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Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
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Updated 28 April 2000: Poland
Updated 3 June 1998: science fiction films of many countries
Updated 13 May 1998
Updated 9 and 16 April 1998
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

KOREA KUWAIT LATVIA LIECHTENSTEIN LITHUANIA LUXEMBOURG MALAYSIA MALDIVES MALTA MEXICO NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND NORTHERN IRELAND NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL
Next: Countries R - Z
Major Update of 9 April 1998: Lithuania, Poland Minor Updates of 5 March and 9 and 16 April 1998: Korea Major Updates of 17 November 1997 and 4 March 1997: Portugal For further information, see: "Bibliography of Science Fiction and Fantasy" by Sam J. Lundwall, 1964, which I believe has been updated in at least three editions. He also provided important information in "Science Fiction: fran begynnelsen till vara dagar", commissioned by Radio Sweden, and published in 1969. The English translation is "Science Fiction: What It's All About", Sam J. Lundwall, New York: Ace, 1971. "Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction", Brian W. Aldiss, (New York: Doubleday, 1973; Schocken Paperback, 1974) "Asimov on Science Fiction" (New York: Avon, 1981)

KOREA

I don't know anything about Science Fiction in Korea, except for two writers: H. B. Drake, full name Henry Burgess Drake (1894-1963): British author and teacher of English in Japan, China, and Korea: * The Remedy [1925; US: 1928 as "The Shadowy Thing"] * "Yak Mool San" [1949] short story about Korean monster/ghost * Chinese White [1950] * Hush-A-Bye Baby [1952] ghosts of twins who died in miscarriage * The Book of Lyonne [1952] illustrated by Mervyn Peake (according to "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy", John Clute & John Grant, St.Martin's, 1997, p.296) Sharman Horwood: Associate Member of Science Fiction Writers of America Foreign Language Training and Research Center Hankuk University, Foreign Studies Seoul, South Korea e-mail Sharman Horwood Sharman Horwood writes as follows: "Tracking the faint trail of fantasy and science fiction in Korea is a bit like being in a science fiction novel itself, or more to the point, like a believer who's trying to find the latest UFO trail only to discover it's vanished without a trace." "Even though Korea has a very strong and rich folklore tradition, both fantasy and science fiction in movies or literature are relegated to juvenile obsessions, and therefore insignificant. When I talk about it with my students, I quickly face what I call the excessive-patience-of strange-foreigners looks. If I talk about Korean folktales, especially the ones that begin with "A long, long time ago when tigers used to smoke . . .," the Korean equivalent of "Once upon a time . . .," they laugh and become interested, but again, these stories are regarded as children's fairy tales at best." "I once heard of a graduate student at one women's university who was doing her degree in fantasy literature. She complained that she was having to invent terms and phrases for herself (and she didn't speak English to be able to read our reference books on the subject). I offered to meet with her and an interpreter to help, but she couldn't be found. Even the graduate department couldn't tell me because there were too many graduate students to search through and find the right name." "Most bookstores don't have a science fiction section. In the English section of one store there are a few Asimov, Tolkien, Clarke, and the omnipresent Stephen King novels, but little else. I also saw in the Korean section a display of science fiction novels translated into Korean. This was surrounded three deep in teenage boys, but the display has since disappeared." "Nowadays, I simply expect the polite but uncommunicative faces when I bring up the subject. I get frustrated with tolerance and patience of my enthusiasms, I'm afraid. But I'm hoping I will somehow, someway, find the footprints of a small, but interested science fiction and fantasy audience before they fast fade away." I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Korea. Won't somebody who knows something e-mail an entry to put here? South Korea, by the way, is one of the 15 countries that accesses the Magic Dragon web domain roughly once a week on the average. South Korea first "hit" this domain in April 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

KUWAIT

I don't know anything about Science Fiction in Kuwait. I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Kuwait. Won't somebody who knows something e-mail an entry to put here? Kuwait, by the way, is one of the 45 countries that accesses the Magic Dragon web domain occasionally, but less than once a week on the average. Kuwait first "hit" this domain in May 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

LATVIA

I don't know anything about Science Fiction in Latvia. I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Latvia. Won't somebody who knows something e-mail an entry to put here? Latvia, by the way, is one of the 45 countries that accesses the Magic Dragon web domain occasionally, but less than once a week on the average. Latvia first "hit" this domain in July 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

LIECHTENSTEIN

I don't know anything about Science Fiction in Liechtenstein. I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Liechtenstein. Won't somebody who knows something e-mail an entry to put here? Liechtenstein, by the way, is one of the 45 countries that accesses the Magic Dragon web domain occasionally, but less than once a week on the average. Liechtenstein first "hit" this domain in December 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

LITHUANIA

I don't know anything about Science Fiction in Lithuania, other than that the great author and editor Algis Budrys was a citizen of Lithuania who became a naturalized American citizen in 1996. Algis Budrys father was the exiled Consul to America from the Lithuanian government in exile after the Red Army occupied the country in 1940. John Clute and John Grant, in "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy" [New York: St.Martin's Press, 1998, pp.584-585] suggest that when Lithuania was under the heavy-handed control of the U.S.S.R., fiction was compelled by censorship to be Realist, Hard (i.e. Materialist) Science Fiction, or Utopian. Clute & Grant are the primary source for much of the following. Before that era of Marxist dogma, and shortly before it crumbled, there were elements of Fantasy and Science Fiction as follows. * Ricardas Gavelis * Jurga Ivanauskaite * Romualdas Kalonaitis * Saulius Tomas Kondrotas * Loreta Latonaite * Anelius Markevicius * Kazys Paulaskas * Mindaugas Peleckis * Justas Piliponis * The Brothers Tomdykas * Vydunas Ricardas Gavelis (1950-): * Zvaigzdziu Kvepejimas [1982] "Astral Scents" King Belerofontas defeats a mythological Chimera, but it comes back to life and chases him forever * Vilniaus Pokeris [1989] "Poker -- Vilnius Style" three people are reincarnated as a dove, tree, and dog and have a new view of human foibles Jurga Ivanauskaite (1961-): surrealist/Twilight Zone-ish Fantasy: * Apie tai, kaip... [1985] "How Abot This...?" sudden telepathy [as in famous Twilight Zone episode] * Regejimai geltonoje sviesoje [1985] "Yellow Illumination Spectacles" Naked Japanese woman with no shadow is, to some people but not others, Invisible * Labai nemalonus atsitikimas [1985] "Quite Nasty Accident" 3-D human transforms into 2-D photograph * Diena, kurios nebuvo [1985] "The Day That Never Was" girl inexplicably sprouts wings * Kada ateis Godo? [1985] "when will Godo get here?" science fictional treatment of "Waiting for Godot" * Koncertas Nr.1 [1985] "Concert No.1", the future is scary * Pakalnuciu metai [1985] "Time of the Lilies" flower-children and hippies Romualdas Kalonaitis (1941-): drew on legend and computer games in: * Saunusis ketvertukas prasmegusioje pilyje [1988] "The Courageous Four in the Missing Castle" -- Lake Plateliai is the setting of a legendary castle that disappeared; now four youngsters swim to a lake island and enter a vast maze requiring logico-mathematical puzzles to be solved to allow them to leave Saulius Tomas Kondrotas (1953-): * Kentauro herbo gimine [1978] "Centaur Symbol Family" adulturous duke and duchess turn to lizards whom their son in a Oedipal/Hamlet manner sets out to kill * Ruke mano siela [1977] "My Soul in the Mist" youngster can run as fast as an automobile (like "The Flash" in American comic books, or "Forrest Gump") but that causes a car crash * Vejas [1977] "Wind" -- wind blows outwards from a girl, compare to the Greek myth of Aeolus and Greg Bear's "Wind from a Burning Woman" * Kolekcionierius [1976] "Collector" man puts sunsets in collection * Ir apsiniauks zvelgiantys pro langa [1985] "Frowning Window-Lookers" tale of alternate reality narrated by a deceased protagonist Loreta Latonaite (1934-): * Paskutinysis faraono Cheopso paslapties saugotojas [1983] "Mystery of Pharaoh Cheops' Last Guard" protagonist falls under a curse from ancient Egyptian gods * Prisiminimu ezeras [1983] "Reminiscience Lake" genre: THERE AND BACK AGAIN: leave our world for a more magical one * Akmens asaros [1990] "Stone Tears" living creatures in or of rock Anelius Markevicius (1923-): several Deals-With-The-Devil stories: * Vienaragio isdaigos [1982] "Tricks of the Unicorn" genre: Unicorns * Triragio Pinkles [1988] "Triple-Horn's Plots" Kazys Paulaskas (1951?-): * Laukesos aitvaras [1983] UFOs explained as from Little People (brownies of Lithuanian folktales) Mindaugas Peleckis (1977-): mainly a fantasy author, sometimes ventures into science fictional adventures * Svarbiausias [1990] "The Primary Discovery" Kids wake up on the Neon Robot Planet Justas Piliponis (1907-1947): adventure novels set in exotic locales which, although presented as geographically real, were Fantasy, in the sense of H. Rider Haggard and Edgar Rice Burroughs: * Kunigaiksis be praeities [1936] "Knight Without A Past" * Amzinas zydas Kaunce [1934] "the Wandering Jew in Kaunas" The Brothers Tomdykas, pseudonym for Alfonsas Buzcikas (1906?-) and Jonas Buzcikas (1912?-): * Meiles prakeiktos sielos [1934] "Damned Souls in Love", resurrection story in which those purportedly resurrected actually find themselves in Hell Vydunas, pseudonym of Vilhelmas Storosota (1868-1953): novels which intermixed Mystery and Fantasy symbolic genres, including: * Amzinoji ugnis [1913] "perpetual fire" * Ragana [1918] "Witch" * Juros varpai [1920] "Sea-Bells" The outstanding Science Fiction/Fantasy painter in Lithuania was: Mykalojus Konstantinas (1875-1911): orchestral composer and artist with broad popular appeal, with musical works and paintings based on fairy Tales and Astrological/Astronomical landscapes and themes Won't somebody who knows something more e-mail an entry to put here? I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Lithuania. Lithuania, by the way, is one of the 45 countries that accesses the Magic Dragon web domain occasionally, but less than once a week on the average. Lithuania first "hit" this domain in July 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

LUXEMBOURG

I don't know anything about Science Fiction in Luxembourg, other than that is where Hugo Gernsback came from. Hugo Gernsback, born in Luxembourg in 1884, emigrated to the USA in 1904, got deeply involved in radio and then in magazine publishing, and is widely considered "the father of American Science Fiction" through his vigorous editorship of various magazines, including "Amazing Stories" (founded April 1926) and his advocacy of the field. The "Hugo Awards" are named after him. I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Luxembourg. Won't somebody who knows something more e-mail an entry to put here? Luxembourg, by the way, is one of the 45 countries that accesses the Magic Dragon web domain occasionally, but less than once a week on the average. Luxembourg first "hit" this domain in June 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

MALAYSIA

I don't know anything about Science Fiction in Malaysia. Malaysia, on the other hand, is a very futuristic country. Kuala Lumpur is just now completing construction of the world's tallest building, and initiating construction of the world's largest airport. In between these two mega-projects, the President of Malaysia has made a commitment to building "Multimedia Strip" -- intended to be the world capital of the Internet, CD-ROM, DVD, computer game universe. A total of $20,000,000,000 has been allocated to these projects. In addition, Malaysia intends to be so fully computerized as to have a "paperless government" by the year 2000. Very much like a science fiction story! I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Malaysia. Won't somebody who knows something e-mail an entry to put here? Malaysia, by the way, is one of the 16 countries that accesses the Magic Dragon web domain every day, or very nearly every day. Malaysia first "hit" this domain in June 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

MALDIVES

I don't know anything about Science Fiction in the Maldives. I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Maldives. Won't somebody who knows something e-mail an entry to put here? Maldives, by the way, is one of the 45 countries that accesses the Magic Dragon web domain occasionally, but less than once a week on the average. Maldives first "hit" this domain in October 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

MALTA

I don't know anything about Science Fiction in Malta. I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Malta. Won't somebody who knows something e-mail an entry to put here? Malta, by the way, is one of the 45 countries that accesses the Magic Dragon web domain occasionally, but less than once a week on the average. Malta first "hit" this domain in May 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

MEXICO

There's a remarkable article by Professor Miguel Angel Fernandez-Delgado (a lawyer/historian/author in Mexico City) entitled " A Moon Voyage Inside an Astronomical Almanac in Eighteenth-Century Mexico." Published in The New York Review of Science Fiction, Vol.9, No.1, September 1996, pp.17-18. It strongly makes the case that Manuel Antonio de Rivas, a Fransiscan friar in Yucatan, wrote and published a science fiction story as a preface to his astronomical atlas of 1775. This story, about a Frenchman named Onesimo Dutalon flying to the moon in some sort of machine, meeting with intelligent "Anctitones" (moon-men). The story also includes space demons carrying souls to a hell inside the sun. The result? Friar Rivas was charged with heresy, but granted mercy and set free. It seems fair, therefore, to declare Manuel Antonio de Rivas to be the father of Mexican Science Fiction! Mexican science fiction seems to me to be schizoid, torn between the very popular comic book tradition and the highly intellectualized criticism of Octavio Paz and his colleagues. As one Mexican president has said (in another context) "Alas, Mexico! So far from God, so close to the United States." And yet Mexico has a vibrant world-class literature, with science fiction being caught up in the flood stream of Magical Realism. Mexico is a film and television powerhouse, with an uneasy connection to American media. For many years in Hollywood, Mexican versions of American films were made on the same sets as the American films. In at least one case (Dracula) the Mexican version is said to be superior. I know of seventeen science fiction films shot on location in Mexico: * Alien Terminator (1995) * The Arrival (1996) * The Beast of Hollow Mountain (1956) also known as La Bestia de la Montana also known as El Monstruo de la Montana Hueca * The Black Scorpion (1957) * Caged Heat 3000 (1995) * Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977) * Contact (1997) * Dune (1984): According to "The Making of Dune", the shooting was done in a garbage dump outside of Mexico City, a decision by the Producers which had negative health impacts on the cast and crew * Earth 2 (1994) TV * Earth Versus the Spider (1958) also known as The Spider * The Incredible Invasion (1968) also known as La Invasion Siniestra also known as Alien Terror also known as The Sinister Invasion * Journey to the Center of the Earth (1959) * The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976) with a remarkable performance by David Bowie * Predator (1987) * Tank Girl (1995) which was better as a comic book * Total Recall (1990) establishing the equation Mexico = Mars ? * The Two Way Mirror (1990) Won't someone who has expertise in Mexican science fiction and fantasy film and telenovellas please e-mail me with more information? Mexico City has a good shot at being the largest city in the world within this decade, a source of both utopian and dystopian speculation. The split between rich and poor, with a techno-elite and a midle class being squeezed out by economic policy dictated from Washington and New York makes a Cyberpunk future seem to be present right now. Magazines have included: * Antologia de Cuentos Fantasticos * Ciencia y Fantasia * Enigmas * Fantasias del Futuro * Los Cuentos Fantasticos UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

NETHERLANDS

My bias is that I so much enjoyed visiting the Netherlands for the World Science Fiction Convention at the Hague. In my all-too-few days in Holland, I saw a genuinely civilized country, so much so that I felt, upon returning to America, that I was stepping out of a utopia into a violent, dirty, irrational, and schismatic dystopia. Also, I had ancestors living in Amsterdam, so that when I opened the telephone directory, I found a whole page of "Post" (pronounced "Poost") and a whole page of "Vos." An important reference book on the science fiction of the Netherlands is: "100 Jaar SF in Nederland" by D. Scheepstra, (Harlingen: self-published, 1968) D. Burger made the international scene with "Sphereland" Other authors of note include: * Hans van Assumburg * Koert de Haan * Edward Multon Magazines include: * Fantasie en Weyenschap * Planeet Science Fiction * Space Fiction I know of one fiction film shot on location in the Netherlands: * Diamonds are Forever (1971) yet I strongly suspect that there must be more. Indeed, the Internet Movie Data Base lists 4 more science fiction films/TV series: * 2040: Possibilities by Edward de Bono (1995) * Blokkade (1934) * Habitat (1997) * Insekt, Het (1989) (TV) The story "Pairpuppets" by Manuel Van Loggem, translated by the author, appears (pp.278-285) in "The World Treasury of Science Fiction", edited by David G. Hartwell, Boston: Little Brown, 1989 (and released by Book of the Month Club). Hartwell comments "Translated by its author from the Dutch, this story deals with one of the grand themes of modern SF, the future of love.... 'Pairpuppets' is notably a plotted story, in the manner of, say, Robert Sheckley, influenced by by and written in imitation of American SF. Dutch SF has developed in recent decades in constant reference to American SF and only under the influence of translations of the contemporary flowering of SF in English." The story "The Lens" by Annemarie Van Ewyck, translated by the author, appears (pp.545-553) in "The World Treasury of Science Fiction", edited by David G. Hartwell, Boston: Little Brown, 1989 (and released by Book of the Month Club). Hartwell comments "It is interesting to contrast Van Ewyck's story with Van Loggem's [see above]; while the latter reflects the mood, tone, and concerns of primarily 1950s American SF, 'The Lens' seems more in tune with Anglo-American post-New Wave works. It is darker, more heterogeneous in its influences (here a touch of [Ray] Bradbury or [Roger] Zelazny, there a touch of [James] Tiptree or [Theodore] Sturgeon). And 'The Lens,' translated from the Dutch by its author, is told in the first person rather than in the conventional third. The author is an active member of World SF, an international body, and she is a participant in fan activities internationally. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand has had its own Science Fiction tradition both helped and hurt by a flood of British and American imports. My sister-in-law lives in New Zealand (Otago) and I look forward to visiting this futuristic, beautiful, and sophisticated -- albeit highly isolated -- country. Other authors whom I respect, including Robert Heinlein and David Brin have set scenes and novels in New Zealand. Bee Baldwin made an international splash with "The Red Dust", S. Butler (a noted utopian novelist) lived in New Zealand for many years, and Thomas Cockcroft is a widely-admired weird fiction bibliographer. I know of three fiction films shot on location in New Zealand: * The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) * The Quite Earth (1985) a surrealistic film of an experiment gone awry which seems to have made verybody in the world vanish, except for one scientist. The Last Man on Earth eventually discovers what he takes to be The Last Woman on Earth, and thgen a few more folks are located, who must cope with jealousy and other powerful emotions to attempt to undo the experiment. The final shot, of something like a giant Saturn in a colored sky, still puzzles me, but I did enjoy this film. Produced by: Mr. Yellowbeard Productions Limited & Company Director: Geoff Murphy Screenplay: Bill Baer, Bruno Lawrence, Sam Pillsbury From: the novel by Craig Harrison Cast includes: Zac Hobson -- Bruno Lawrence Joanne -- Alison Routledge Api -- Peter Smith Api's Mate -- Anzac Perrin -- Norman Fletcher Scientist -- Tom Hyde * Space Nuns (1995) The Internet Movie Database list 9 science fiction films/TV series of New Zealand: * "Mirror, Mirror II"(1997) (mini)TV Series * "Mirror, Mirror" (1995) (mini)TV Series ...aka "Mirror Mirror" (1995) (mini) * "Mysterious Island" (1995)TV Series * Boy From Andromeda, The (1991) (TV) * Lord of the Rings, The (1998) * Navigator: A Mediaeval Odyssey, The (1988) ...aka Navigator, The (1988) * Quiet Earth, The (1985) * Space Nuns (1995) * Warlords of the 21st Century (1982) ...aka Battletruck (1982) (US title) Television shooting in New Zealand has included: * Ray Bradbury Theatre * Xena: Warrior Princess UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

NORTHERN IRELAND

One Northern Irish member of Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America: James White UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

NORWAY

The Norse Eddas are a body of what we would today call epic fantasy/SF poetry, and had a profound impact on English and world literature. J. R. R. Tolkien, for example, claimed the Norse Eddas to be his primary inspiration. e-mail R. Nybo points out that author Ludvig Holberg is to be regarded as Danish-Norwegian (or Norwegian-Danish they might say in Denmark) as he was born in Norway but got his education in Denmark. (Denmark and Norway were in union and there were no universities in Norway. Danish was the official language.) Modern authors include: * Jon Bing, a leader of the "New Wave" in Norway * Tor Age Bringsvaerd, author/playwright/anthologist * Axel Jensen, "Epp" won the Woursell European Literature Award for 1966 One Norwegian member of Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America: * Liv Margareth Alver e-mail Liv Margareth Alver I know of two science fiction films shot on location in Norway: * The Empire Strikes Back (1980) * Last Border -- viimiesella rajalla (1993) also known as The Last Border The Internet Movie Database lists 4 science fiction films/TV series of Norway: * "Blindpassasjer" (1979) (mini)TV Series * "Ta den ring" (1982) (mini)TV Series * Jakten på nyresteinen(1996) * Sweetwater (1988) The story "Codemus" by Tor Age Bringsvaerd, translated by Steven T. Marray, appears (pp.769-781) in "The World Treasury of Science Fiction", edited by David G. Hartwell, Boston: Little Brown, 1989 (and released by Book of the Month Club). Hartwell comments "Tor Age Bringsvaerd, with his friend and collaborator Jon Bing, is credited with creating the current spate of SF in Norway. Since the 1940s, magazines with translations from English-language SF have appeared in Scandanavia, but they inspired only an audience, not an indigenous group of writers. "Then, in the late 1960s, Jannick Storm in Denmark, followed by Bing and Bringsvaerd in Norway and Sam J. Lundwall in Sweden, sparked a renaissance of SF in Scandanavia with new translations, a publishing boom, and the encouragement of Scandanavian authors through story contests and anthologies. "Bringsvaerd, an important contemporary Norwegian writer, has published more than twenty works of nonfiction, drama, children's stories, novels and short fiction. "'Codemus,' written in 1967, shows the strong influence of the British New Wave. At that time New Wave writers tended to number their paragraphs, as [J. G.] Ballard often did. 'Codemus' reverses a conventional 1960s plot; it is a mirror image of the repressive future society run by computers with everyman as the central character. As with most non-English-language science fiction, there is nothing distincyively Scandanavian in the setting. This is a boon to international communication at the outset, but it also means that Scandanavian SF has developed no distinctive traditions over its twenty-year history." UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

POLAND

News flash! 3 October 1996: POLISH FANTASY POET WINS NOBEL PRIZE! Wislawa Szymborska, a literary and political intellectual much beloved as the most popular poet in Poland, won the Nobel Prize in Literature on 3 October 1996. Although Czeslaw Milosz, Zbigniew Herbert, and Tadeusz Rozewicz are better known overseas, and have also been considered to be Nobel contenders, Wislawa Szymborska is closer to the hearts of many Poles, who regard her as a peoples' poet. One can argue that she is the SECOND Polish science fiction/fantasy author to win a Nobel prize, the first being W. St.Reymont, a Nobel Laureate who also wrote a vampire novel. But is Wislawa Szymborska really a Science Fiction or Fantasy poet as well? Read these examples below, and judge for yourself. ********************************** IN PRAISE OF FEELING BAD ABOUT YOURSELF by Wislawa Szymborska The buzzard never says it is to blame.... When the piranha strikes, it feels no shame.... Why should they when they know they're right? ... ON THIS THIRD PLANET OF THE SUN a clear conscience is Number One. ********************************** IN PRAISE OF DREAMS by Wislawa Szymborska In my dreams I paint like Vermeer van Delft. I speak fluent Greek and not only with the living. I drive a car that does what I say. I am talented, I write epic poems. I hear voices no less often than saints do. You would be amazed at my skill in piano playing. I fly properly all by myself. Sliding off the roof I fall onto soft grass. I do not find it hard to breathe underwater. I cannot complain: I DISCOVERED ATLANTIS. It's a relief to wake up just before dying. I turn sideways comfortably when wars break out. I am, but am not forced to be, a child of this age. SOME YEARS AGO, I SAW TWO SUNS. And the day before yesterday a penguin. I saw it quite clearly. -- from "Views With a Grain of Sand" translated from Polish by Stanislaw Baranczak and Clare Cavanagh, copyright Harcourt Brace & Co. ********************************** Nobody can write about Science Fiction in Poland without mentioning Stanislaw Lem. Lem bestrides Polish SF like a colossus, and his works are translated into many languages. "Solaris" {hotlink to be done} was made into a very fine film by Tarkovski, distributed world-wide. Stanislaw Lem, interestingly enough, was friends as a young man with the priest who became the current Pope. Oh, to have been a fly on the wall of the taverns where they drank beer and debated metaphysics! Lem made some injudicious critical writings in English which essentially dismissed all English-language science fiction since H. G. Wells as philosophically uninteresting. This resulted in the epic tempest in a teapot of expelling him from Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America, the only such expulsion fo which I know, which calls into question the American commitment to Free Speech. But I digress... Julian Kawalec: Dark Fantasist; Locus/Contento lists: Short Fiction: * "I Kill Myself" [The Modern Polish Mind, ed. Maria Kuncewicz, Little Brown, 1962; Countdown to Midnight, ed. H. Bruce Franklin, DAW, 1984] Other notable writers include: * Jaroslaw Grzedowicz (1965): * "Twierdza trzech studni" [1982] "The Three-Wells Keep" popular Fantasy story (according to John Clute and John Grant, "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy" [New York: St.Martin's Press, 1998, pp.770-772]) * Zofia Kossak-Szcczucka (1890-1968): * Krzyzowcy [1935] "The Crusaders", epic novel of the Crusades in which Islamic science/magic battles Slavic magic for the conquest of Jerusalem, and an exotic/alien Islamic culture is dangerously seductive for Christian knights (according to John Clute and John Grant, "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy" [New York: St.Martin's Press, 1998, pp.770-772]) * Zygmunt Krasinski (1812-1859): politically-tinged Fantasy * Irydion [1836] the demon Massynissa helps the Greek hero Iridion in open rebellion against a corrupt Roman Empire, but is stopped by a Bishop who puts him to sleep magically for several centuries, at which point he arises and leads Poland to freedom (according to John Clute and John Grant, "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy" [New York: St.Martin's Press, 1998, pp.770-772]) * Feliks W. Kres, pseudonym of Witold Chmielecki (1966-): * Prawo sepow [1991] "Vultures' Reign" linked collection of stories * Krol bezmiarow [1992] "King of the Endless Seas" novel * Strazniczka istnien [1993] "The Guardian of All That Lives" novel * Serce Gor [1994] "Mountain-Heart" linked collection of stories * Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855): exiled to Russia in 1824 * Ballady i romanse [1822] "Ballads and Romances" collection of poetry considered the origin of the Romantic movement in Polish literature, filled with ghosts, gods, and folk-tales taken literally and figuratively * Dziady [Part 1: 1823, Part 2: 1823, Part 3: 1832, Part 4: 1823] "Ancestor-Spirit Eve" a major verse-drama encapsulating the conflict between Catholicism and Paganism (according to John Clute and John Grant, "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy" [New York: St.Martin's Press, 1998, pp.770-772]) * Zbigniew Nienacki, pseudonym of Zbigniew Nowicki (1929-1994): Young Adult author os some popularity * the "Dagome Index" Trilogy with Fantasy, Sex, Myth, and Religion: * Ja, Dago [1989] * Ja, Dago Piastun [1989] "I, Dago the Guradian" * Ja, Dago Wladca [1989] "Ja, Dago the Ruler" (according to John Clute and John Grant, "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy" [New York: St.Martin's Press, 1998, pp.770-772]) * Jacek Piekara (1965-): many short stories since 1982, plus * Imperium ( a trilogy which has been appearing in bits and pieces) * J. Potocki (1761-1815) * Andrzej Sapkowsi (1948-): * "Wiedzmin" [1986] prize-winning story in Fantastyka which introduced his popular genetically-engineered hero who battles post-apocalypse supernatural monsters, as continued in: genre: Genetic Engineering * Wiedzmin [1990] story collection * Miecz przenaczenia [1992] "Sword of Destiny" story collection * Ostatnie zycenie [1993] "Dying Wishes" story collection * Krew elfow [1994] "Elfblood" novel * Swiat Krola Artura/Maladie [1995] "Arthur's World, and Malady" essay plus story based on legend of Tristan and Isolde * Oko Yrrhedsa [1995] "The Eyes of Yrrhedsa" Fantasy Role-Playing gamebook (according to John Clute and John Grant, "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy" [New York: St.Martin's Press, 1998, pp.770-772]) * Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916): Nobel Prize in Literature, also wrote: * Ogniem i mieczem [1884; US: 1991 as "With Fire and Sword"] Fantasy Quests in historical 17th Century (according to John Clute and John Grant, "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy" [New York: St.Martin's Press, 1998, pp.770-772]) * Juliusz Slowacki (1809-1849): * Balladyna [1839] vast complex tragedy drawn from the myths and legends of Poland, and imaginary episodes of the Poland's history (sometimes indistinguishable from legend) (according to John Clute and John Grant, "The Encyclopedia of Fantasy" [New York: St.Martin's Press, 1998, pp.770-772]) * W. St.Reymont, a Nobel Laureate who also wrote a vampire novel * Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz (1885-1939): Absurdist playwright with sometime Fantastic themes * Rafal A. Ziemkiewicz (1964-): anthologist and author Clute & Grant recommend "The Dedalus Book of Polish Fantasy" [UK: 1996] translated into English, edited by Wiesiek Powaga (1958-) One Polish member of Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America: * Wiktor Bukato Magazines of Science Fiction and Fantasy in Poland: * Fantastyka * Fenix I know of 9 Polish science fiction films/TV series or films shot on location in Poland: * "Spellbinder" (1995) (mini)TV Series * "Spellbinder: Land of the Dragon Lord" (1997) (mini)TV Series ...aka "Spellbinder 2" (1997) (mini) * Klatwa doliny wezy (1988) ...aka Curse of Snakes Valley (1988) ...aka Zaklyatie doliny zmei (1988) (Russian title) ...aka Madude oru needus (1988) * Na srebrnym globie (1987) ...aka Silver Globe, The (1987) * Przekladaniec (1968) (TV) ...aka Roly Poly (1968) (TV) ...aka Layer Cake (1968) (TV) * Schweigende Stern, Der (1959) ...aka Stille Stern, Der (1959) ...aka Planet of the Dead (1959) ...aka Silent Star (1959) ...aka Milczaca gwiazda (1959) ...aka First Spaceship on Venus (1962) (US title) ...aka Molczaci Krzydla (1959) ...aka Spaceship Venus Does Not Reply (1959) * Seksmisja (1984) ...aka Sex Mission (1984) * Signale - Ein Weltraumabenteuer (1970) ...aka Signals: A Space Adventure (1971) ...aka Signals: An Adventure in Space (1970) ...aka Sygnaly MMXX (1971) (Polish title) * Test pilota Pirxa (1979) ...aka Test Pilot Pirx (1979) ...aka Navigaator Pirx (1979) ...aka Pilot Pirx Tested (1979) [from the tales of Stanislaw Lem] UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

PORTUGAL

Portugal has a surprisingly strong SF scene, split over the fact that Brazil now dominates Portuguese-language book and magazine publication. Portuguese SF Authors 24 Portuguese SF authors and editors/academics of note include: * Mario Amado Alves * Jose Anes * Jočo Aniceto * Jočo Barreiros, co-author with Luis Filipe Silva on novel Terrarrium * Francis Carsac * Carlos Filhais * Pedro Foyos * Carlos F. Jorge * Alvaro de Sousa Holstein * António de Macedo * Jočo de Mancellos * Carlos Martins * Fernando J. de Mascarenhas * Igor Maslowski * Maria de Menezes * Luis Miranda * Maria Rosario Moneiro * Jose Manuel Morais * Jose M. Mota * Alverado Pina * David Prescott, British author now resident in Lisbon * Oliver Sechan * M. Sandoz * Luís Filipe Silva, 1991 story collection O Futuro a Janela novels including: Cidada da Carne and Vingancas (combined as GalxMente) e-mail Luís Filipe Silva * Daniel Tércio Portuguese SF Publishers * Caminho ["Road" or "Path"] Portuguese SF Awards The Caminho Awards have been given annually since 1983. Luís Filipe Silva e-mailed me the following summary. The Caminho Awards: - 1983: Os Caminhos nunca Acabam (The Roads never end), by Jočo Aniceto Honorable mention: A Vocaćčo do Círculo (A Gift of the Circle), by Daniel Tércio - 1987: Universal, Limitada (Universal, Inc.) by Isabel Cristina Pires No honorable mentions - 1989: A espinha dorsal da memória (the backbone of memory), by Bráulio Tavares No honorable mentions - 1991: O Futuro ą Janela (the Future at the Window), by Luís Filipe Silva H. m. : O limite de Rudzky (Rudzky's Limit), by António de Macedo - 1993: Beduínos a Gasóleo (Arabs and motorcars), by Jočo Botelho da Silva no honorable mentions Since then, the Award has been in a hiatus, which will end next year, with the awarding of new authors. Luís Filipe Silva will email the information to me when it becomes official. Portuguese Science Fiction and Fantasy Association We now have an Association: Simetria, The Portuguese SF and F Association. Site: Simetria, The Portuguese SF and F Association (still undergoing construction) e-mail to Simetria Luís Filipe Silva will shortly provide complete bibliographies on those authors. Portuguese SF Artists Portuguese SF artists of note include: * Manuel Dias * Milhais Res Portuguese SF Conventions The First Portuguese National Convention took place 26-29 September 1996 in Cascais (a resort town 25 km west of Lisbon), as part of a week-long city-sponsored "First Encounters on Science Fiction and Fantasy" festival. The conference published a paperback book Non-Events on the Edge of Empire, collecting 7 original Portuguese stories, with English translations added. Some 120 people attended the convention, including: Americans Charles N. Brown, Beth Gwinn, Joe & Gay haldeman, Joan Vinge; Brits Brian & Margaret Aldiss, Christopher Priest, David & Ann Pringle, David Prescott; Neyir Gokce from Turkey; Leonid Kouritz from Ukraine; Jaroslav Olsa from the Czech Republic; Elia Barcelo from Austria; Pierre J. Brouillaud from France; Renato Pestriniero from Italy; and the Spanish editors of BEM Magazine. The larger festival (which included films) had several thousand attendees. Magazine Articles See "SF in Iberia. Locus, January 1997, pp.38-41. Portuguese SF Films I know of one science fiction film shot on location in Portugal: * Bis ans Ende der Welt (1991) also known as Until the End of the World The Internet Movie Database adds: * Emiss%E1rios de Khalom, Os (1987) Web Stuff Portugal first "hit" this web site in XXX 1996. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

ROMANIA

The 1960s and 1970s marked an explosion of science fiction in Romania. For example, the solidly established mainstream magazine "Viata Romaneasca" had an issue devoted to translated and local science fiction. Currently, Romania is experiencing a tourism boom keyed to the vampire legend, with hotels springing up like mushrooms within a short distance of the castle of Vlad the Impaler, the historical origin of Bram Stoker's immortal novel "Dracula." Major authors include: * Vladimir Colin * Victor Kernbach * Adrian Rogoz I know of two science fiction films shot on location in Romania: * Oblivion 2: Backlash (1996) yet another Sci-Fi Western, a sequel to Oblivion (1994). Produced by: Full Moon Entertainment Executive Producer: Charles Band Producers: Albert Band, Peter David, Debra Dion, Oana Paunescu, Vlad Paunescu Director: Sam Irvin Screenplay: Peter David Story By: Charles Band, Mark Goldstein II, John Rheaume, Greg Suddeth Cinematography: Adolpho Bartoli Editor: Any Horvitch Cast: Zack Stone -- Richard Joseph Paul Mattie Chase -- Jackie Swanson Sweeney -- Maxwell Caulfield Petrified Cowboy -- Gunter David Jaggar -- Andrew Stell Barr -- Meg Foster Buster -- Isaac Hayes Long John -- Brent Huff Stogie Joe -- Sam Irvin Bork -- Irwin Keyes Sidekick -- Michael C. Mahon Miss Kitty -- Julie Newmar Buteo -- Jimmie F. Skaggs Gaunt -- Carel Struycken Doc Valentine -- George Takei Lash - Musetta Vander Josephine -- Nadine Emilie Voindrouh Crowley -- Jeff Weston * Trancers 5: Sudden Death (1991) UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

RUSSIA

A strong case can be made that Russian science fiction is second only to English-language science fiction in quality and quantity, and in many cases science fiction books sell in more copies in Russia than anywhere else. Whether or not the authors get paid is another story. Of course, the American intelligence forces, with time-scanners, saw the impact of young Isaac Asimov, and covertly paid his family's way over to Brooklyn, New York, to keep Russia from taking over the SF world. Russia beat America into space with Sputnik, the definitive event that showed the world that science fiction dreams of spaceflight were now reality, and hammered home the point with the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin. An important reference work on Russian SF is "Russian Science Fiction Novel" by Anatolij Britikov (Moscow: Nauka and the Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1970). I am going to add, soon, some notes on these particularly important Russian science fiction authors: * A. Belayev * M. A. Bulgakov * Anatoly Dneprov * Mikhail Emtsov * I. Lukodianov * Georgui Martinov * V. A. Obruchev * E. Parnov * Victor Saparin, "The Trial of Tantalus" * The Brothers Strugatsky (Arkadi and Boris) * A. Tertz (A. D. Siniavskii) * A. Tolstoi * Konstantin Tsiolkovski (father of the Spaceship AND Rusian space fiction) * Ilya Varshavsky * I. A. Yefremov * Evgeni Zamiatin Eugene Zamiatin (1884-Mar 1937) [Evgeni Ivanovich Zamiatin] Russian dystopian novelist, banned in the USSR, of the influential "We" (New York: Dutton, 1924, tr. by Gregory Zilboorg) which surely influenced George Orwell's "1984" -- a global state where people are denied names and love. Important SF figures born in Russia who emigrated include: * Artzybashieff (artist) * Isaac Asimov * Reginald Bretnor * George Gamow (scientist/science writer) * Ayn Rand One Russian member of Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America: * Alexander Korzhenevski Russian SF book publishers include: * Detgiz * Mir * Molodaja Gvardija * Mysl * Znanije Important magazines include: * Junost (circulation hit over 2,000,000) * Nauka i zjisn * Teknika-molodezji * Sveta * Vokrug Sveta (circulation almost 3,000,000) * Znanije-Sila I know of three science fiction films shot on location in Russia: * Bis ans Ende der Welt (1991) also known as Until the End of the World * Stalker (1979), and the masterpiece * Solaris The story "The Blind Pilot" by Nathalie-Charles Henneberg, translated by Damon Knight, appears (pp.250-265) in "The World Treasury of Science Fiction", edited by David G. Hartwell, Boston: Little Brown, 1989 (and released by Book of the Month Club). Hartwell comments "Nathalie-Charles Henneberg, who is RUSSIAN, met her Alsatian-German husband in Syria when he was in the French Foreign Legion. They began writing SF in French in the 1950s, and until his death in 1959 they signed their collaborations with his name.... Nathalie went on to become a prolific novelist, the 'most read' French SF writer in France in the 1960s, according to [Damon] Knight. This story bears an uncanny resemblance in atmosphere to the early works of the American writer Roger Zelazny, which it predates." The story "I was the First to Find You" by Kirill Bulychev, translated by Helen Saltz Jacobson, appears (pp.690-700) in "The World Treasury of Science Fiction", edited by David G. Hartwell, Boston: Little Brown, 1989 (and released by Book of the Month Club). Hartwell comments "Among the most versatile and popular SF writers in the Soviet Union, Kirill Bulychev is one of a group of younger Soviet writers to emerge in the 1960s. Above all, his talent for storytelling and his interest in human characters interacting with SF problems make him a particularly effective representative of recent Soviet SF. The strain of utopianism remains strong in Eastern European SF and sinks many stories with didacticism, but Bulychev is able to sustain his delight in the wonders of the technological future, as in the days of [American editor/author] John W. Campbell. And, of course, the influence of Campbell-style SF itself, in this case [A. E.] Van Vogt's 'Far Centaurus' is clearly present." UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

SCOTLAND

Scotland has many internationally published science fiction authors, including: * Iain Banks * Christine Carmichael * Alistair Grey Scotland has many internationally published fantasy authors, including: * Sir Walter Scott * Robert Louis Stevenson * Sir Arthur Conan Doyle * J. M. Barrie * Andrew Lang * Kenneth Graham I know of three science fiction films shot on location in Scotland: * Dragonslayer (1981) * No Blade of Grass (1970) UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

SOUTH AFRICA

South Africa, the only country to have the atomic bomb and then renounce and abandon it, has a number of internationally-published science fiction authors, including: * E. J. Blow * H. A. Fagan * W. Rose * C. C. Reed I know of one science fiction film shot on location in South Africa: * Alien from L.A. (1987) UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

SPAIN

"Don Quixote" by Cervantes (1605) not only pounded the final nail into the coffin of chivalric fantasy, but also was an astonishingly ahead-of-its-time meta-fiction, in which the author encounters a character who claims to be the author. In a sense, this was postmodernism over 350 years early, and a true ancestor of modern science fiction. Juan Maldonado, in his 1541 story "Somnium" ("The Dream") wrote a moon-trip science fiction story that is surely the first such known in Spanish. This is referenced in Miguel Aviles "Otros cuatro relatos utopicos en la Espana moderna. Las utopias de J. Maldonado, Omnibona y El Deseado Gobierno" ("Another Four Utopian Storties in Modern Spain: The Utopias of J. Maldonado, Omnibona and The Desired Government") in "Las utopias en el mundo hispanico" (Utopias in the Hispanic World). Jesus de Aragon was a popular action/adventure novelist of the 1930s who often had SF elements, including a Moon trip. Gustavo Adolfo Becquer (1836-1870), poet and novelist, wrote a number of often-anthologized fantasy and weird short stories. Enrique de Benito published a sequel to Jules Verne's "20,00 Leagues Under the Sea", namely "El hijo del Captain Nemo" and similarly Lazaro Clendobius published a sequel to H. G. Wells' "The Time Machine", namely "Elois y Morlocks" (1909). Jose de Elola (1859-?) was a scientist/soldier/author best known for the 8 volume "Viajes Intrplanetarios en el siglo XXII." His science writing influenced many Spanish SF authors. Other significant SF writers in Spain include: M. A. Asturias E.S. Chapela F. M. Florez J. M. Gironella A. Robles Tomas Salvador, whose "La Nave" (1959) is similar to Heinlein's "Universe", except that it turns into a science fiction poem! Two Spanish members of Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America: Miquel Barcelo Robert Carrick I know of seven science fiction films shot on location in Spain: * Enemy Mine (1985) * La Grieta (1980) also known as Endless Descent also known as The Rift * Krull (1983) * The Land That Time Forgot (1975) * Mysterious Island (1961) * One Million Years B.C. (1966) * Viaje al Centro de la Tierra (1976) also known as Voyage to the Center of the Earth also known as Where Time Began UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

SRI LANKA

Sri Lanka was once known as Ceylon, and longer ago was known as Serendip. The story was told of the three princes of Serendip, each on a quest, and then one who kept making wonderful discoveries by chance. This gave rise to the world "Serendipity." One Sri Lankan member of Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America: Arthur C. Clarke Arthur C. Clarke told me, your humble webmaster (we have met several times and I've co-edited a book with him) that he lives in Sri Lanka for several reasons: * He owns a nice house in Colombo * He is Chancellor of the University there * He has many friends in Sri Lanka * The country is so beautiful that he suspects it to be the source of the Garden of Eden myth * The scuba diving is fantastic, and last but not necessarily least: * There is no income tax. I know of no science fiction films shot on location in Sri Lanka. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

SWEDEN

Sweden may have the highest per capita science fiction readership and publication in the world. There are nearly 2,000 original works of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror in Swedish, and at least 4,000 Swedish translations of English-language and European works. Sweden produced numerous works as precursors to modern science fiction, such as "Ny Upptackt av Landet Catacombe" [New Discovery of the Country Catacomb] by P. O. Fredell (Stockholm, 1780), and "The Subterranean Journey of Niels Klim" (1741). On a related front, the famour naturalist Carl von Linne wrote about travel beyond the skies with metal spheres containing vacuums as superballoons, in "Iter lapponicum" [Journey through Lapland] (1732). Sweden had a great SF boom at the turn of the century, perhaps kicked off by journalist Claes Lundin's novel "Oxygen och Aromasia--Bilder fran ar 2378" [Oxygen and Aromasia--Pictures from the Year 2378] (Stockholm: Jos. Seligman, 1878). Experts believe that this work comes dangerously close to plagiarising "Bilder aus der Zukunft", Kurd Lasswitz (Breslau, 1878). Claes Lundin's novel "Oxygen och Aromasia--Bilder fran ar 2378" is not the typical utopian fantasy. It features matter transmitters (as in "beam me up, Scottie"), space ships (very close to H. G. Well's "cavorite"-based "First Men on the Moon"), suspended animation, television-telephones, and weather control. Nonetheless, in the decade before 1900 AD and the decade after, there were roughly 300 original works of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror in Swedish, and at least 500 Swedish translations of English-language and European works. Examples from this boom include the dystopian "Kallocain" by Karin Boyce, the classic epic SF poem "Lycksalighetens O" [The Island of Happiness] by Per Atterbom, and "Katastrophen" [Catastrophe] by Gustaf Jansson (1913). As a result of this boom there were two very early science fiction magazines: Hugin (7 Apr 1916-Christmas 1919), edited/published by Otto Witt, arguably the world's first SF magazine, bi-weekly, circulation 10,000, letters to editor from Nobel laureate Svante Arrhenius, only 2 complete sets known to exist, one of which is in the Royal Library of Sweden Vetenskapen och Livet [Science and Life] (1916-1928), edited by E. Thrall, which spread to a French and a Finnish edition In the 1930s, one notable novel was "Ormus och Ariman" [Ormouz and Ariman] by Carl Jonas Love Almqvist (1930). The best survey of Swedish science fiction that I know of is the "Bibliography of Science Fiction and Fantasy" by Sam J. Lundwall, 1964, which I believe has been updated in at least three editions. He also provided important information in "Science Fiction: fran begynnelsen till vara dagar", commissioned by Radio Sweden, and published in 1969. The English translation is "Science Fiction: What It's All About", Sam J. Lundwall, New York: Ace, 1971. Lundwall points out that the popular Swedish folk song "Hjalmar och Hilda" actually derives from the sadistic Gothic novel "The Monk" (1796) by Englishman Matthew Gregory Lewis. Other major Swedish authors and editors (besides those mentioned above) include: Roland Adlerberth, critic/translator Hans Arnold, international SF artist Hennig Berger Ann-Margaret Dahlquist-Ljunberg, "Stralen" [The Ray] Sven O. Emilsson P. C. Jersild Torsten Jungstedt, "Stors Skrackboken" [Huge Horror Book] Bjorn Karlstrom Denis Lindbohm S. Lonnerstrand Harry Martinson, "Aniara", book-length space/SF poem, which helped to win Martinson a Nobel Prize! Made into a successful opera. Henrik Nanne [under pseudonym "Carl Henner"] B. Nyberg Nils Parling, "Korset" [The Cross] Arvid Rundberg Gustav Sandgren [under pseudonym "Gabriel Linde"] Eugen Semitjov Bo Stenfors Olle Strandberg, "Kalla kara" anthology Ingvar Svenssonb One Swedish member of Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America: Sam J. Lundwall Swedish science fiction publishers include: Eklunds Bokforlag, Eklunds SF-Serie (1953-1955) Lindqvist, Atombockerna, Lindqvist LP Pocket Pingvinforlaget, Atombocken Wennerberg, Rymdbockerna I know of two science fiction films shot on location in Sweden: * Independence Day (1996) * Rymdinvasion i Lappland (1959) also known as Horror in the Midnight Sun also known as Invasion of the Animal People also known as Space Invasion from Lapland also known as Space Invasion of Lapland also known as Terror in the Midnight Sun Summary: Extraterrestrials unleash a monster in Lapland which seizes a pretty woman and gives various scientists a hard time UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

THE WEBMASTERS OF THIS PAGE ARE NOT ALL AMERICAN CITIZENS, BUT FOR SIMPLICITY'S SAKE ALONE, ANY DATA IN THIS PAGE WHICH DOES NOT MENTION A COUNTRY BY NAME SHOULD BE ASSUMED TO REFER TO AMERICA. Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) is considered by many literary scholars to be the true father of Science Fiction, and of the Mystery/Detective genre. Only this year doctors concluded that Poe died of rabies, contradicting earlier theories. Poe's translations by Baudelaire were crucial to the evolution of French symbolism, surrealism, and science fiction. "Amazing Stories", starting in April 1926 is belived by most experts to be the first true science fiction agazine, and its editor/publisher Hugo Gernsback is deemed the father of modern science fiction. Edward E. Smith's "Skylark of Space" (1928) was the first genuinely interstellar novel. Isaac Asimov explains: "For the first time in a science fiction magazine, man was whirled off into the depths of interstellar space, with all the Universe open before him. For the first time, the reader had the chance to visualize man as a creature of infinite capacity--man as God, almost." [Asimov on Science Fiction, p.190] UNDER CONSTRUCTION Return COUNTRIES Table of Contents

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