally responsible for his or her actions. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Novel: in the official definition of Science Fiction Writers of America, this is a work of fiction over 40,000 words in length. Contrast : short story, novella, novelette. See also: Mystery Novel Novella: in the official definition of Science Fiction Writers of America, this is a work of fiction 7,500 to 17,499 words in length. Contrast : short story, novelette, novel. Novelette: in the official definition of Science Fiction Writers of America, this is a work of fiction 17,499 to 40,000 words in length. Contrast : short story, novella, novel. Novelty Books: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, such merchandise is purchased by 22% of romance readers when they're in a bookstore buying romance fiction. O

Definitions: O

ONCDP: abbreviation for Office of National Drug Control Policy O.R.: see Own Recognizance Objective and Subjective: {to be done} Occasional Poems: {to be done} Occupational Crime: Any act punishable by law that is committed through opportunity created in the course of an occupation that is legal. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Ode: {to be done} Offender: An adult who has been convicted of a criminal offense. Offense: (1) A violation of the criminal law of a state or local jurisdiction. (2) a "ticketable" minor violation, such as jaywalking. Offenses Known to Police: In the FBI's UCR, this means reported occurrences of offenses, which have been verified at the police level. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Office of National Drug Control Policy: An agency which monitors and studies the use of drugs in the United States. Abbreviated ONCDP. Official Written Reports: Narrative reports prepared by investigators using a typewriter or word processor. Ohnosecond: (noun) That fraction of time after hitting the Enter key, in which you realize that you've just done something that you really didn't want to do. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Old English: see Periods of English Literature Onomatopoeia: {to be done} Opening Statement: The initial statement of an attorney (or of a defendant representing himself or herself) made in a court of law to a judge, or to a judge and jury, describing the facts that he or she intends to present during trial in order to prove his or her case. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Operation Identification: A proactive effort to identify personal property to prevent its theft. Operational Capacity: The number of inmates a prison can effectively accommodate based upon management considerations. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Opiate: see Codeine; Heroin; Morphine Opinion: The official announcement by a judge or justice of a decision of a court together with the reasons of fact and law for that decision. See: Expert Witness; contrast facts. Opinion Evidence: Evidence which generally is inadmissible in court, opinions can be provided by lay and expert witnesses. Opportunity Theory: A perspective which sees delinquency as the result of limited legitimate opportunities for success available to most lower-class youth. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Organized Crime: The unlawful activities of the members of a highly organized, disciplined association engaged in supplying illegal goods and services, including but not limited to gambling, prostitution, loansharking, narcotics, labor racketeering, and other unlawful activities of members of such organizations. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: RICO Original Jurisdiction: The lawful authority of a court to hear or act upon a case from its beginning and to pass judgment on the law and the facts. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Other Fiction: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, such merchandise is purchased by 66% of romance readers when they're in a bookstore buying romance fiction. Overt/Covert Investigation: Overt = conducted openly; Covert = conducted in secret Outline:{to be done} [Hillary Waugh, "Why I Don't Outline", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Own Recognizance: The release, without bail, of a criminal defendant who promises a judge to appear at future court proceedings. In certain cases, the judge has statutory discretion to release the defendant without posting bail. Failure by a defendant to later appear in such a case is a crime. P

Definitions: P

PCR: (1) Abbreviation for Polymerase Chain Reaction for DNA; (2) Abbreviation for Police Community Relations P.I.: short for Private Investigator. Pronouncing it letter-for-letter gives the synonym Private Eye. Almost synonymous with Private Detective. See: Investigation Services P.P.O.: Abbreviation for "probationary police officer." A sworn member who has been employed as a Chicago Police Officer for less than one year. Informally referred to as a "rookie." [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Pantomime and Dumb Show: {to be done} Paper Trail: A series of documents by which the police can "follow" a person or series of transactions. Paperback: {to be done}. Contrast: Hardcover. [Dan Marlowe, "The Softcover Original", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Paperback Original: A book initially published as a paperback, without prior or simultaneous appearance in hardcover. First printings of these can also be collectable. In some places, such as our Newsletter, they may be identified as a tpo (trade paperback original) or pbo (paperback original, usually meaning mass-market paperback). Trade paperbacks are usually, but not necessarily, of a larger format than rack-size, whereas mass-market paperbacks are almost always rack size. But technically the distinction is that trade paperbacks are intended to be sold only through bookstores, whereas mass-markets are distributed also through non-book outlets. [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] Paradox: {to be done} Paranormal: see Romance Subgenres Parens Patriae: (Latin) refers to the legal basis upon which delinquent children may be removed from the home and supervised by the state. It means, in effect, that the state assumes responsibility for the welfare of problem children. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Parliament: The British legislature; the highest lawmaking body of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Parole: The formal supervision of a convicted offender by a state parole agent when the offender is released from a state correctional institution into the community. Parole: The status of an offender conditionally released from a prison by discretion of a paroling authority prior to expiration of sentence, required to observe conditions of parole, and placed under the supervision of a parole agency. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Parole Board: A state paroling authority. Most states have parole boards (also called "commissions") that decide when an incarcerated offender is ready for conditional release and that may also function as revocation hearing panels. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Parolee: A person who has been conditionally released by a paroling authority from a prison prior to the expiration of his or her sentence, and placed under the supervision of a parole agency, and who is required to observe conditions of parole. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Parole Revocation: The administrative action of a paroling authority removing a person from parole status in response to a violation of lawfully required conditions of parole including the prohibition against commission of a new offense, and usually resulting in a return to prison. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Parole Supervision: Guidance, treatment, or regulation of the behavior of a convicted adult who is obliged to fulfill conditions of parole or conditional release. Parole supervision is authorized and required by statute, performed by a parole agency, and occurs after a period of prison confinement. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Parole Violation: An act or a failure to act by a parolee that does not conform to the conditions of parole. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Paroling Authority: A board or commission which has the authority to release on parole adults committed to prison, to revoke parole or other conditional release, and to discharge from parole or other conditional release status. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Part I Offenses: In Uniform Crime Reports terminology, the group of offenses, also called "major offenses," for which UCR publishes counts of reported instances, and which consist of those that meet the following five-part criterion: (1) are most likely to be reported to police, (2) police investigation can easily establish whether a crime has occurred, (3) occur in all geographical areas, (4) occur with sufficient frequency to provide an adequate basis for comparison, (5) are serious crimes by nature and/or volume. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Part II Offenses: In Uniform Crime Reports terminology, a set of offense categories used in UCR data concerning arrests. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Pastoral: {to be done} Pathetic Fallacy: {to be done} Pathos: {to be done} Patterns: A series of similarities that may link cases to an individual. PBO: see Paperback Original Peacemaking Criminology: A perspective which holds that crime control agencies and the citizens they serve should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus reduce crime. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Pedophiles: Sexual offenders who receive gratification from sexual contact with children. Sir Robert Peel: Creator of the London Metropolitan Police. See: Bobbies Pen Register: A device which records dialed phoned numbers. Penal Code: The written, organized, and compiled form of the criminal laws of a jurisdiction. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Penal Law: See Criminal Law Penitentiary: A prison. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Also see Pennsylvania Style Pennsylvania Style: A form of imprisonment developed by the Pennsylvania Quakers around 1790 as an alternative to corporal punishments. The style made use of solitary confinement and resulted in the nation's first penitentiaries. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Percussive maintenance: (verb) The fine art of whacking the crap out of an electronic device to get it to work again. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Peremptory Challenge: The right to challenge a juror without assigning a reason for the challenge. In most jurisdictions each party to an action, both civil and criminal, has a specified number of such challenges and after using all his peremptory challenges he is required to furnish a reason for subsequent challenges. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Voir Dire The Period Mystery: "A novel of mystery in any of the foregoing [whodunnit] subtypes set in the past, usually dealing with crime or murder, and stressing the social and political values of the other time." Considered a sub-type of the Whodunnit. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Period Mystery Authors: * John Dickson Carr * Robert van Gulick * Nicholas Meyer ["The Seven Percent Solution"] Periods of English Literature: 450-1066 Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) Period 1066-1500 Middle English Period 1500-1660 The Renaissance 1558-1603 Elizabethan Age 1603-1625 Jacobean Age 1625-1649 Caroline Age 1649-1660 Commonwealth Period (Puritan Interregnum) 1660-1798 Neoclassical Period 1660-1700 The Restoration 1700-1745 The Augustan Age (or Age of Pope) 1745-1798 The Age of Sensibility (or Age of Johnson) 1798-1832 The Romantic Period 1832-1901 The Victorian Period 1901-1914 The Edwardian Period 1914-19?? The Modern Period 1910-1936 The Georgian Period 1936-19xx ?? 19xx-20xx The Postmodern Period See also Enlightenment, Euphuism Periodical: a magazine. See also series romance. Perjury: The intentional making of a false statement as part of testimony by a sworn witness in a judicial proceeding on a matter material to the inquiry. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Perp: Slang for perpetrator; (noun) One who is responsible for the commission of a crime. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Perpetrator: The chief actor in the commission of a crime, that is, the person who directly commits the criminal act. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Persona, Tone, and Voice: {to be done} Personal flip-through: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, is the #2 most important selling point for readers when deciding what book to buy. See also: description on the back cover, word-of-mouth, author, price. Petition: A written request made to a court asking for the exercise of its judicial powers or asking for permission to perform some act where the authorization of a court is required. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Petit Jury: see Trial Jury Contrast: Grand Jury Petty Offense: An offense for which the only allowable penalty is a fine. Phenomenological Criminology: A perspective on crime causation that holds that the significance of criminal behavior is ultimately knowable only to those who participate in it. Central to this school of thought is the belief that social actors endow their behavior with meaning and purpose. Hence, a crime might mean one thing to the person who commits it, quite another to the victim, and something far different still to professional participants in the justice system. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Photo Log: A log kept to document all photographs taken of a crime scene. Physical Addiction: Dependence upon drugs marked by a growing tolerance of a drug's effects so that increased amounts of a drug are needed to obtain a desired effect, and by the onset of withdrawal symptoms over periods of prolonged abstinence. Also, a craving for a specific drug which results from long-term substance abuse. Dependence upon drugs is marked by a growing tolerance of a drug's effects so that increased amounts of a drug are needed to obtain a desired effect and by the onset of withdrawal symptoms over periods of prolonged abstinence. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Synonymous with Physical Dependence Physical Dependence: The physical need to continue using drugs. See: Addict; Psychological Dependence; Recreational Drug User Allan Pinkerton: First detective for Chicago, Illinois [1849]. Founder of the Pinkerton Agency [first USA detective agency]. Pinkerton Agency: A national detective agency which protected presidents and investigated counterfeiting. Plaintiff: A person who initiates a court action. Plain View: A legal term describing the ready visibility of objects that might be sized as evidence during a search by police in the absence of a search warrant specifying the seizure of those objects. In order for evidence in plain view to be lawfully seized, officers must have a legal right to be in the viewing area, and must have cause to believe that the evidence is somehow associated with criminal activity. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Plants: Materials placed around the ignition device to feed the flame. See: Arson Plastic Fingerprint: see Fingerprint Platonic Love: {to be done} Plea: The response by a defendant to formal charge(s) in court. Such pleas include guilty, not guilty, nolo contendere (no contest) or not guilty by reason of insanity. Plea: In criminal proceedings, a defendant's formal answer in court to the charge contained in a complaint, information, or indictment, that he or she is guilty or not guilty of the offense charged, or does not contest the charge. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Plea Bargain: A plea bargain usually involves a plea by a criminal defendant of guilty or nolo contendere (no contest)  to a lesser offense or to only one of several charged offenses in return for an agreed-upon disposition. Plot: {to be done} [Frederic Brown, "Where Do You Get Your Plot?", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition [Dana Lyon, "Plotting From a Situation", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Poetic Diction: {to be done} Poetic Justice: {to be done} Poetic License: {to be done} Point of Origin: The location where a fire starts. See: Arson Point of View: {to be done} Police: This industry comprises government establishments primarily engaged in criminal and civil law enforcement, police, traffic safety, and other activities related to the enforcement of the law and preservation of order. Combined police and fire departments are included in this industry. Police Community Relations: An area of emerging police activity that stresses the need for the community and the police to work together effectively and emphasizes the notion that the police derive their legitimacy from the community they serve. PCR began to be of concern to many police agencies in the 1960s and 1970s. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Abbreviated PCR Police Culture: Synonymous with Police Subculture. A particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior characteristic of American police, and with which the police profession strives to imbue new recruits. Socialization into the police subculture commences with recruit training, and is ongoing thereafter. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Police Ethics: The special responsibility for adherence to moral duty and obligation inherent in police work. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Police Professionalism: The increasing formalization of police work, and the rise in public acceptance of the police which accompanies it. Any profession is characterized by a specialized body of knowledge and a set of internal guidelines which hold members of the profession accountable for their actions. A well-focused code of ethics, equitable recruitment and selection practices, and informed promotional strategies among many agencies contribute to the growing level of professionalism among American police agencies today. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Police Protection: Official U.S. Census North American Industry Classication System (2002 NAICS) categories: Related categories of employment are classified by the Census as follows: The Police Procedural Mystery: "A story of a real police detective working on a real police force, solving one crime or a series of crimes, the events narrated in an almost documentary fashion." Considered a sub-type of the Whodunnit. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Police Procedural Mystery Authors: * John Creasy * Leslie Egan * Ed McBain * Robert L. Pike (Fish) * Richard Martin Stern * Lawrence Treat * Hilary Waugh "Police Procedurals: These novels have protagonists who usually belong to a police force and a crime which is solved using the rules of the police department and forensic rules of evidence". [formerly on now-abandoned site http://staff.queens.lib.ny.us/central/my_html/Mystery.htm] * Patricia Moyes (Henry Tibbet) * P.D. James (Adam Dalgliesh) * Ed McBain (87th Precinct novels) * Reginald Hill (Pascoe & Dalziel) * Dorothy Simpson (Inspector Luke Thanet) * Tony Hillerman (Leaphorn &Chee) * Ruth Rendell (Inspector Wexford) * Martha Grimes (Inspector Jury) * Peter Lovesey (Sgt. Cribb). Police Subulture: Synonymous with Police Culture Police Working Personality: All aspects of the traditional values and patterns of behavior evidenced by police officers who have been effectively socialized into the police subculture. Characteristics of the police personality often extend to the personal lives of law enforcement personnel. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Polygraph: A mechanical device used to measure the respiration, circulation, and the galvanic skin response; used to detect stress or deception in suspects. see Lie Detector Polygraph Services: See: Investigation Services Popular Culture: "...the everyday world around us: the mass media, entertainments, diversions, heroes, icons, ritual, psychology, religion--our total life picture." [The Journal of Popular Culture] Celia Brayfield, a critic of popular culture, states "...popular culture circulates ideas for millions of people. These ideas are our modern mythology. They tell society how to survive. Society changes at a dizzying speed and a great many modern stories address the fears aroused by those changes". Popular Literature: "the literature which people really read. It is usually read for pleasure and written for profit. Popular literature is also called 'genre' literature or 'formulaic' fiction because it can be categorized into specific genres or formulas like the classic detective novel, gothic horror, or historical romance. Works of popular literature usually become 'best sellers' in contrast to more experimental or literary fiction. Critics of popular culture believe that popular literature reflects the culture in which it was written. Therefore, we can determine a culture's concerns by analyzing its best seller lists. Literature became 'popular', for the people, in the 18th century with the rise of the middle class, universal education, and the industrial revolution." Portrait Parle: "Speaking picture", a method of describing the human head in a very detailed manner. Postconviction Remedy: The procedure or set of procedures by which a person who has been convicted of a crime can challenge in court the lawfulness of a judgment of conviction or penalty or of a correctional agency action, and thus obtain relief in situations where this cannot be done by a direct appeal. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Postmodern: see Periods of English Literature Postmodern Criminology: A brand of criminology which developed following World War II, and which builds upon the tenets inherent in postmodern social thought. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Precedent: A legal principle that operates to ensure that previous judicial decisions are authoritatively considered and incorporated into future cases. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Predators: see Superpredators Preemployment/Background Screening: Screening of potential employees. Preformated Reports: Forms prepared manually by investigators. Preliminary Hearing: The proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided: (1) whether a crime was committed, (2) whether the crime occurred within the territorial jurisdiction of the court, and (4) whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Preliminary Investigation: The initial inquiry into a reported crime. See: Be On the Lookout Pre-Raphaelites: {to be done} Presentence Investigation: The examination of a convicted offender's background prior to sentencing. Presentence examinations are generally conducted by probation/parole officers and submitted to sentencing authorities. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Presentment: Historically, written notice of an offense taken by a grand jury from their own knowledge or observation; in current usage, any of several presentations of alleged facts and charges to a court or a grand jury by a prosecutor. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Presumptions: Logical deductions in law that may be made from certain sets of facts. Presumptive Sentencing: A model of criminal punishment that meets the following conditions: (1) the appropriate sentence for an offender in a specific case is presumed to fall within a range of sentences authorized by sentencing guidelines that are adopted by a legislatively created sentencing body, usually a sentencing commission; (2) sentencing judges are expected to sentence within the range or provide written justification for departure; (3) the guidelines provide for some review, usually appellate, of the departure. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Pretexting: Providing a cover story for an informant. Pretrial Detention: Any period of confinement occurring between arrest or other holding to answer a charge and the conclusion of prosecution. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Pretrial Discovery: In criminal proceedings, disclosure by the prosecution or the defense prior to trial of evidence or other information which is intended to be used in the trial. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Pretrial Release: The release of an accused person from custody, for all or part of the time before or during prosecution, upon his or her promise to appear in court when required. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Prevention: (noun) Doing something really significant that keeps from being done what you don't want done. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Price: What the readers pays for a book. According to Romance Writers of America statistics, is the #3 most important shopping factor for romance readers, in order of importance. Contrast: selection of books, convenience, help. Price: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, is the #5 most important selling point for readers when deciding what book to buy. See also: description on the back cover, word-of-mouth, Personal flip-through, author. Prima Facie Evidence: Evidence, standing alone, which is sufficient to establish a given fact. Primary Investigator: also known as Case Investigator or Lead Investigator; The criminal investigator responsible for the proper investigation of the crime scene. Primitivism and Progress: {to be done} Prison: A state or federal confinement facility having custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Jail; Penitentiary Prison Argot: The slang characteristic of prison subcultures and prison life. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Prison Capacity: The size of the correctional population an institution can effectively hold. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Prison Commitment: A sentence of commitment to the jurisdiction of a state or federal confinement facility system for adults, of which the custodial authority extends to persons sentenced to more than a year of confinement, for a term expressed in years or for life, or to await execution of a death sentence. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Prisoner: A person in physical custody in a confinement facility, or in the personal physical custody of a criminal justice official while being transported to or between confinement facilities. A person in physical custody in a state or federal confinement facility. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Prisonization: The process whereby newly institutionalized individuals come to accept prison lifestyles and criminal values. While many inmates begin their prison experience with only a modicum of values supportive of criminal behavior, the socialization experience they undergo while incarcerated leads to a much wider acceptance of such values. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Prison Subculture: The values and behavioral patterns characteristic of prison inmates. Prison subculture has been found to have surprising consistencies across the country. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Pristine: Original condition. Contrast: Contaminated. Privacy Act: An act allowing people to review and correct personal information. Private Detective: The hero in these stories is either employed by a large agency, or a loner striking out on his or her own. These detectives are usually licensed PIs or ex-cops. * Lawrence Block (Matt Scudder) * James Lee Burke (Dave Robicheaux) * Arthur Conan Doyle (Sherlock Holmes) * Marcia Miller (Sharon McCrone) * Walter Mosley (Easy Rawlins) * Robert Parker (Spenser) * Sara Paretsky (V.I. Warshawski) * Rex Stout (Nero Wolfe) Private Detective: A privately employed detective as distinguished from one belonging to a public police force. [http://www.ci.lenexa.ks.us/codemaster/Title_2/9/D/1.html] Private Detective Services: See: Investigation Services Private Eye: see P.I. The Private Eye Mystery: "A story of crime-solution in which the detective may be an investigator of any kind -- insurance, skip-tracer, lawyer or ordinary citizen in the role of investigator." Considered a sub-type of the Whodunnit. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Private Eye Mystery Authors: * Herbert Brean * George Harmon Coxe * Dick Francis * Richard Lockridge * John D. MacDonald * Harold Q. Masur * Judson Philips * Aaron Marc Stein * Rex Stout Private Investigator: see P.I.; Investigator Private Merchant Police, Guard Service and Patrol Service: Any person who engages in a business for hire to provide a protective service for the property of others and whose duties and activities in that connection include patrolling, guarding or watching the property of a subscriber, purchaser or client under contract or agreement to provide a protection service. [http://www.ci.lenexa.ks.us/codemaster/Title_2/9/D/1.html] Private Police: Private merchant police, guard service, patrol service, watchman and security officer will be referred to as "private police". [http://www.ci.lenexa.ks.us/codemaster/Title_2/9/D/1.html] Private Security: Those self-employed individuals and privately funded business entities and organizations providing security-related services to specific clientele for a fee, for the individual or entity that retains or employs them, or for themselves, in order to protect their persons, private property, or interests from various hazards. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Private Security Agency: An independent or proprietary commercial organization which provides protective services to employers on a contractual basis, and whose activities include employee clearance investigations, maintaining the security of persons or property, and/or performing the functions of detection and investigation of crime and criminals and apprehension of offenders. Also known as private protective services. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Privatization: The movement toward the wider use of private prisons. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Privileged Communitions: Communications protected by law, i.e. clergy, lawyer, spouse relationships. Proactive Investigation: The use of proactive investigative techniquest to detect offenders before the offend. See: Reactive/Proactive Investigation Proarrest Policies: Policies governing the arrest of violent offenders. Probable Cause: A set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that a particular person had committed a specific crime; reasonable grounds to make or believe an accusation. Probable cause is needed for a "full blown" search or arrest. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] see Reasonable Suspicion Probation: A status judicially imposed on a criminal defendant who agrees to be supervised, usually formally, by a county probation department under specified conditions. Conditions of probation may include county jail, a fine, restitution to the victim, community work, or counseling. See: Supervised Probation Probationer: A person who is placed on probation status and required by a court or probation agency to meet certain conditions of behavior, who may or may not be placed under the supervision of a probation agency. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Probation Revocation: A court order in response to a violation of conditions of probation, taking away a person's probationary status, and usually withdrawing the conditional freedom associated with the status. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Probation Termination: The ending of the probation status of a given person by routine expiration of probationary period, by special early termination by court, or by revocation of probation. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Probation Violation: An act or failure to act by a probationer that does not conform to the conditions of his or her probation. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Probation Work Load: The total set of activities required in order to carry out the probation agency functions of intake screening of juveniles cases, referral of cases to other service agencies, investigation of juveniles and adults for the purpose of preparing predisposition or presentence reports, supervision or treatment of juveniles and adults granted probation, assisting in the enforcement of court orders concerning family problems such as abandonment and nonsupport cases, and such other functions as may be assigned by statute or court order. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Problem: In the CAPS model, a problem suitable for police/community resolution has the following characteristics: it is a group of related incidents; it affects a number of people; it is unlikely to disappear without intervention; a number of people agree to work on it; and it can be impacted with available resources. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Problem-oriented Policing: see Problem-solving Policing Problem Play: {to be done} Problem-solving Policing: A style of policing which assumes that many crimes are caused by existing social conditions within the community, and that crimes can be controlled by uncovering and effectively addressing underlying social problems. Problem-solving policing makes use of other community resources such as counseling centers, welfare programs, and job training facilities. It also attempts to involve citizens in the job of crime prevention through education, negotiation, and conflict management. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Synonym: Problem-oriented Policing Procuratorate: also known as Procuracy. A term used in many countries to refer to agencies with powers and responsibilities similar to those of prosecutor's offices in the United States. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Procedural Defense: A defense which claims that the defendant was in some significant way discriminated against in the justice process, or that some important aspect of official procedure was not properly followed in the investigation or prosecution of the crime charged. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Procedural Law: That aspect of the law that specifies the methods to be used in enforcing substantive law. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Product Liability: The civil result of products which cause injury to the consumer. Professional Criminal: See Career Criminal; Crimogen Profiling: see BEA; Criminal Personality Profiling; DNA Profiling; Criminal Investigative Analysis; Psychological Profiling Proof Copy: see Advance Reading Copy (ARC) Property Bond: The setting of bail in the form of land, houses, stocks, or other tangible property. In the event the defendant absconds prior to trial, the bond becomes the property of the court. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Property Crime: An offense category that, according to the FBI's UCR program, includes burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson. Since citizen reports of criminal incidents figure heavily in the compilation of "official statistics," the same critiques apply to tallies of these crimes as to the category of violent crime. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Proportionality: A sentencing principle which holds that the severity of sanctions should bear a direct relationship to the seriousness of the crime committed. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Proprietary Security Investigations: In-house corporation or business security department investigations. Prose: {to be done} Prosecution Agency: A federal, state, or local criminal justice agency or subunit of which the principal function is the prosecution of alleged offenders. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Prosecutor: An attorney who is the elected or appointed chief of a prosecution agency, and whose official duty is to conduct criminal proceedings on behalf of the people against persons accused of committing criminal offenses. Also called "district attorney," "DA," "state's attorney," "county attorney," and "U.S. attorney" and any attorney deputized to assist the chief prosecutor. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Prosecutorial Discretion: The decision-making power of prosecutors based upon the wide range of choices available to them in the handling of criminal defendants, the scheduling of cases for trial, the acceptance of bargained pleas, and so on. The most important form of prosecutorial discretion lies in the power to charge, or not to charge, a person with an offense. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Nolle Prosequi Prosody: {to be done} Prostitution: Offering or agreeing to engage in, or engaging in, a sex act with another in return for a fee. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Psychoactive Drug: A chemical substance that affects cognition, feeling, and/or awareness. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Psychoanalysis: A theory of human behavior, based upon the writings of Sigmund Freud, that sees personality as a complex composite of interacting mental entities. Psychological Dependence: The mental belief that continued drug usage is required. See: Physical Dependence Psychological Manipulation: Manipulative actions by police interviewers, designed to pressure suspects to divulge information, which are based upon subtle forms of intimidation and control. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] The Psychological Mystery: "A story of inner malaise affecting the lives of people personally related to the protagonist, usually involving the solution of a murder." Considered a sub-type of the Whodunnit. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Psychological Mystery Authors: * Stanley Ellin * John Farris * Margaret Millar Psychological Profiling: see Criminal Investigative Analysis Psychological School: A perspective on criminological thought that views offensive and deviant behavior as the products of dysfunctional personalities. The conscious, and especially the subconscious, contents of the human psyche are identified by psychological thinkers as major determinants of behavior. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Psychopath: almost synonymous with sociopath. A person with a personality disorder, especially one manifested in aggressively antisocial behavior, which is often said to be the result of a poorly developed superego. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Psychopathology: The study of pathological mental conditions, that is, mental illness. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Psychophysiological Veracity: Verifying truthfulness by measuring stress with a polygraph device. Psychosis: A form of mental illness in which sufferers are said to be out of touch with reality. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Public Defender: An attorney employed by a government agency or subagency, or by a private organization under contract to a unit of government, for the purpose of providing defense services to indigents; also, occasionally, an attorney who has volunteered such service. The head of a government agency or subunit whose function is the representation in court of persons accused or convicted of a crime who are unable to hire private counsel, and any attorney employed by such an agency or subunit whose official duty is the performance of the indigent defense function. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Public Defender Agency: A federal, state, or local criminal justice agency or subunit of which the principal function is to represent in court persons accused or convicted of a crime(s) who are unable to hire private counsel. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Public Investigator: An investigator working for local, state and federal government agencies. Public Safety Department: An agency organized at the state or local level of government incorporating at a minimum various law enforcement and emergency service functions. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Publisher: see Romance Publishers Pun: {to be done} Purple Patch: {to be done} The Novel of Pursuit: "Usually a story of espionage but sometimes of priavte excitement in which the question is not Why? or How? but What will happen next? or How can he get out of this? The upsurge of the novel of pursuit and action in its four-odd current guises is an interesting counter-trend to the direction noted by Anthony Boucher in 1956 when he said that the novel of pursuit hadalmost disappeared in the first decade after the second World War. Today this form is strongly back in the running in four basic guises, producing a large number of espionage, geopolitical, and even metaphysical novels. The novel of pursuit stresses extroversion over introversion. Enen when it deals with demonic possession and madness, the emphasis is on the outer trappings of action and terror rather than on psychological analysis. And, when it deals with technology and the mechanics of today's world, the stress is definitely on the way things are done rather than the people who are doing them; on the make and model of the gun or weapon used for the killing or maiming rather than on the perpetrator using the weapon; on the method of pursuit, entrapment, or capture rather thasn the personalities of the hunter and the hunted. The concentration on methodology and technology is perhaps the most revolutionary change in mystery prose during this period. There is no question that the mechanistic, technological mystery is holding up a true mirror to the dehumanized, impersonal, thing-dominated culture of today." The pursuit sub-types are: a) the Spy Mystery b) the Man-on-the-run Mystery c) the Metaphysical Mystery d) the Doomsday Mystery [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Pursuit Authors: * [see each subtype as listed above, in this Dictionary] The Puzzle Mystery: "The classic, simon-pure detective story, in which the author poses a problem and sets up a fair-play game of wits between detective and reader." [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Puzzle Mystery Authors: * John Dickson Carr * Agatha Christie * Andrew Garve * Michael Gilbert * Ellery Queen Q

Definitions: Q

Question: to "pop the question" is to ask: "will you marry me?" See: Leading Question Questioned Documents: A Questioned Documents Examiner analyzes and identifies written, printed, or typed material for authenticity. If the authenticity is doubted or if its source is unknown, it becomes a Questioned Document. Questioned Document examination may be associated with criminal cases involving forgery, suicide, and embezzlement. [Office of the Attorney General, State of California, Dept. of Justice] R

Definitions: R

R/O: Abbreviation for "responding officer," a term used in police case reporting. RFLP: Abbreviation for Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism RICO: see Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization ROPs: Abbreviation for Repeat Offender Programs ROR: Abbreviation for Release on Recognizance Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization : A federal statute that allows for the federal seizure of assets derived from illegal enterprise. Abbreviated RICO. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Radical Criminology: A conflict perspective that sees crime as engendered by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and other resources which it believes is especially characteristic of capitalist societies. Also called "critical criminology." [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Rank: Sworn Ranks in the Chicago Police Department are as follows: (Rank followed by Rank Uniform Insignia): [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Rape: Forced intercourse upon a woman (usually) against her will. See: Violent Crime Rape: (generic definition) Unlawful sexual intercourse, achieved through force and without consent. Broadly speaking, the term "rape" has been applied to a wide variety of sexual attacks, and may include same-sex rape and the rape of a male by a female. The term "forcible rape" has a more concise meaning. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See also: Forcible Rape; Sexual Battery. Rape Kits: Set of items used to collect sexual assault evidence. Rapid Response Car: A squad car assigned to patrol a sector within a district and respond to in-progress (emergency) calls. Instituted as part of the CAPS strategy, rapid response cars allow beat officers greater opportunity to deal with chronic problems on their own beat. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Rated Capacity: The number of inmates that a correctional facility can house without overcrowding, determined by comparison with some set of explicit standards applied to groups of facilities. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Reactive/Proactive Investigation: Reactive = instigated by a complaint; Proactive = instigated by an officer's initiative. Real Evidence: Tangible items used to prove or disprove a fact in issue. Realism and Naturalism: {to be done} Reasonable Doubt: (in legal proceedings) an actual and substantial doubt arising from the evidence, from the facts or circumstances shown by the evidence, or from the lack of evidence. Also, that state of the case which, after the entire comparison and consideration of all the evidence, leaves the minds of the jurors in that condition that they cannot say they feel an abiding conviction of the truth of the charge. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See also: Burden of Going Forward Reasonable Doubt Standard: that standard of proof necessary for conviction in criminal trials. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Reasonable Force: A degree of force that is appropriate in a given situation and is not excessive. The minimum degree of force necessary to protect oneself, ones' property, a third party, or the property of another in the face of a substantial threat. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Reasonable Suspicion: (1) That level of suspicion which would justify an officer in making further inquiry or in conducting further investigation. Reasonable suspicion may permit a simple "stop and frisk." (2) A belief, based upon a consideration of the facts at hand and upon reasonable inferences drawn from those facts, which would induce an ordinarily prudent and cautious person under the same circumstances to generally conclude that criminal activity is taking place, or that criminal activity has recently occurred. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See also: Probable Cause Recalcitrant: Uncooperative Recanvass: The reinterview of a large number of potential witnesses. Recidivism: The repetition of criminal behavior. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Recidivist: A person who has been convicted of one or more crimes and who is alleged or found to have subsequently committed another crime or series of crimes. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Serial Offender; Career Criminal Reckless Behavior: Activity which increases the risk of harm. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Reconstructing: The use of evidence to reconstruct the activities leading to the condition of a crime scene. Reconstruction: see Crime Scene Investigation/Reconstruction Recreational Drug User: A person who uses drugs relatively infrequently, and whose use occurs primarily among friends and within social contexts which define drug use as pleasurable. Most addicts began as recreational users. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Physical Dependence; Psychological Dependence Reformatory Concept: A late-nineteenth-century correctional model based upon the use of the indeterminate sentence and belief in the possibility of rehabilitation, especially for youthful offenders. The reformatory concept faded with the emergence of industrial prisons around the turn of the century. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Refrain: {to be done} Regency: see Romance Subgenres Rehabilitation: The attempt to reform a criminal offender. Also, the state in which a reformed offender is said to be. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Release on Recognizance: The pretrial release of a criminal defendant on their written promise to appear. No cash or property bond is required. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Abbreviated ROR. See: Bail Relevance: Evidence which tends to prove or disprove any fact in dispute, the evidence's bearing on the case. Renaissance: see Periods of English Literature Repartee: see Wit Repeat Offender Programs: The law enforcement effort to direct resources at career criminals. Abbreviated ROPs. Reprieve: An executive act temporarily suspending the execution of a sentence, usually a death sentence. A reprieve differs from other suspensions of sentence not only in that it almost always applies to temporary withdrawing of a death sentence, but also in that it is usually an act of clemency intended to provide the prisoner with time to secure amelioration of the sentence. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Research: The use of standardized, systematic procedures in the search for knowledge. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Research Revolution: A period of research into the criminal justice system to identify shortcomings. Restitution Fine: A fine that a convicted perpetrator must pay to the State as part of sentencing. Resident: A person required by official action or his own acceptance of placement to reside in a public or private facility established for purposes of confinement, supervision, or care. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Residential Commitment: A sentence of commitment to a correctional facility for adults, in which the offender is required to reside at night, but from which he or she is regularly permitted to depart during the day, unaccompanied by any official. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Restitution: A court requirement that an alleged or convicted offender pay money or provide services to the victim of the crime or provide services to the community. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Restitution Order: Compensation to a crime victim by a criminal defendant for financial losses or personal injuries cause by the crime, sometimes called "victim's restitution" or direct restitution. Every victim who suffers economic loss as a result of criminal activity is entitled to restitution upon sentencing of a defendant. Restoration: A goal of criminal sentencing that attempts to make the victim "whole again." [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Restoration: see Periods of English Literature Restorative Justice: A sentencing model which builds upon restitution and community participation in an attempt to make the victim "whole again." [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism: a pattern in DNA useful for Genetic Fingerprinting. Abbreviated RFLP. Retribution: The act of taking revenge upon a criminal perpetrator. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Revision: {to be done} [Stanley Ellin, "The Ungentle Art of Revision", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition [Helen McCloy, "Cutting: Surgery or Butchery?", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Revocation: The cancellation of a probationer's or parolee's freedom. Revocation usually results from the violation of at least one of the conditions of probation or parole and may be ordered only by a special hearing board constituted for that purpose. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Revocation Hearing: A hearing held before a legally constituted hearing body (such as a parole board) in order to determine whether or not a probationer or parolee has violated the conditions and requirements of his or her probation or parole. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Rhetoric: {to be done} Rhetorical Figures: {to be done} Rhyme: {to be done} Rights of Defendant: Those powers and privileges which are constitutionally guaranteed to every defendant. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Ring: the essential magical device required for a proper wedding. See: jewelry. Robbery: The UCR definition is "The unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or threat of force." See: Larceny, Theft, Violent Crime Rock Cocaine: synonym for Crack See: Cocaine; Drugs Rohypnol: see Date-rape Drugs Roll Call: The first half hour of a watch, reserved for attendance, inspection, briefings, and training. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Roman a Clef: {to be done} Romance: the primary genre of fiction. Romance Writers of America's Official Definition: "A romance is a book wherein the love story is the main focus of the novel, and the end of the book is emotionally satisfying." Contrast with "Women's Fiction Novel." Romantic Period: see Periods of English Literature Rough Tail: Following someone, not important if discovered by the subject. See: Loose Trail, Close Trail, Tight Trail Rules of Evidence: A set of regulations that act as guidelines for judges, attorneys, and law enforcement personnel. Runaway: A juvenile who has been adjudicated by a judicial officer of juvenile court, as having committed the status offense of leaving the custody and home of his or her parents, guardians, or custodians without permission and failing to return within a reasonable length of time. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] S

Definitions: S

STR: Abbreviation for Short Tandem Repeat Satire: {to be done} Schizophrenics: Mentally ill individuals who suffer from disjointed thinking and, possibly, delusions and hallucinations. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Science: see Enlightenment Science Fiction: see Romance Subgenres Scientific Police Management: The application of social scientific techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints, and enhancing the efficient use of available resources. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Scotland: see Romance Subgenres Scotland Yard: The facility housing the London Metropolitan Police. Scum Sucking Slime: (noun) (1) Descriptive term of a rip-off artist with no morals and no ethics. (2) Private Investigators who work without a contract. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Search Warrant: A document issued by a judicial officer which directs a law enforcement officer to conduct a search at a specific location, for specified property or persons relating to a crime(s), to seize the property or persons if found, and to account for the results of the search to the issuing judicial officer. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Searches Incident to an Arrest: Those warrantless searches of arrested individuals which are conducted in order to insure the safety of the arresting officer(s). Because individuals placed under arrest may be in the possession of weapons, courts have recognized the need for arresting officers to protect themselves by conducting an immediate and warrantless search of arrested individuals without the need for a warrant. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sector: One of three geographic divisions within a police district, comprising three to five beats. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Security: The methodologies for prevention, detection, investigation, protection, safety, guarding, and restricted access of persons, locations, and systems. [magicdragon definition] (2) The restriction of inmate movement within a correctional facility, usually divided into maximum, medium, and minimum levels. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Encryption Security Officer: Any person regularly employed by a person and whose duties, in addition to patrolling, guarding and watching the property of the employer, may include conducting investigations concerning the reputation or character of employees or prospective employees and investigations concerning the location of property of the employer that be comes lost or stolen. [http://www.ci.lenexa.ks.us/codemaster/Title_2/9/D/1.html] Selection of books: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, is the #1 most important shopping factor for romance readers, in order of importance. Contrast: convenience, price, help. Self-defense: (noun) (1) Defense of oneself when physically attacked. (2) Defense of what belongs to oneself, as one's works or reputation [see Defamation]. (3) (Law) The right to protect oneself against violence or threatened violence with whatever force or means are reasonably necessary. [A.P. Duli Investigations] (4) The protection of oneself or one's property from unlawful injury or the immediate risk of unlawful injury; the justification for an act which would otherwise constitute an offense, that the person who committed it reasonably believed that the act was necessary to protect self or property from immediate danger. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sentence: (1) The penalty imposed by a court upon a person convicted of a crime. (2) The court judgment specifying the penalty imposed upon a person convicted of a crime. (3) Any disposition of a defendant resulting from a conviction, including the court decision to suspend execution of a sentence. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sentence Withheld: see Suspended Sentence Sentencing: The imposition of a criminal sanction by a sentencing authority. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sentencing Dispositions: Court dispositions of defendants after a judgment of conviction, expressed as penalties, such as imprisonment or payment of fines; or any of a number of alternatives to actually executed penalties, such as suspended sentences, grants of probation, or orders to perform restitution; or various combinations of the foregoing. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sentencing Hearing: In criminal proceedings, a hearing during which the court or jury considers relevant information, such as evidence concerning aggravating or mitigating circumstances, for the purpose of determining a sentencing disposition for a person convicted of an offense(s). [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sentimentalism: {to be done} Separated: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, 0.5% of romance readers are divorced (1% in 1998). Contrast: married, single, widowed, divorced. Sequestered Jury: A jury that is isolated from the public during the course of a trial and throughout the deliberation process. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Serial Offender: see Recidivist; Crimogen Serial Murder: A series of murders committed by the same offender. Series: {to be done} [Hillary Waugh, "The Series vs. the Non-Series Detective", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Series Romance: a shorter paperback romance novel that is released as part of a numbered sequence and typically pubslihed by Harlequin/Silhouette, the largest publisher of series romance. A number indicating the place each book belongs in the series appears on the cover of each series book. Series romances are released in numbered order, and shelved monthly like a periodical -- with the previous month's titles being replaced by the next month's titles every few weeks. Contrast Single-title romance. Serology see DNA/Serology Service Style: A style of policing that is marked by a concern with helping rather than strict enforcement. Service-oriented agencies are more likely to take advantage of community resources, such as drug treatment programs, than are other types of departments. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Setting: {to be done} Sex Offenses: (1) In current statistical usage, the name of a broad category of varying content, usually consisting of all offenses having a sexual element except forcible rape and commercial sex offenses. All unlawful sexual intercourse, unlawful sexual contact, and other unlawful behavior intended to result in sexual gratification or profit from sexual activity. (2) The name of the UCR category used to record and report arrests made for "offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like," except forcible rape, prostitution, and commercialized vice. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sexual Asphyxia: Synonym for Autoerotic Death: Accidental asphyxiation, causing death, rersulting from masochistic activity of the deceased. Sexual Assault: An act of sexually molesting a person for sexual gratification. Sexual Battery: Intentional and wrongful physical contact with a person without his or her consent that entails a sexual component or purpose. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sexual Harassment: Unwanted and uninvited sexual contact or harassment of another person. Shadow: A one person surveillance. Sheriff: The elected chief officer of a county law enforcement agency, usually responsible for law enforcement in unincorporated areas and for the operation of the county jail. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sheriff's Department: A local law enforcement agency organized at the county level, directed by a sheriff, which exercises its law enforcement functions at the county level, usually within unincorporated areas, and operates the county jail in most jurisdictions. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Shock Incarceration: A sentencing option that makes use of "boot camp"-type prisons in order to impress upon convicted offenders the realities of prison life. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Shock Probation: The practice of sentencing offenders to prison, allowing them to apply for probationary release, and enacting such release in surprise fashion. Offenders who receive shock probation may not be aware of the fact that they will be released on probation and may expect to spend a much longer time behind bars. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Shoplifter: {to be done} see Booster Bag; Commercial Shoplifter Shopping Services: Private security firms that offer mystery shopper services; i.e. Professional shoppers who conduct integrity, efficiency, and facility analyses of businesses. Short Story: in the official definition of Science Fiction Writers of America, this is a work of fiction up to 7,499 words in length. Contrast : novella, novelette, novel. [Edward D. Hoch, "The Pleasure of the Short Story", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Short Tandem Repeat: Some DNA pattern useful for Genetic Fingerprinting. Shrinkage: Reduction in inventory due to theft or diversion. Simple Assault: The category of offenses in the UCR defined as "Unlawful threatening, attempted inflicting, or inflicting of less than serious bodily injury, in the absence of a deadly weapon." See: Aggravated Assault; Assault Single: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, 33% of romance readers are single (23% in 1998). Contrast: married, divorced, widowed. Single-title romance: a romance, usually longer than a series romance, which is NOT released as part of a series. It is packaged and shelved like any mass-market paperback or hardback fiction book. Contrast series romance. Sir Robert Peel: Creator of the London Metropolitan Police. Skip Tracing Services See: Skip-tracer; Investigation Services Skip-tracer: {to be done} Smuggling: Unlawful movement of goods across a national frontier or state boundary or into or out of a correctional facility. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sniffer: Synonyms: Catalytic Combustion Detector; Combustible Gas Indicator; Explosimeter; Vapor Detector See also: Arson. Social Control: The use of sanctions and rewards available through a group to influence and shape the behavior of individual members of that group. Social control is a primary concern of social groups and communities, and it is the interest that human groups hold in the exercise of social control that leads to the creation of both criminal and civil statutes. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Social Disorganization: A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Sociopolitical Mystery; Social Order; Subculture of Violence Social Debt: A sentencing principle which objectively counts an offender's criminal history in sentencing decisions. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Social Ecology: An approach which focused on the misbehavior of lower-class youth and saw delinquency primarily as the result of social disorganization. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Social Justice: An ideal which embraces all aspects of civilized life and which is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Social Order: The condition of a society characterized by social integration, consensus, smooth functioning, and lack of interpersonal and institutional conflict. Also, a lack of social disorganization. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Social Order Advocate: One who suggests that, under certain circumstances involving criminal threats to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Social-Psychological School: A perspective on criminological thought which highlights the role played in crime causation by weakened self-esteem and meaningless social roles. Social-psychological thinkers stress the relationship of the individual to the social group as the underlying cause of behavior. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Sociopath: see Psychopath The Sociopolitical Mystery: "The protagnist tries to survive the explosion of social unrest, technological disaster, or political confrontation that are part of all our lives today." Considered a sub-type of the Whodunnit. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition See: Social Disorganization Characteristic Sociopolitical Mystery Authors: * Dorothy Salisbury Davis * Peter Driscoll * Jack Higgins * Chester Himes Soft-boiled:  The realism of the hard-boiled but tempered with optimism, and humor that is light. Lawrence Block’s Bernie Rhodenbarr (“Burglar”) novels exemplify this type, and provide a clear contrast to the hard-boiled Scudder. [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] See: Hard-boiled Software: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, such merchandise is purchased by 17% of romance readers when they're in a bookstore buying romance fiction. Authors also use word processing software to help produce their manuscripts. E-commerce software is also used by internet bookstores to sell books to romance readers. Software is also used by authors and their webmasters to create, post, and update their home pages on the internet. Soliloquy: {to be done} Source Control: The controlling of drug production prior to its distribution. Specific Deterrence: A goal of criminal sentencing which seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Career Criminal; Repeat Offender Speed: See: drugs; Crystallized Methamphetamine; Crystal Meth; Ice; See also: Amphetamine Speedy Trial: A trial which is held in a timely manner. The right of a defendant to have a prompt trial is guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution which reads, "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial.." [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Speedy Trial Act: A 1974 federal law requiring that proceedings in a criminal case against a defendant begin before passage of a specified period of time, such as 70 working days after indictment. Some states also have speedy trial requirements. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Split Sentence: A sentence explicitly requiring the convicted person to serve a period of confinement in a local, state, or federal facility followed by a period of probation. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] The Spy Mystery: "The efforts of a professional agent to cope with his opposite number and sometimes his own superiors, in a taut, cold-war situation." Considered a sub-type of the Novel of Pursuit by Boucher and Cassidy. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Spy Mystery Authors: * John Le Carre * Len Deighton * Ian Fleming Stakeout: A method of watching a location or person. Stanza: {to be done} Stare Decisis: The legal principle which requires that courts be bound by their own earlier decisions and by those of higher courts having jurisdiction over them regarding subsequent cases on similar issues of law and fact. The [Latin] term literally means "standing by decided matters." [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] State Action Doctrine: The traditional legal principle that only government officials or their representatives in the criminal justice process could be held accountable for the violation of an individual's constitutional civil rights. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] State Court Administrators: Coordinating personnel who assist with case flow management, budgeting of operating funds, and court docket administration. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] State Court Systems: State judicial structures. Most states have at least three court levels, generally referred to as (1) trial courts, (2) [state] appellate courts, and a (3) state supreme court. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] State Highway Patrol: A state law enforcement agency of which the principal functions consist of prevention, detection, and investigation of motor vehicle offenses, and the apprehension of traffic offenders. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] State Police: A state law enforcement agency whose principal functions usually include maintaining statewide police communications, aiding local police in criminal investigation, police training, and guarding state property; may also include highway patrol. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] State-use System: A form of inmate labor in which items produced by inmates are salable only by or to state offices. Items that only the state can sell include such things as license plates and hunting licenses, while items sold only to state offices include furniture and cleaning supplies. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Stationary or greeting cards: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, such merchandise is purchased by 39% of romance readers when they're in a bookstore buying romance fiction. Status Offender: A child who commits an act that is contrary to the law by virtue of the juvenile's status as a child. Purchasing cigarettes, buying alcohol, and truancy are examples of such behavior. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Status Offense: An act or conduct which is declared by statute to be an offense, but only when committed by or engaged in by a juvenile, and which can be adjudicated only by a juvenile court. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Statutory Law: Written or codified law. The "law on the books," as enacted by a governmental body or agency having the power to make laws. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Stay of Execution: The stopping by a court of the carrying out or implementation of a judgment, that is, of a court order previously issued. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Stimulant: see Cocaine; Drugs; Amphetamine Stock Characters: {to be done} Stock Response: {to be done} Stock Situations: {to be done} Stolen Property Offenses: The unlawful receiving, buying, distributing, selling, transporting, concealing, or possessing of the property of another by a person who knows that the property has been unlawfully obtained from the owner or other lawful possessor. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Theft Stop and Frisk: The detaining of a person by a law enforcement officer for the purpose of investigation, accompanied by a superficial examination by the officer of the person's body surface or clothing to discover weapons, contraband, or other objects relating to criminal activity. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Reasonable Suspicion Store Detective: A private detective who investigates pilferage and theft. See: Shrinkage Story: stories come in different lengths, including: short story, novella, novelette, novel. The Straight Mystery: "A perfectly straight novel of character analysis and character interplay that happens to concern a crime, usually murder.... The straight novel marketed as a mystery is still a true literary form after more than 20 years, belnding the familar characreristics that make it a mystery with good novelistic professionalism. Conversely, many mysteries are marketed as straight novels in order to get better market penetration among those readers who deny the category.... The idea seems to be that if you want a best-selling mystery novelist -- and who doesn't? -- write a mystery novel that isn't one." [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Straight Mystery Authors: * Nicholas Freeling * Matthew Head * Elisabeth Sanxay Holding * Frances Iles * Harry Kemelman * Georges Simenon * Julian Symons Strategic Policing: A style of policing which retains the traditional police goal of professional crime fighting, but enlarges the enforcement target to include nontraditional kinds of criminals such as serial offenders, gangs and criminal associations, drug distribution networks, and sophisticated white-collar and computer criminals. Strategic policing generally makes use of innovative enforcement techniques, including intelligence operations, undercover stings, electronic surveillance, and sophisticated forensic methods. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Stream of Consciousness: {to be done} Street Crime: A class of offenses, sometimes defined with some degree of formality as those which occur in public locations, are visible and assaultive, and thus constitute a group of crimes which are a special risk to the public and a special target of law enforcement preventive efforts and prosecutorial attention. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Streetfront or stand-alone bookstores: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, are the sites such as Barnes & Noble where 7% of romance readers purchase books. Strength of Character: #2 of the top 3 character traits that romance readers like to see in the heroines about whom they read (in 2002; was #3 in 1998), according to Romance Writers of America statistics. See also: intelligence, beauty, handsomeness, kindness, muscle bound, and attractiveness. Strickler v. Greene: Legal opinion which addresses the requirement of the state to reveal exculpatory evidence. Strict Liability: Liability without fault or intention. Strict liability offenses do not require mens rea. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Structure: {to be done} [Pauline Bloom, "How to Achieve Story Structure", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Structured Sentencing: A model of criminal punishment that includes determinate and commission-created presumptive sentencing schemes, as well as voluntary/ advisory sentencing guidelines. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Stumbling Blocks: {to be done} ["How Do You Handle Stumbling Blocks?", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Style: {to be done} [Aaron Marc Stein, "Style", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Subculture of Violence: A cultural setting in which violence is a traditional method of dispute resolution. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Violence; Violent Crime; Social Disorganization Subject: The person or location being surveilled. Subpoena: A written order issued by a judicial officer, prosecutor, defense attorney or grand jury, requiring a specific person to appear in a designated court at a specified time in order to testify in a case under the jurisdiction of that court or to bring material to be used as evidence to that court. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Duces Tecum Superglue Fuming: see also Basic Yellow 40; Fingerprint Substantive Criminal Law: That part of the law that defines crimes and specifies punishments. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Superpredators: members of a new generation of juveniles "who are coming of age in actual and 'moral poverty' without the benefits of parents, teachers, coaches and clergy to teach them right from wrong and show them 'unconditional love.'" The term is often applied to those inner-city youths who meet the criteria it sets forth. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Supervised Probation: Guidance, treatment, or regulation by a probation agency of the behavior of the person who is subject to adjudication or who has been convicted of an offense, resulting from a formal court order or a probation agency decision. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Surete: Police de Surete (Security Police), the French detective bureau. See: Eugene Vidocq Surveillance: The act of observing a person or location. Surveillant: The person conducting the surveillance. Suspect: An adult or juvenile considered by a criminal justice agency to be one who may have committed a specific criminal offense, but who has not been arrested or charged. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See also: Be On the Lookout; Cleared By Arrest Suspended Sentence: The court decision to delay imposing or executing a penalty for a specified or unspecified period, also called "sentence withheld." A court disposition of a convicted person pronouncing a penalty of a fine or commitment to confinement, but unconditionally discharging the defendant or holding execution of the penalty in abeyance upon good behavior. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Suspense: Tension again. Similar to thrillers, but the danger is more likely to be psychological than physical, based more on expectation or fear of harm than on frankly hazardous situations. In this type of story, the main character is normally an innocent caught up in danger –- think of North by Northwest. This is an area that may get blended with a touch of horror, which comes under the term "Gothic". [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] see Romance Subgenres [Richard Martin Stern, "Suspense", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Suspicionless Searches: Those searches conducted by law enforcement personnel without a warrant and without suspicion. Suspicionless searches are permissible only if based upon an overriding concern for public safety. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Swipeout: (noun) A magnetic striped card that has been rendered useless because the mag strip is worn away from extensive use. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Sworn Member: A member of the Chicago Police Department who takes an oath to support the constitution of the United States and Illinois. A sworn member has the authority to make arrests and carry firearms. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Symbol: {to be done} Symbolist Movement: {to be done} Synesthesia: {to be done} T

Definitions: T

Tactical Officer: A police officer who works in plain clothes and concentrates on vice and narcotics arrests. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] Tap and Trace: The method of identifying phone number locations. Tazirat Crimes: Minor violations of Islamic Law, which are regarded as offenses against society, not God. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Team Policing: The reorganization of conventional patrol strategies into "an integrated and versatile police team assigned to a fixed district." [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Television: {to be done} [William P. McGivern, "Writing for Television and Movies", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition TEMPEST: A standard developed by the U.S. government that requires that electromagnetic emanations from computers designated as "secure" be below levels that would allow radio receiving equipment to "read" the data being computed. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Temporary Headquarters: A temporary location used to provide support and command direction to investigators. Ten-One: An officer's radio call for emergency assistance. A ten-one call is a matter of the utmost urgency, and is responded to by any available unit which is nearby. Tender Age Youth/Juvenile: A person under the age of 13. [Chicago Police Department, unofficial] See: Juvenile, Minor, Youth Tension: {to be done} See: Thrillers Terrorism: (1) The use of terroristic actions to further political and religious ideologies. (2) [officially] A violent act or an act dangerous to human life in violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any state to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. See: Agroterrorism; Domestic Terrorism; Internationalism Terrorism E-mail Intercept Testimony: The oral information provided to the court by a sworn witness. Theft: Generally, any taking of the property of another with intent to deprive the rightful owner of possession permanently. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Cargo Theft Theories: Beliefs regarding the case based upon evidence, patterns, leads and tips. See: Theory Theory: A series of interrelated propositions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events. A theory gains explanatory power from inherent logical consistency and is "tested" by how well it describes and predicts reality. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Theories Thief Takers: Private citizens with no official status, paid for arresting criminals. The Third Degree: The use of brutality during interrogations. Thomas Byrnes: Commander of the Central Detective Office in New York City [1880] Three Unities: From Aristotle, the theory {to be done} Thriller: Plenty of action, accent on plot. Tension. Emphasis on placing the protagonist in dangerous circumstances -- usually physically dangerous. James Bond. Lawyers/defendants in the courtroom. Spies everywhere. Derring-do anywhere. Rather than solving a crime, the object may be to prevent one from happening to our hero or heroine. In this type of book, the main character is active, a professional. [Seattle Mystery Bookshop] See: Suspense see Romance Subgenres Tight Tail: "Following a person, must be undetected, a constant surveillance" -- also known as "Close Tail." See: Rough Tail Time Travel: see Romance Subgenres Timeline: A study of activity over a specified period of time. Tips: Information obtained from citizens regarding a crime. Tolerance: The body's ability to tolerate higher doses of drugs. Tone: see Atmosphere Tool: (noun) Something regarded as necessary to the carrying out of one's occupation or profession: Pretexts are the tools of our trade. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Toolmarks: see Firearms/Toolmarks Identification Tort: A private or civil wrong or injury. The "unlawful violation of a private legal right other than a mere breach of contract, express or implied." [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Total Institutions: Enclosed facilities, separated from society both socially and physically, where the inhabitants share all aspects of their lives on a daily basis. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Toxicology: see Drug Identification/Toxicology TPO: see Paperback Original Tracking Device: A device used to locate and track stolen vehicles. Trailers: Materials used to spread a fire. See: Arson Traits: for character traits, see: muscle bound, intelligence, beauty, handsomeness, kindness, Strength of Character, and attractiveness Trace Evidence: Examples of trace evidence could be hair, fibers, paint chips, glass fragments, etc. Trace evidence is often of such a minute nature that it can be easily cross-transfered from one surface to another without detection; therefore, the microscope is usually the first tool used in its examination and identification. Instrumental methods of analysis are generally the second phase of comparison associated with trace evidence. [Office of the Attorney General, State of California, Dept. of Justice] See: Evidence; Fingerprint; DNA/Serology Exchangeable Traces Tragedy: {to be done} Tragicomedy: form of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama which combined subjects and styles of Tragedy and Comedy. It interacted or compared Upper Class and Lower Class characters. It usually thrteatened disaster to the protagonist, but by some plot twist brought an unexpectedly happy ending. Transfer to Adult Court: The decision by a juvenile court, resulting from a transfer hearing, that jurisdiction over an alleged delinquent will be waived, and that he or she should be prosecuted as an adult in a criminal court. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Travel: see Romance Subgenres Travel Advisories: An advice by the government of countries not to visit. Travel Warnings: A warning by the government regarding dangerous situations affecting travelers. Treason: "A U.S. citizen's actions to help a foreign government overthrow, make war against, or seriously injure the United States." Also, the attempt to overthrow the government of the society of which one is a member. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Treatise: contrast Essay Trial: The examination in a court of the issues of fact and law in a case, for the purpose of reaching a judgment. In criminal proceedings, the examination in a court of the issues of fact and law in a case, for the purpose of reaching a judgment of conviction or acquittal of the defendant(s). [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Trial de novo: Literally, a new trial. The term is applied to cases that are retried on appeal, as opposed to those which are simply reviewed on the record. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Trial Judge: A judicial officer who is authorized to conduct jury and nonjury trials, and who may not be authorized to hear appellate cases, or the judicial officer who conducts a particular trial. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Trial Jury: A statutorily defined number of persons selected according to law and sworn to determine, in accordance with the law as instructed by the court, certain matters of fact based on evidence presented in a trial and to render a verdict. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Triangulation: A measurement method used to locate items of evidence within the crime scene. True Crime: {to be done} [William T. Brannon, "Writing the True Crime Story", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Truth in Sentencing: A close correspondence between the sentence imposed upon those sent to prison and the time actually served prior to prison release. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] U

Definitions: U

UCR: Abbreviation for the Federal Bureau of Investigation's "Uniform Crime Reporting" program. UDSL: The Uniform Determinate Sentencing Laws which established fixed terms for crimes and removed the element of judicial discretion from sentencing proceedings. U.S. Customs: A federal agency responsible for protecting the borders of the United States. Ultra Vires: Without authority. An act which is beyond the powers or authority of the person or organization which took it. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Ultraviolet Forensic Imaging: The use of ultraviolet lights to enhance details in photographs. Unconditional Release: The final release of an offender from the jurisdiction of a correctional agency; also, a final release from the jurisdiction of a court. Uncorrected Proof Copy: see Advance Reading Copy (ARC) Undercover: The investigation of criminal activity while posing as a participant. Undercover Buy: Purchasing drugs while posing as a drug offender. Undercover Investigations: see: Covert Operations Undisciplined Child: A child who is beyond parental control, as evidenced by their refusal to obey legitimate authorities such as school officials and teachers. United States v. Byron C. Mitchell: A 1999 court challenge of fingerprint technology claiming that fingerprints are not unique. Unwise: a hero who chases someone other than the herione, or a heroine who chases someone other than the hero. Usury: Excessive or illegal interest rate. Most countries now prohibit interest rates above a certain level; and rates which exceed these levels are called "usury". Utopia and Dystopia: see Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide V

Definitions: V

VICAP: Violent Criminal Apprehension Program VIN: Abbreviation for "vehicle identification number"; The unique number assigned to a vehicle by the manufacturer. See also: Confidential VIN Vagrancy: The name of the UCR category relating to being a suspicious character or person, including vagrancy, begging, loitering, and vagabondage. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Vagrant: homeless person, tramp. Vandalism: The name of the UCR category used to record and report arrests made for offenses of destroying or damaging, or attempting to destroy or damage, the property of another without his consent, or public property, except by burning. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Vapor Detector: Synonyms: Catalytic Combustion Detector; Combustible Gas Indicator; Explosimeter; Sniffer See also: Arson. Vendor: a person who sells. Venue: This has the same meaning as in everyday English except that in a legal context it usually refers specifically to the location of a judicial hearing. For example, if a criminal case has a very high media profile in a particular city, the "venue" may change to another city to ensure objective witnesses (i.e. that would not have been spoiled by media speculation on the crime). [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Venue: The particular geographical area in which a court may hear or try a case. Also, the locality within which a particular crime was committed. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See also Jurisdiction Vehicle: Car, truck, airplane... anything designed to transport persons or objects. A bicycle has been legally held to be a vehicle. See also: Be On the Lookout; Carjacking; Cargo Theft Commercial Vehicle Theft; Confidential VIN Vehicular Manslaughter: anyone who drives a vehicle and unintentionally but unlawfully kills another human being. Verdict: The decision of a jury. In criminal cases, this is usually expressed as "guilty" or "not guilty".In a civil case, the verdict would be a finding for the plaintiff or for the defendant. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Vicarious Liability: When a person is held responsible for the tort of another even though the person being held responsible may not have done anything wrong. This is often the case with employers who are held vicariously liable for the damages caused by their employees. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Victim: A person who has suffered death, physical or mental anguish, or loss of property as the result of an actual or attempted criminal offense committed by another person. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Victim Impact Statement: In felony cases, the probation department is required to compile a presentence report for the judge to use to impose sentence. This report usually includes a victim impact statement, which is prepared by the probation officer from conversation with the victim and includes the victim's view of the effects of the crime on the victim and the victim's family. Victimization: In National Crime Survey terminology, the harming of any single victim in a criminal incident. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Victorian: The period beginning as early as 1832 (passage of the first Reform Bill) or as late as 1837 (accession of Queen Victoria), and ending with the Queen's death in 1901. 1870 is the coventional division between Early Victorian and Late Victorian. From a literary standpoint, this was the age of Arnold, Samuel Butler, Carlyle, Dickens, George Eliot, Hardy, Meredith, Pater, Ruskin, Thackeray, and Trollope. See Periods of English Literature Videlice: Latin for "to wit" or "that is to say." "Viz.", which is the abbreviation of videlicet, is much more commonly used. It is often found in legal documents to advise that what follows provides more detail about a preceding general statement. For example: "The defendant committed adultery; viz., on April 15th, at approximately 10:30 pm, he had sexual intercourse with Ms Jane Doe." [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Eugene Vidocq: French criminal and informant who turned from the Dark Side to Law and Order, and then led the French Surete. Viewpoint: {to be done} [Eleanor Sullivan, "Deciding on Viewpoint", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition The Vigilante Mystery: "A whodunnit in which the 'who' is discovered early on, so that stress can be laid on the chase, capture, and subsequent punishment of the guilty, sometimes with sado-masochistic overtones, and generally with socio-political intent." Considered a sub-type of the Whodunnit. [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Vigilante Mystery Authors: * Brian Garfield * Joe Gores * Bill Pronzini Violation: (1) The performance of an act forbidden by a statute or the failure to perform an act commanded by a statute. (2) An act contrary to a local government ordinance. (3) An offense punishable by a fine or other penalty but not by incarceration. (4) An act prohibited by the terms and conditions of probation or parole. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Violent Crime: An offense category which, according to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), includes murder, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] See: Subculture of Violence Contrast: Property Crime Virgin: what the heroine always was, in older romance fiction, before she met her husband. Apparently not a requirement for men. Viz.: see Videlice Void, or Void Ab Initio: Not legally binding. A document that is void is useless and worthless; as if it did not exist.For example, in many countries, contracts for immoral purposes are said to be "void": unenforceable and not recognized by the courts. A good example is a contract to commit a serious crime such as murder. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Voir Dire: (1) A mini-hearing held during a trial on the admissibility of contested evidence. For example, a defendant may object to a plaintiff's witness. The court would suspend the trial, immediately preside over a hearing on the standing of the proposed witness, and then resume the trial with or without the witness, or with any restrictions placed on the testimony by the judge as a result of the voir dire ruling. In a jury trial, the jury would be excused during the voir dire. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] (2) There may be a Voir Dire before the trial, by which jurors are selected from the jury pool, during which the attorneys and judge may question the potential jurors, and exclude some based on their answers. See: Peremptory Challenge W

Definitions: W

Waiver: When a person disclaims or renounces to a right that they may have otherwise had. Waivers are not always in writing. Sometimes a person's actions can be interpreted as a waiver. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Wannabee: (noun) Someone who desires to be a professional (i.e. a licensed private detective) but who lacks the skills and/or IQ necessary to do the job. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Warden: The official in charge of operation of a prison, the chief administrator of a prison, or the prison superintendent. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Warehousing: An imprisonment strategy based upon the desire to prevent recurrent crime, but which has abandoned any hope of rehabilitation. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Warrant: In criminal proceedings, any of a number of writs issued by a judicial officer, which direct a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and afford him protection from damage if he performs it. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Watch: A police shift. The police workday is divided into three watches. The first watch begins at 11 pm or midnight; the second, at 7 or 8 am; and the third, at 3 or 4 pm. Watch Commander: A lieutenant or captain who directs all police activities within a district during a specific watch. Examples of the watch commander's duties include deploying patrol officers within the district, approving arrests, and checking the status of the lockup. Watchman: Any person regularly employed by a person whose duties and activities consist of patrolling, guarding or watching the property of his employer. (Ord. 3846, 7-21-94) [http://www.ci.lenexa.ks.us/codemaster/Title_2/9/D/1.html] Watchman Style: A style of policing that is marked by a concern for order maintenance. This style of policing is characteristic of lower-class communities where informal police intervention into the lives of residents is employed in the service of keeping the peace. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Watson: {to be done} [Janet Gregory Vermandel, "What to Do About a Watson", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Weapon: (noun) (1) An instrument of attack or defense in combat, as a gun, missile, or sword. (2)A means used to defend against or defeat another: is A.P. Duli Investigations' best weapon. [A.P. Duli Investigations] Weapons of Mass Destruction: Chemical substances, biological agents and nuclear materials used for destructive purposes. Weapons Offenses: Unlawful sale, distribution, manufacture, alteration, transportation, possession, or use or attempted sale, distribution, manufacture, alteration, transportation, possession, or use of a deadly or dangerous weapon or accessory. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Wedding: the essential ritual in which a man and a woman are transformed into a husband and a wife. See: ring. Wedlock: Being married; "matrimony." One often refers to illegitimate children as "born out of wedlock." Western: see Romance Subgenres When: {to be done} ["When and How Do You Write", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition White-collar Crime: Nonviolent crime for financial gain committed by means of deception by persons whose occupational status is entrepreneurial, professional, or semiprofessional and utilizing their special occupational skills and opportunities; also, nonviolent crime for financial gain utilizing deception and committed by anyone having special technical and professional knowledge of business and government, irrespective of the person's occupation. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Whodunnit: also spelled Whodunit; "A story whose plot is still the solution of a crime, with a surprise ending (in intent, at least) and usually with a detective, but with little stress on deductions or challenging the reader's wits and primary emphasis on the emotions and reactions of the characters. The Whodunnit had begun to break out of its strictures of style and content even by 1956, and Anthony Boucher included the 'informal whodunnit' as a sub-type. It is a fusion of the strict Whodunnit and the straight novel, with overtones of psuchological, sociological, and political problems replacing romance as the chief interest. During the intervening years the whodunnit has continued to proliferate at an amazing rate. Out of the basic form, new and important subtypes have emerged which use the apparatus of the whodunnit but shift the emphasis from crime solution to other interests. By far the most significant development in mystery publishing in the recent years is the growth of the mystery novel devoted to societal issues -- the 'sociopolitical' mystery novel. Its purpose is to explore global problems, race, the underprivileged, and the plight of man in an upside-down world. It is to the credit of the extremely adaptable whodunnit form that the 'sociopolitical' mystery accounts for the largest single sub-type today. The next largest is the 'police procedural' mystery, a slightly altered form of the old detective and country-house whodunnit. Here arte the nine sub-types of the durable old whodunnit..." a) the Sociopolitical Mystery b) the Private Eye Mystery c) the Psychological Mystery d) the Mechanistic Mystery e) the Vigilante Mystery f) the Caper Mystery g) the Camp Mystery h) the Period Mystery [Bruce Cassiday, "Into Something Rich and Strange", Mystery Writer's Handbook, Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition Characteristic Whodunnit Authors: * Mignon G. Eberhart * Craig Rice * Mary Roberts Rinehart Characteristic Informal Whodunnit Authors: * Ben Benson * William Campbell Gault * Lawrence Treat Wickersham Report: First national study of the U.S. Criminal Justice System. Widowed: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, 6% of romance readers are widowed (13% in 1998). Contrast: married, single, divorced. Wife: what the heroine wants to be, in conjunction with the proper husband, in most romance fiction. See: ring. Will West Case: The identification case that placed fingerprint technology above that of anthropometrics. Wiretap: (verb) Clandestine interception of an electronic (usually telephone) conversation. See: Bug Wire-tapping: An electronic surveillance device which secretly listens in and records conversations held over a phone line. It is usually only allowed with the permission of a judge and if it can be shown to be necessary for the solving of a serious crime. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] See: Bug Wit, Humor, and the Comic: Both "wit" and "humor" are now tahen to be sub-types of the "Comic" -- which in turn is any element in literature which is created to incite amusement or mirth in the reader. Critics describe three species of the Comic as follows: * Wit: originally designating inventiveness or intelligence, the word came to mean by the 16th to 17th centuries specifically literary ingenuity, and more specifically, the capability to brilliantly or surprisingly or paradoxically create phrases. Thus, "wit" became associated with what we now call Metaphysical Poetry. "False Wit" was the superficially dazzling. "True Wit" was defined by Alexander Pope as: "Nature to advantage dressed; what oft was thought, but ne'er so well expressed." Today, we mean deft, brief, and purposefully shoking in its comic surprise. * Repartee: a term adapted from Fencing, now used for a dialog where each person tries to beat the wittiness of the other. * Humor: evolved from the Theory of the Four Humors, through the eccentric comic characters in Elizabethan "Comedy of Humors", to be broader than the merely verbal, including how a character thinks, what he does, how he acts, or any incongruity between these and/or his speech. See also: Burlesque, Epigram, Euphuism Without Prejudice: A statements set onto a written document which qualifies the signatory as exempted from it's content to the extent that they may be interpreted as containing admissions or other interpretations which could later be used against the person signing; or as otherwise affecting any legal rights of the person signing. A lawyer will often send a letter "without prejudice" in case the letter makes admissions which could later prove inconvenient to the client. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Witness: The regular definition of this word is a person who perceives an event (by seeing, hearing, smelling or other sensory perception). The legal definition refers to the court-supervised recital of that sensory experience, in writing (deposition) or verbally (testimony). [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] see Expert Witness; Eyewitness Identification Women: according to Romance Writers of America statistics, 93% of all romance readers are women. Women's Fiction Novel: "a book that focuses on relationships, but not necessarily a love-story relationship. It may center on, for example, family relationships, or friendships, or a love relationship, or all three. A woman's novel does not have to have an emotionally satisfying ending resulting from a positive resolution to a central love story. It may have a "happy ending" based on events unrelated to a love story, a 'bittersweet ending,' or even a tragic ending." Contrast with "Romance." Word-of-mouth: a recommendation made directly to the reader by another person. According to Romance Writers of America statistics, is the #3 most important selling point for readers when deciding what book to buy. See also: description on the back cover, personal flip-through, author, price. Work Release: A prison program in which inmates are temporarily released into the community in order to meet job responsibilities. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Workhouse: A form of early imprisonment whose purpose it was to instill habits of industry in the idle. Synonym: Brideswell. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Workplace Violence: Physical misbehavior between coworkers, ranging from arguments to murder. Writ: An official court document, signed by a judge or bearing an official court seal, which commands the person to whom it is addressed, to do something specific. That "person" is typically either a sheriff (who may be instructed to seize property, for example) or a defendant (for whom the writ is the first notice of formal legal action. In these cases, the writ would command the person to answer the charges laid out in the suit, or else judgment may be made against them in their absence). [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Writ of Certiorari: A writ issued from an appellate court for the purpose of obtaining from a lower court the record of its proceedings in a particular case. In some states this writ is the mechanism for discretionary reviews. A request for review is made by petitioning for a writ of certiorari and granting of review is indicated by issuance of writ. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Writ of Habeas Corpus: In criminal proceedings, the writ that directs the person detaining a prisoner to bring him or her before a judicial officer to determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment. [Frank Schmalleger's Criminal Justice Series, Prentice Hall, 2001] Wrongful Death: An American tort law action which claims damages from any person who, through negligence or direct act or omission, caused the death of certain relatives (eg. spouse, children or parent). These actions are commenced under special "wrongful death" statutes because under the common law, there is no right of action for survivors for their own loss as a result of someone's death. The Canadian equivalent of the wrongful death legislation is generally known as the "fatal accidents act." In England, it is known as Lord Campbell's Act. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] X

Definitions: X

X-ray: not the proper way to look into someone's heart, in a romance. Y

Definitions: Y

Yellow Dog Contract: A name given in American labor law to contract of employment by which the employee agrees to forfeit their employment if they join a union during the period of employment. These types of contracts are now prohibited by American law. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Yes: the proper answer to The Question, if from the right person in a romance. Young Offender: Young persons who, in many states, are treated differently than adult criminals and are tried in special youth courts. In Canada, for example, criminal suspects between 12 and 17 inclusively are processed under the Young Offenders Act, which includes several provisions which reflect the rehabilitative nature of the legislation. [Lloyd Duhaime, "Duhaime's Law Dictionary", Duhaime Company, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada] Youth: A person under the age of 17, also referred to as a juvenile. See: Minor, Tender-Age Z

Definitions: Z

Zero: the chances of true happiness between the hero and anyone but the heroine, and vice versa. Zero Tolerance: {to be done}

References

: Books Useful to Mystery Writers
  1. Athens, L.H., Violent Criminal Acts and Actors [Cambridge, MA: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980]
  2. Attick, R.D., Victorian Studies in Scarlet, [New York: W.W. Norton, 1970]
  3. Bootzen, R.R. and Acocella, J.R., Abnormal Psychology: Current Perspectives, 3rd edition [New York: Random House, 1980]
  4. Brenner, John C., Forensic Science Glossary
  5. Brownmiller, S., Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1975]
  6. Brussel, J.A., Casebook of a Crime Psychiatrist, [New York: Bernard Geis, 1968]
  7. Buchanan, J., Society and Homicide in 13th Century England [Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 1977]
  8. Burgess, A.W. and Holmstrom, L.L, Rape: Crisis and Recovery [Bowie, MD: Brady, 1979]
  9. DeAndrea, William, Encyclopedia Mysteriosa [Prentice Hall, 1994]
  10. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States-1984 [Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 1985]
  11. Gerberth, Vernon J., Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics, Procedures, and Forensic Techniques [New York: Elsevier, 1983]
  12. Gonzales, Vance, Helpern & Umberger, Legal Medicine, Pathology and Toxicology
  13. Great Women Mystery Writers: Classic to Contemporary, Greenwood Press , 1994. Prepared by Ellen Fain and A. Isaac Pulver, Literature and Languages Division, 7/96.
  14. Guttmacher, M., The Mind of the Murderer [New York: Arno Press, 1973]
  15. Guttmacher, M.S., and Weihofen, Psychiatry and the Law [New York: Norton, 1952]
  16. Herrington, L.H., chairperson, Final Report of the President's Task Force on Victims of Crime [Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Report No. 82-24146, Washington, DC: The White House, 1982]
  17. Hirschi, T., Causes of Delinquency [Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969]
  18. Keys, E., The Michigan Murders [New York: Pocket Books, 1976]
  19. Lunde, D.T., Murder and Madness, [San Francisco: San Francisco Book Co., 1976]
  20. Bill McBride, A Pocket Guide to the Identification of First Editions, 6th Ed., $13.95
  21. Megargee, E., and Bohn, M.J., Jr., Classifying Criminal Offenders [Beverly Hills, Sage Publications, 1979]
  22. Mystery Writer's Handbook [Cincinnati, Ohio: Writers Digest, 1975] revised edition
  23. O'Hara & Osterburg, Introduction to Criminalistics
  24. Oleksiw, Susan, A Reader's Guide to the Classic British Mystery [G. K. Hall, 1988]
  25. Palmer, S., A Study of Murder [New York: Thomas Crowell, 1960]
  26. Rada, R.T., Clinical Asp[ects of the Rapist [New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1978]
  27. Reinhardt, J.M., Sex Perversions and Sex Crimes: a Psychocultural Examination of the Causes, Nature and Criminal Manifestations of Sex Perversions, Police Science Series [Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1975]
  28. Report of the Attorney General's Task Force on Violent Crime [Washington, DC: 1981]
  29. Robert K. Ressler, Ann W. Burgess, John E. Douglas, Sexual Homicide: Patterns and Motices, [New York: Free Press, 1995]
  30. Rosenberg, Betty, Genreflecting: A Guide to Reading Interests in Genre Fiction, Libraries Unlimited, 1991
  31. Samenow, S.E., Inside the Criminal Mind [New York: Time Books, 1984]
  32. Schafer, S., The Victim and His Criminal
  33. [New York: Random House, 1968]
  34. Soderman & O'Connell, Modern Criminal Investigation
  35. Strauss, M.A., and Baron, L., Sexual Stratification, Pornography, and Rape [Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, 1983]
  36. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Patterns of Murders Committed By One Person, in Large Numbers with No Apparent Rhyme, Reason, or Motivations. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, 98th Congress, 1st Session, June 1983, Serial No. J-98-52 [Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983]
  37. U.S. Department of Justice, Uniform Crime Reports [Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986]
  38. von Hentig, H., The Criminal and His Victim, [New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1948]
  39. Wille, W., Citizens Who Commit Murder [St.Louis, Warren Greene, 1974]
  40. Willmer, M., Crime and Information Theory, [Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 1970]
  41. Wilson, James Q., Thinking About Crime [New York: Basic Books, 1975]
  42. Wolfgang, M.E. and Ferracuti, F., The Subculture of Violence: Towards an Integrated Theory in Criminology, 2nd edition, [Beverly Hills, Sage Publications, 1982]
  43. Yochelson, S., and Samenow, S.E., The Criminal Personality: the Change Process [New York: Jason Aronson, 1976]
  44. xxx

Articles Useful to Mystery Writers:

  1. Becker, J.V., and Abel, G.G., "Men and the Victimization of Women", in J.R. Chapman and M.R. Gates, editors, Victimization of Women [Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1978]
  2. Brittain, R.P., "The Sadistic Murderer", Medical Science and the Law, 1970, 10:198-207
  3. Bromberg, W., and Coyle, E., "Rape! A Compulsion to Destroy", Medical Insight, April 1974
  4. Casey-Owens, M., The Anonymous Letter Writer: A Psychological Profile?, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 1984, 29:816-19
  5. Constantino, J.P., Kuller, et.a., "An Epidemiologic Study of Homicides in Alleghany County, Pennsylvania", American Journal of Epidemiology, 1977, 106:314-24
  6. "Crime Scene and Profile Characteristics of Organized and Disorganized Mureders", FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, vol.54, no.8, Aug 1985, 18-25
  7. Frazier, S.H., "Murder -- Single and Multiple Aggression", Aggression, 1974, 52: 304-12
  8. Geberth, V.J., "Psychological Profiling", Law and Order, 1981, 46-49
  9. Hazelwood, R.R. and Douglas, J.E., "The Lust Murderer", FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, April 1980, 18-22.
  10. Holmes, R.M. and DeBurger, J.E., "Profiles in Terror: the Serial Murderer", Federal Probation, vol.49, 1985, 29-34
  11. MacCulloch, M.J., Snowdion, P.R., Wood, P.J.W., and Mills, H.E., "Sadistic fantasy, sadistic behaviors and offending", British Journal of Psychiatry, 1983, 143, 20-29
  12. Pynos, R.S. and Eth, S., "Children Traumatized by Witnessing Acts of Personal Violence: Homicide, Rape, or Suicidal Behavior", in Pynos, R.S. and Eth, S., eds., Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Children [Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1985, 17-44]
  13. Revitch, E., "Sex Murderer and the Potential Sex Murderer", Disease Nervous System, 1965, 26:6-11
  14. Rider, A.O., "The Firesetter: a Psychological Profile, Part 1", FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, vol.49, pp.1-23, 1980
  15. Rizzo, N.D., "Murder in Boston: Killers and Their Victims", International Journal of Offender Therapy an Comparitive Criminology, 1982
  16. Schlesinger, L.B., and Revitch, E., "The Criminal Fantasy Technique: A Comparison of Sex Offenders and Substance Abusers", Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37:210-218, 1980
  17. Simon, R.E., "Type A, AB, B Murderers", Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 1977, 5:344-62
  18. Tanay, E. Psychiatric Aspects of Homicide Prevention, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1972, 128:49-52
  19. Terr, L., Children of Chowchilla: A Study of Psychic Trauma, Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1979, 34:547-623
  20. Vorpagel, R.R., "Painting Pschological Profiles: Charlatanism, Charisma, or a New Science?", The Police Chief, 1982:156-59
  21. xxx



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