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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 0 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 3 August 2000 [161 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Jump Straight to the Chronology, or else first read:

1st Century: Executive Summary

The 1st Century, according to D.E. Smith, {to be done} Hellemans: {to be done}   ***** Below from http://www.britannia.com/history/time1.html 5 - Rome acknowledges Cymbeline, King of the Catuvellauni, as king of Britain 43 - Romans, under Aulus Plautius, land at Richborough (Kent) for a full-scale invasion of the island. In the south-east of Britain, Togodumnus and Caratacus have been whipping up anti-Roman feeling and have cut off tribute payments to Rome. Caratacus leads main British resistance to the invasion, but is finally defeated in 51. 51 - Caratacus, British resistance leader, is captured and taken to Rome 61 - Boudicca, queen of the Iceni, led uprising against the Roman occupiers, but is defeated and killed by the Roman governor, Suetonius Paulinus 63 - Joseph of Arimathea came to Glastonbury on the first Christian mission to Britain. c.75-77 - The Roman conquest of Britain is complete, as Wales is finally subdued; Julius Agricola is imperial governor (to 84) 122 - Construction of Hadrian's Wall ordered along the northern frontier, for the purpose of hindering incursions of the aggressive tribes there into Britannia 133 - Julius Severus, governor of Britain, is sent to Palestine to crush the revolt 167 - At the request of King Lucius, the missionaries, Phagan and Deruvian,were said to have been sent by Pope Eleutherius to convert the Britons to Christianity. This is, perhaps, the most widely believed of the legends of the founding of Christianity in Britain. 184 - Lucius Artorius Castus, commander of a detachment of Sarmatian conscripts stationed in Britain, led his troops to Gaul to quell a rebellion. This is the first appearance of the name, Artorius, in history and some believe that this Roman military man is the original, or basis, for the Arthurian legend. The theory says that Castus' exploits in Gaul, at the head of a contingent of mounted troops, are the basis for later, similar traditions about "King Arthur," and, further, that the name "Artorius" became a title, or honorific, which was ascribed to a famous warrior in the fifth century. 197 - Clodius Albinus, governor of Britain, another claimant to the Imperial throne, is killed by Severus at the battle of Lyon ***** There was no great Mathematician of the Century, the way Fibonacci was to the 13th century. Jump to Decade-by-Decade Chronology of 6th Century: 1-10 AD 10-20 AD 20-30 AD 30-40 AD 40-50 AD 50-60 AD 60-70 AD 70-80 AD 80-90 AD 90-100 AD

1-10 AD

1 "Some of the various future Christian sects and cults began counting time from this date having erroneously assumed it is the birth date of Jesus the Christ alias Joshua the Messiah (6 B.C.- 33 A.D.). It is also noteworthy to remind ourselves that during this period of the Dead Sea Scrolls it is considered normal to rewrite biblical stories by expanding, combining or revising them with new or different details in accordance with the scribes understanding and beliefs. As an example the current book of Jeremiah contains 52 chapters whereas the book Jeremiah of the Essenes only contains 17 chapters. The Book of Esther is completely excluded from the Essenes Sect writings. It is also noteworthy that 127 of the Dead Sea Scrolls apply to generally accepted Biblical text and that the actual writing of the Bible spans more than 1,000 years. At this time the common language of the various Judaism sects in Palestine is Arabic and their writings is Syro-Chaldaic but most people also understand the Greek language. Hebrew is very rare almost extinct at this time. Many historians discount the writings of this period based on their personal set of beliefs and values. Jerusalem, Damascus and the Sinai are presently under the control of the Nabatean Empire (Saudi Arabia) who had their capital at Petra just south of Jerusalem." 1 "Flavius Josephus alias Joseph Ben Matthias (37-100 A.D.) the Jewish historian records that the Essene Judaism sect study the writings of the ancients and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body. The Essene Judaism scribes wrote in Aramaic, Greek and Hebrew. Hebrew is often used for writings attributed to the Mythical Moses and Aramaic is considered the language of the Angels and is often used to record Testaments, Incantations and the like. The Essene Judaism sect is a Messianic Sect and some suggest they retreated into the wilderness (Qumran) to make straight the Way in the Wilderness for God. They expected to be visited by the Heavenly Host (spirits) for the War against all evil on this earth. Other accounts suggest that every city and town contains large numbers of the Essene Judaism Sect. Philo recorded the Essenes avoided all cities on account of the habitual lawlessness of those who inhabit them. The Essenes have nothing to do with war, commerce, or slavery that last evil being against 'the ordinances of nature.' Philo is not entirely correct as the Essenes Judaism sect include some Zealots who readily engage in war. There are also some that live in cities and engage in commerce. Both Philo and Josephus agree there are some 4,000 followers of the Essene way. 1 "The Polynesian had explored and settled one half the inhabitable Islands of the Pacific Ocean. They carried their agriculture and animals as they expanded throughout the Pacific." 1 "A Caucasian race called the Ainu occupied Japan. Some believe they are the original people of China." 1 "The Germanic tribes are moving into Norway from the mainland to become the Viking, Norsemen or Varangian people. A people from the Urals and the Baltic migrated to Finland displacing most of the Lapp people." 6 (8)-Jesus son of Sic the High Priest of Jerusalem is replaced by (9)-Annas (Anni) or Ananus I (6-15) son of Seth who is appointed by Quirinus as the High Priest of Jerusalem of the Sadducee Judaism Sect. (8)-Ananus I (6-15) is the father-in-law of (13)-Joseph Caiapus high priest (16-36). (8)-Ananus I (6-15) is also the father of five other high priests, (11)-Eleazar, (14)-Jonathan (37-?), Theophilus, (17)-Matthias and (24)-Ananus II the Younger. Theophilus is not listed as High Priest. He is also the grandfather of (17)-Matthas, high priest in 65 AD. Roman Emperor Gaius Augustus Octavian Caesar (43 B.C.-14 A.D.) conducted a joint Judaism and Samaritan hearing. The Samaritans accused Archelaus (4 B.C - 6 A.D.) Tetrarch of Judaea and Sumeria, the son of King Herod (40-4 B.C.) of cruelty toward the people. Both groups who seldom joined forces demanded the abolition of the monarchy. It is noteworthy that the Zealot sect of Galilee is extremely nationalistic in their beliefs. Caesar Augustus as a result banished Archelaus (4 B.C. - 6 A.D.) the son of Herod (40-4 B.C.) to Vienna, a city in Gaul (France) and his property is transferred to Caesar's treasury. The Essene Judaism sect member Simon had predicted Archelaus fall from power. The Essene is known to be schooled as scribes, seers and prophets. Coponius (6-9) is appointed Roman Prefect of Judaea in Palaestina that is now added to the Province of Syria. Cyrenius a Roman senator is appointed judge of Syria. Judaea effectively became a part of a Roman Province rather than a territory of Syria. During his reign a Galilean named Judas of Gama a Sophist (Zealot teacher, rabbi, or philosophic teacher) incited a revolt against the Roman census being conducted by Quirinius Governor of Syria. Sadduc a Pharisee Judaism sect member joined the Judas Zealot movement. Judas and Zaddok (scholar of the school of Shammai) of the Pharisee Judaism sect inflamed the anger of the people against Rome. Joezer the high priest, son of Boethus calmed the popular feelings and prevented revolution during the Coponius reign. At this time the Pharisees Judaism sect do not take away the freedom from men of acting as they see fit but this will shortly change. The Sadducees Judaism sect at this time is not liked by the multitude. The Essenes Judaism sect is excluded from the common court of the temple, are addicted to virtue and righteousness. These Essenes sect share everything in common. The Judaism Zealot Sects or followers of Judas the Galilean have an inviolable attachment to Judaism liberty and they say that God is to be their only Ruler and Lord. The Zealots do not fear death. See the Gospel according to Luke 2, 1-7 making reference to Joseph of Nazareth in Galilee traveling to Judaea to Bethlehem with Mary his wife. Jesus would be about 11-12 years old at this time. It is noteworthy that Nazareth, Galilee had only two or three clans living in some thirty-five houses spread over an area of two hectares. Joshua the Messiah alias Jesus of Nazareth (6 B.C.-26 to 36) with his family visited Jerusalem, in Judaea of Palestine to celebrate the Jewish Passover. Most future Christian Sects failed to appreciate that Jesus of Nazareth (6 B.C.-26 to 36) is a practicing Messianic Essene Judaism, is named Joshua, spoke Aramaic and remained faithful to the various Jewish tradition during his lifetime. Hebrew at this time is a dead language only used by the scribes for the writings attributed to Moses and most Palestinian's speak and write Aramaic. Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) the Jewish historian writes in Aramaic that he later translated into Greek. The Dead Sea Scrolls however contain both Greek and Hebrew and date from 200 B.C. to 70 A.D. suggesting the Messianic Essene Judaism scribes still had a working knowledge of Hebrew at this time. It is noteworthy that Hebrew is a mixture of Sumerian (Semite), Akkadian and the Canaanite languages. The business language, at this time, in Palestine is Italian, Greek, Arabic and Aramaic. Josephus the historian assigns Judas of Gama (Galilee) a Sophist and Zaddok the Pharisee as being the real founders of the Zealot sect. The Zealot sect inaugurated the eschatological reign of the Kingdom of Heaven for God's elected people here and now. The Zealots aligned with most of the philosophies of the Pharisees but they are messianic and a revolutionary movement. The Jerusalem Zealots wanted to democratize the high priesthood and are not interested in the messianic expectations. The Galilean Zealots however wanted real far-reaching social change. The Essene Judaism sects of the New Messianic Covenant believed that with the aid of the Holy Spirit one can attain the knowledge of Divine Secrets some being contained in their Book of Enoch. There appears to be two different Essene Judaism sects, one who practice celibacy and who disdain women as being wanton and consider marriage to becoming a slave instead of free. The other Essene Judaism sect practice marriage to propagate the race. They marry not for pleasure but for children, they only marry women who are already menstruating and do not have intercourse during pregnancy. This is likely the origin of the Roman Church law of women being unclean. The celibates share everything in common while the married ones share many things in common but pay tithe, the salary of two days each month. Common meals, be they regular or special, are indications of that life. The Essene Judaism had ordinary meals that were preceded by prayer but they had a special eschatological meal that the Messiah blessed the food and drink (usually bread and wine). In the final days they believed the end-time meal would be with the Messiahs present. The Essene believed two Messiahs but one coming, a priestly one and a lay one in that authoritative order. Much of the Essene theology is adopted into the Roman Church. 7 "If the Gospel according to Luke is believed then Joshua the Messiah alias Jesus of Nazareth (6 B.C.-26 to 36) at age 12 taught in the temple of Jerusalem for three days. The Sadducee Judaism Sect controlled the temple and they believed when the body dies, the soul also dies. They also believe there is no such thing as fate. The Essene Messianic Sect believes in the immortality of the soul and that fate governs all things. The Sadducee say there is neither resurrection, nor angel nor spirit but the Pharisees accept all three. The Essene is not allowed in the temple so their belief is not relevant at this time. The Pharisee Sect holds a middle position between the two extremes. The Judaism Pharisee believes that it is not lawful to set down directly (write) the word of God therefore the Messianic Essenes is not generally accepted in the temple." 7 "At this time the Judaea tradition is split into four major Sects, the Messianic Essene, the Pharisee, the Sadducee and the Galilean alias Sicarii (Zealot). Many other minor Judaism sects or sub sects are also evident. The Zealots are also sub-divided into unrelated sects some times referred to as bandits or False Prophets. The Masada Zealots as an example are barbarous and considered the most violent." 7 "The Galilean Judaism Sect at this time preached a nationalistic antagonism to foreigners and mixed blood peoples especially the Arabs. These Galilean are a militant sect with roots that go back to the Maccabean period of the second and first century B.C. The Galilean is also called the Fourth Philosophy during the uprising of 4 B.C. to 7 A.D. They are against what they consider the Herodian Sadducee Sect and split this sect into the Opposition Sadducee. Sadduk is the leader of the (Zealot) Opposition Sect. Some contend Judas the Galilean noted in the Biblical Acts is the founder of the Zealot movement. The Zealot movement likely dates to the Herod period (40-4 B.C.) It could be argued that fanaticism (Zealots) is a cultural trait of the Hebrew originating in ancient times. The Messianic Essene Sect considered the House of Levi as being righteous and inheritors of the priesthood and issued warnings of violent foreigners (Harridan) taking their heritage. The priesthood is considered the Council of the Community, the Inner Sanctum or Holy of Holiest. This challenge effectively set the stage for a Nationalistic (Zealots) and Liberal (Herodian) split among the Judaism Religious Community and the later Messianic Sect split. Some suggest the messianic schism began about 4 A.D." 8 "During the reign of Coponius (6-9), the Samaritans are excluded from the temple because they threw about dead men's bodies in the cloisters." 9 "Three Roman legions are annihilated by the German Arminius in the battle of Teutoberg Forest. Gaius Augustus Octavian Caesar (43 B.C.-14 A.D.) called off the offensive against the Marcomanni people north of Italy and the Rhine and Danube Rivers marked the northern boundary of the Roman Empire in Europe. The Belgae people who had previously driven from France by the Romans are still free in England. Other un-conquered people in relationship to the Marcomanni people are to the east the Quadi, northwest the Slavs, north the Burgundians and the Sennones and to the west the Hermanduri peoples. The Finns occupied most of northern Russia, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The Balts are north of the Slavs and the Teutons occupy southern Denmark and Sweden and northern Germany. Marcus Ambivious (9-12) is appointed Prefect of Judaea and Sumeris"

10-20 AD

10 "Saul (Saulus) of Tarsus (10-67) also called Paul, is born a Roman citizen at Tarsus (Turkey) in the Roman Province of Cilicia. Paul would later claim to be of the tribe of Benjamin therefore a Semite. He also has a Greek cultural tradition having been raised at Tarsus. Saul of Tarsus is also educated in Jerusalem in the rigid religious doctrine of the Pharisees Judaism Sect. Some suggest Saul is born about 5 A.D. It is noteworthy that Tarsus has been occupied for some two thousand years when Saul is born. Others suggest that Saul is a convert to the Judaism tradition. Paul alias Saulus some say played a key role in the events leading up to the destruction of Jerusalem. His brother is Costobarus and is associated with Antipas a Herodian Temple Treasurer in the 40's. James (first Papa of Jerusalem) the Just is attacked and injured in the 40's by Paul but escaped with his followers to Jericho. This is likely confusion with James the son of Zebedee who was attacked in the early 40's. Others suggest that Paul had much less theological or historical importance in the first century and only became important in the sixteenth century. It is noteworthy the Paul will create the Roman Christian Cult (Paulist Cult) and does not follow the Christian Judaism Sect beliefs. Joseaphus the historian who died about 100 A.D. mentions the Jesus Jews, the Jesus Greeks but makes no mention of the Paulist Christians. Josephus spent time in Rome writing his history so surely he would make mention." 12 "Annius Rufus (12-15) is appointed Prefect of Judaea." 14 "Gaius Augustus Octavian Caesar (43 B.C.-14 A.D.) reduced the number of Roman legions from 70 to 27-28 (300,000 men) by the time of his death this year. Tiberious Claudius Nero (14-37) son Julia is Caesar of the Roman Empire. He is said to have a rigid morality and his reign is plagued with internal revolts." 14 "Herod Antipas I (4 B.C. - 39), son Herod the Great and the Samaritan Malthace, Antipas being the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa, resided in his city of Sepphoris, that he restored after the devastation of the rebellion at the death of his father Herod the Great. After the death of Augustus this year during the reign of Tiberius the Emperor, Herod began to build a new capital on the Western shore of the Sea of Galilee that he called Tiberias. These cities only twenty miles apart would put serious economic strain on Lower Galilee agriculture." 15 "Valerius Gratus (15-26) is appointed Prefect of Judaea. Ismael son Fabus is the High Priest of Jerusalem." 16 "(11)-Eleazar (16-17) of the House of Annas of the Sadducee Sect is appointed the High Priest of Jerusalem. Nationalistic (Zealot) Hebrews at this time consider the House of Annas (Anas) as being in League with the Romans." 17 "Germanicus son Emperor Tiberius (born 42 B.C.) brother Drusus is sent by Rome to install a King in Armenia and toured Syria to Egypt (17-19) conducting himself in a high-handed manner. He is believed poisoned by the legate Piso of Syria. Pisco suicides shortly after being accused of the murder. Simon son Camithus is the High Priest of Jerusalem. 18 (13) "Joseph Caiaphas (18-36) son in law of High Priest (9)-Annas (Anas) or Ananus I (6-15) of the Sadducee Judaism Sect is appointed High Priest of Jerusalem. The later Gnostic Christian Cult (Religion of knowledge or insight) attributes the first Gospel of the Infancy of Jesus Christ to Joseph Caiaphas (18-36) the High Priest of Jerusalem. This alleged Gospel has an Egyptian spin in its story and attributes many miracles to Lady Saint Mary and her infant son Jesus. This Gospel is obviously based on other sources to hang a litany of fabricated miracles attributed to Lady Saint Mary mother of Jesus. Caiaphas could not write it. It is noteworthy that the Gnostic Christian Judaism Cults followed the migration of the other Christian Judaism sects into Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Asia Minor." 18 "Herod Antipas I (4 B.C. - 39), son Herod the Great and the Samaritan Malthace, Antipas being the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa completed his capital city of Tiberias, Galilee. The peasants considered the new settlers a promiscuous rabble. Herod built them houses and new gifts of land likely at the expense of the local people."

20-30 AD

20 "Rome conquered the Armenia Empire and saw that the Parthian Empire (Iraq & Iran) had no power to sustain an offensive but Rome chose to consolidate power rather than invade." 22 "'The Lost Years of Jesus' (about 6 B.C.- 24 A.D.) are shrouded in mystery leading to five hypotheses: A. Jesus is the Wandering Prophet of Persia and India called Essa (Essene). B. Jesus visited England with his rich Great Uncle Joseph of Arimathaea. C. Jesus is the Teacher of Rightness among the Essene. D. Jesus is a member of the Zealot movement possibly among the Essene. E. Jesus spent a quiet existence at Nazareth in Judia." Let us examine each: A. "The Wandering Prophet of Persia and India called Essa (Essene Judaism) is recorded as being in a Buddha' Temple in the Himalayas during this period. Buddha' (560-483) is alleged to have performed miracles by curing the sick, walking on water and feeding the multitude by multiplication of fish and bread. Followers of this hypothesis point to Buddhism beliefs of love they neighbor, truth, frugality and simplicity of life, service of the poor and down trodden and non-violence. Isha means Jesus may have visited. Buddhaism has a lot of similarity to Christianity." B. "Joseph of Arimathaea a secret disciple and alleged Great Uncle of Jesus took his nephew on his tin trading mission to Druid England. The Druids believed in a future messiah and a body and soul concept. Joseph of Arimathaea in 63 A.D. is also associated with the sacred cup of the Last Supper called the Holy Grail. Joseph is the Rich man who buried Jesus." C. "The Teacher of Rightness of the Essenes Judaism is believed by some to be the Jesus of the New Testament. John the Baptist of the Dead Sea Region is most likely an Essene Judaism who also practiced a form of Baptism. The Essene Judaism held a messianic belief, practiced austerity, sharing, love of one another, a strict adherence to the laws of God and had a ritual of blessing the bread and wine at meal times." D. "Some (especially those of the Judaism sect) believe that Jesus is a member of the Zealot movement as crucifixion is the penalty only used for subversion against Rome. Matthew 10-34 " Do not suppose that I come to bring peace to the earth; it is not peace I have come to bring, but a sword. It is also noted that the Jesus' followers are armed in that one drew his sword and cut off the ear of the high priests servant. These people believe all references of a revolutionary nature are deleted from the Gospels to ensure their survival under Roman rule. Some believe he is a Zealot Essene Judaism as the War Scrolls of the Dead Sea express a belief that the Messiah is a military leader and will lead the people on the final apocalyptic war. It is also noteworthy that the sacred cup used in the Last Supper is a symbol of the revolutionaries against Roman rule." E. "Traditionalist believe Jesus spent the lost years in Nazareth of Galilee that is noted for Zealots and Essene yet lived a quiet existence likely as a carpenter." It is noteworthy that 50 Gospels are written over the next 200 years (only 4 are accepted by the Roman Catholic Church) about the life of Jesus but few shed much light on the lost years. It's also noteworthy that the oldest fragment of any gospel is John and it dates to 125 A.D. It's highly unlikely that any of the Gospels, Epistles or Testaments is written this century. The sequence of writing of the Gospels is: 1 Gospel according to John Tradition maintains that John is the son of Zebedee and brother of James. They were known as the 'sons of thunder' (Boanerges). Tradition suggests John went to Asia Minor and settled at Ephesus, that he was exiled to the island of Patmos under Domitian persecution, where he wrote the Apocalypse. He later returned to Ephesus and in old age wrote his Gospel. Scholars maintain that three different hands write the Gospel, Apocalypse and letters. John is dependent on the Essene documents of Qumran and aligns more closely with the Jewish tradition of Jesus. This Gospel dates before 150 AD 2 Gospel according to Mark. Mark was not one of the recorded disciples of Jesus. Mark's Greek is rough, strongly Aramaic and often faulty. Some contend this is John Mark a cousin of Barnabas a follower of Paul until they quarreled. This however is not supported by earliest traditions. Later traditions hold that this is the Mark who preached in Egypt and was martyred in Alexandria at the time of Nero. 3 Gospel according to Matthew. An eyewitness to the life of Jesus could not have written these five books. Matthew is highly dependent on the Mark's Gospel, written in Greek as opposed to Matthew's own language, Aramaic. Evidence points to the Gospel being written at a date too late to be the work of a disciple. 4 Gospel according to Luke. Luke was not one of the recorded disciples of Jesus. It is believed that Luke is also the author of the "Acts of the Apostles" since both have the same literary style. Some believe Luke is a traveling companion of Paul as far as Rome. Later tradition maintains that Luke was a native of Antioch. Luke obviously had access to Matthew and Mark during his crafting of his work, omitting things he considered derogatory and to put other things more theologically aligned with his beliefs and values. It is strongly suggested that Luke had access to some of John or to some of John's sources. 24 "A Judah Sect who called themselves the 'Community of the New Covenant' (Essenes Judaism) are also likely the sect of John (7 BC-29 AD) the Baptist from the wilderness (Dead Sea Region). John the Baptist of Judaea is the son of Zechariah and Elizabeth a cousin of Mary mother of Jesus and is considered a good man. Zechariah is a priest in the Temple of Jerusalem. John commanded the Judaism Sects to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing with water would be acceptable to God, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away of some sins but for the purification of the body: supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. "The Essene Judaism are a solitary people, extraordinary beyond all others, who live without women and without money, having only the palm trees for company" so wrote the Romans in the first century. The Messianic Essene Judaism practiced baptism, shared their wealth and is governed by a council of twelve. They are the first Middle East people known to have a monastic tradition. The Messianic Essenes Judaism are located on the north west shore of the Dead Sea. It is noteworthy that the Messianic Essene Judaism make reference to the 'Children of the light' an expression that is attributed to Joshua alias Jesus Christ (6 B.C.-26 to 36) LK:16:8, JN:12:36, EPH:5:8 and 1THES:5:5. Some of the Essene Judaism sect communities aspired to moral purity. They believed that women couldnít be faithful to one man. These people renounced marriage altogether. They adopted male children into their community. Other communities of Essene Judaism Sects advocated marriage but only for procreation. It is noteworthy that the future Roman Paulist Cult adopted this belief. The city dwellers of the Essene Judaism Sect are called the Polistoe vs. those who live in the wilderness but all embraces the same beliefs and don't offer sacrifice in the temple. They believe their sacrifice is more pure. This applies that temple worship is impure at this time. The Essene Judaism sect is expelled from the common Court of the Jerusalem Temple." "It is noteworthy that the New Testament never used the word 'Christ' meaning 'the anointed one' but rather they used the word Messiah. Christ is an ancient Egyptian belief that one of the dead at judgment time would be chosen the Christ to lead the people to salvation. It is likely the early Roman Church dropped Messiah so as not to be aligned with the Orthodox Judah Sects (Rabbinical Judaism) and selected Christ to align with the Egyptian traditions." 25 "Joshua (Jesus) (6 B.C. - 26 to 36) is an Essene Judaism is baptized into the Essene Judaism Sect by John (7 B.C.-29 A.D.) the Baptist from the wilderness the son of Zechariah and Elizabeth. Some suggest this places Jesus as a member of the Messianic Essene Zealot. Flavious Josephus (37-100 A.D.) the historian records that John the Baptism believed that baptism is not to gain pardon for sins committed, but as a consecration of the body implying that the soul is already thoroughly cleansed by right behavior. This radical Messianic Essene Judaism free alternative to the Temple cult that used the purification process for sin and charged its members for the service. The Roman Church would adopt the Herodian Sadducees Judaism Sect tradition of Baptism for sin belief. This Roman belief would imply that Jesus is born with sin and requires baptism for his sins. It is noteworthy that Paul the Roman is recorded as being pro-Herodian." "The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Essene document the procedures for Baptism being used for purification by the Holy Spirit. The Messianic Essene's from the wilderness believed the Messiah of Aaron and Israel will atone for their sins. The Messiah will be the way, the truth and the light. Baptism is an acknowledgment that the person has reached righteousness and not for ones sins. John (d-29) the Baptist from the wilderness represents this Essene Judaism Sect form of baptism. The Temple tradition of the Sadducee Judaism Sect is later adopted by the Paulist Cult, who considered baptism is for sin. The Gospels writers and Roman Christians would later adopt the Herodian Sadducess Judaism form of baptism." "The Messianic Essene Judaism considered Wisdom as a feminine Her. "Blessed is the man who grasps hold of Wisdom and walks in the Torah of the Most High and directs his heart to her Ways and restrains himself with her disciplines and always accepts her chastisements." Biblical text borrowed heavily from the Dead Sea Scrolls Beatitudes but shifted from a feminine to a neutral perspective." "It is believed Joshua (Jesus) moved about this time from Nazareth to Capernaum (Copernaum), Galilee a fishing village on the north shore of the Sea of Galilee. Galilee is a hot bed of the zealot movement called the Galilean Sect. Joshua of Nazareth, the Jew established a number of important principles according to scripture. The Apostles and future Senior Church members are not freed from bad judgment. He using the real live examples of doubting Thomas alias Didymus the tax collector, Peters denial and the Judas scenario. Just as Satan entered into Judas so also he entered into Simon Peter (d-64-67). This clearly established that to be human and Christian is at times to be misguided, lack understanding and to make outright errors in proclaiming ones beliefs, values or doctrines. Human infallibility is as alien a concept to the early church as is a child that never falls down while learning to walk. His Church is for love and peace, there is no place for the sword for all that draw the sword will surely die by the sword. False gods and false prophets will arise and produce great signs and portents, enough to deceive even the chosen. You will know them however by their actions." "The Joshua philosophy (Judeo-Christians) records vehement outbursts against the 'Scribes and Pharisees' who use legalism to reduce religion to the scrupulous observation of sacred rules. This Messianic schism that 'the letter of the Law kills vs. the spirit of the Law gives life' will dominate organized religion for the next two thousand years. Many of the Judaism sects of this period considered the Pharisees Judaism as a generation of vipers, like evil leaven (doctrine) in the bread (religion), and hypocrites between words and actions. The Pharisees Judaism in retaliation believed that Joshua of the Judaism sect received his power from the prince of the devils." 25 "The Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) began incorporating central Asia (Sinking) and much of what is now Russian central Asia as far west as the Caspian Sea." 26 "Caesar Tiberious Claudius Nero (14-37) son Julia appointed Pontius Pilate (26-36) as Prefect of the Roman Province of Judaea. Flavious Josephus (37-100) recorded a civil disturbance during Pontius Pilate's rule (26-36) as Prefect of Judaea, Palestine. The major issue in Jerusalem is the introduction standards bearing the image or medallion of the Roman Emperor. The Jews considered them as graven images that trampled on their laws." Philo wrote: "Pilate (Pontius Pilatus) being sent by Tiberius as procurator (Prefect) to Judaea, introduced into Jerusalem by night and under cover the effigies of Caesar that are called standards. This proceeding, when day broke, aroused immense excitement among the Jews, considering their laws to have been trampled under foot, as these laws permit no images to be erected in the city." Flavius Josephus (37-100) however considered this a bold step, as previous procurators (Prefects) used standards with no ornaments. The people fell prostrate around Pilate's house (at Caesarea capital of Judaea) for five days and nights remaining motionless in protest. Pontius Pilatus (26-36) the Prefect of Judaea threatened them with immediate death unless they submitted. They all accepted martyrdom and Pontius Pilatus (26-36) is forced to submit rather than massacre so many. This report is similar to what Josephus the historian wrote. The next day at the stadium of Caesarea Pontius Pilatus (14-37) addressed the people to persuade them into accepting the standards. Pilatus finally agreed to remove the standards to avoid a riot when the people offered their lives rather than transgress the law. Later when Pontius Pilatus visited Jerusalem angry protesters surround him. The priests are angry because Pilatus used some of the sacred treasure to build an aqueduct to bring water to the people of Jerusalem. The tradition in Jerusalem is to use treasure funds for public works so the issue is likely a political power issue rather than a religious one. The people rioted when Pilatus refused to back down and the soldiers are ordered to stop the riot. A large number of rioters are killed and many more are trampled to death. The priest instigated the riot believing the threat of force would govern just as it had in Caesarea earlier. 27 "A wooden stadium collapses in Rome killing between twenty and fifty thousand people." 27 "Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) tetrarch Galilee and Peresa had married the daughter of King Aretas of Arabia Petrea and had lived with her a great while. Antipas fell in love with Herodias daughter Aristobulus his brother and wife of his half brother Herod Philip (4 B.C. - 34 A.D.). To marry Herodias he must divorce the daughter of Aretas. This led to war between King Aretas and Herod. Herod's army is destroyed." 28 "Joshua Messiah alias Jesus of Nazareth (6 B.C.-26 to 36) likely selected his first four disciples this year: 1 James (the Just) son Zebedee brother John, a fisherman and associated with Simon therefore likely a follower of John the Baptist and an Essene. 2 John son Zebedee brother of James, a fisherman and associated with Simon therefore likely a follower of John the Baptist and an Essene. 3 Andrew of Bethsaida, Galilee son of John and brother of Simon, a fisherman and associated with Simon, also a disciple of John the Baptist and therefore likely an Essene. 4 Simon (Cephas & Peter) of Bethsaida, Galilee son of John and Brother of Andrew, a fisherman, an associate of James and John also a disciple of John the Baptist and therefore likely an Essene. 29 "Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa and the son of Herod the Great (40-4 B.C.) built the city Tiberias at the lake of Gennesareth of Galilee. Strangers came and inhabited this city but a great number are Galileans. He freed many slaves and settled them in his city. He also admitted many poor people building them houses and giving them land." 29 "Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea became fearful that John the Baptist (6 BC-29) is gathering a large crowd who are greatly moved by his words and this might lead to a rebellion. Flavious Josephus (37-100) goes on to records that John (7 B.C.-29 A.D.) the Baptist because of Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa the son of Herod the Great (40-4 B.C.) under suspicion is brought in chains to Machaerus and there put to death about this time. Scripture suggests he died before Christ. Herod Antipas noted that John (7 B.C.-29 A.D.) the Baptist a righteous and holy man had a growing following who are guided by John in everything that they did. He decided to strike first before John's work led to an uprising. It is noteworthy that John offered a radical alternative to the Temple cult that could be more easily controlled. Other accounts contend he is killed because he objected to Herod's marriage to his half brother Philip's wife. John the Baptist is killed by Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - 39 A.D.) tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea at the insistence of his wife and niece Herodias in a dungeon of Antipas in Tiberias and not at Machaerus. Herodias had an insatiable ambition that finally led to the exile of Antipas and Herodias to Spain in 39 A.D." 29 "The following people are also noted as disciples of Jesus: 5 Philip of Bethsaida in Galilee 6 Nathanael, an Israelite from Cana in Galilee 7 Nicodemus the Pharisees 8 Lazarus of Bethany (two miles from Jerusalem), brother of Mary and Martha whom Jesus loved 9 Mary of Bethany, sister of Lazarus and Martha 10 Martha of Bethany, sisters of Lazarus and Mary 11 Thomas (the Twin?), later called one of the 12, and likely a later retrofit. In the Syriac tradition he is named Judas Thomas or Judas the Twin who is alleged to have spread Christianity into India. 12 Judas Iscariot son Simon 13 Judas' son James 14 Mary of Galilee the wife of Clopas and sister-in-law of Jesus 15 Mary of Magdala of Galilee 16 Joseph of Arimathaea, a secret disciple. 29 "Christ appointed 70 other apostles who he sent out two and two ahead to each town. No list of the 70 is recorded. Judas also known as Thomas sent Thaddeaus one of the seventy to Edessa, to cure Aber Uchama the Taparch as Jesus had promised. The seventy appostles were teaching as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus and Antioch but to the Jews only. At the time Paul was still persecuting the followers of Christ." 29 "The rulers, elders and scribes, High Priest Annas (6-15), High Priest Joseph Caiaphas (18-36), High Priest Jonathan (36-37), Alexander and the Sanhedrin imprisoned Simon Peter (d-64-67) of Bethsaida and John son Zebedee later releasing them on order they stop preaching of the Messiah. The High Priest and Sadducees again jailed the Apostles, had them flogged and again ordered them not to preach of the Messiah. This is likely not historically correct, the author is likely attempting to incriminate the entire House of Annas.

30-40 AD

30 "Queen Helena of Abiabene (Hadayev) east of the Tigris River with her husband and sons converted to Judaism." 30 "Chaeremon the Stoic, an Egyptian priest-philosopher, is the tutor of young Nero (54-68) in Rome before he became Emperor. The Romans traveled restlessly in search of Egyptian education (magic, astronomy, medical and philosophy) both in Graeco-Roman east and in the Egyptian Alexandria." 30 "Some place the death of Jesus as this year in the month of Nisan. Eusebius claims that Pilate reported to Tiberious that Christ had rose from the dead and assended into heaven and therefore must be god. The Romans rejected this report as no god can be acknowledged unless approved by the Senate." 32 "A. Avillius Flaccus, is Roman Governor of Egypt (32-38)." 33 "Some believe Joshua Messiah alias Jesus of Nazareth (6 B.C.-26 to 36) is brought to trial in April of 33 A.D. Others suggest the year is 30 A.D." "It is noteworthy to remember that 18,000 men are employed in building the Temple that Joshua (Jesus) threatened to destroy. The Temple is also a center of commerce when Jesus drove out the businessmen who sold goods and exchanged money." "Jesus a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He won over many Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was the Christ. Men of the highest standing (of the Temple) condemned him to be crucified (by Pontius Pilatus (26-36)), the Roman Prefect of Judaea. Those that loved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. The tribe of Christians, so called after him, has still to this day (93-94 A.D.) has not disappeared. This is the account of Antiquities according to Josephus (37-100) the historian. The Essene Sect records that the Branch of David, the leader of the Community (Messianic Christ) will with wounding be commanded to death by the Leader of the Community and all Israel, the high priest, also a Branch of David. Joseph Caiaphas (18-36) son in law of High Priest Annas (Anas) or Ananus I (6-15) of the Sadducee Sect is High Priest of Jerusalem. " "It is noteworthy that the Romans would crucify thousands of Zealots leading some to speculation that Jesus may be closely related to one of the developing Zealot Sects. The actions attributed to Jesus suggest he is more closely aligned to the Essene Sect than the Zealots." "Some suggest Pontius Pilatus (26-36) Roman procurator (Prefect) of Judaea allowed the Judaean Sanhedrin (High Church Council) authority over the Messiah. Joshua Messiah alias Jesus of Nazareth (6 B.C.-26 to 36), of the Essene Sect is ordered executed having been found guilty of blasphemy and calling himself King of Judah (a Roman offense). The Jewish Essene Dead Sea Scrolls refer to Joshua as the Prince of the Congregation. If this were true the manner of death would likely be stoning rather than the Roman method of the tree. Before his death Joshua asked his Father to forgive them for they know not what they do. This beginning of the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus is based upon brotherly love, sharing, understanding and forgiveness that would be tainted as millions would fight, die and be martyred in the name of Jesus. Some historians suggest Joshua's death could be as late as 29 A.D." "Flavius Josephus (37-100), the historian, wrote that "Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles. He is the Christ (messiah) and when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principle men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the time did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day (93-94 B.C.)." Josephus the Jew, being a Pharisee and a citizen of Rome, did not personally believe this statement but recognized many fellow Jews did believe so he recorded it. He is likely recording and respecting an Essene Sect belief. "It is noteworthy that Joshua King of the Jews according to scripture is executed during the Passover and Barabbas under a death sentence is released. Philo writing a decade later described what decent Roman Governors did for crucified criminals on festival occasions; they postponed (not to remit it altogether) the execution until after the festival. Pontius Pilatus (26-36), the Roman Prefect of Judea is noted for his brutal crowd-control. This suggests the Biblical writers (likely Mark) deliberately shifted the blame for the execution of Christ from Romans to Jews." 33 "The first assembly of the new Judeo-Messianic sect of Jerusalem included Simon Peter (died 64-67) of Bethsaida, brother of Andrew and the son John and John alias Boanerges son Zebedee and brother James, James (d-62) son Alphaeus brother Judas and the brother of the Lord and Andrew of Bethsaida a follower of John (d-29) the Baptist and the brother of Simon Peter, Philip of Bethsaida and Thomas alias Didymus the tax collector, Bartholomew, Matthew alias Levi son Alphaeus a tax collector, James (d-62) the son of Alphaeus and brother Judas and Simon a Canaanite the Zealot and Judas the brother (son) of James. All 130 of the congregation are joined in prayer including several women, including Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers. It is noteworthy that Hebrew women are not normally allowed at religious service of this nature. Matthias at this time is elected an Apostolate. This sounds like a retrofit not based upon historical reality." "It is noteworthy that of the seventy directly appointed disciples of Jesus no list has been found. It is also noteworthy that many of the Apostles daughters became prophetesses preaching the word of God." 33 "Rome annexes Austria, formally called Noricam with a part of Pannonia. The Goth (Mongolian) from Scandinavia settled at the mouth of the Vistula, River (Russia) and would migrate southeast as the Visigoth (Wise or Western Goths) and Ostrogoth (Brilliant or Eastern Goths) in about one hundred years." 33 "A secret disciple of Jesus, Nicodemus, a Pharisees ruler of the Jews, who quizzed and later attended to the burial of Jesus is attributed to the Gospel of Nicodemus formally called the Acts of Pontius Pilate. It is conjecture that this Gospel is a forgery written towards the close of the third century." 33 "The first apostolic principle recorded after the death of Jesus is an Apostle does not accept other peoples' money or property as they had given up their own property to follow Christ." 34 "Stephen who is stoned to death is the first leader of the church, then James 'The Righteous', the Brother of Jesus, is elected by the Apostles including Peter, James and John to the Episcopal Throne of the Jerusalem Church. This is according to Eusebius (260-339). This would make him the first Pope of the Christian Churches. The early church did not use the term Pope or bishop at this time." "The next two decades after the death of Jesus are called the dark decades as very little is known about this period of the early Christian church. It is believed that four major Judaism sects existed at this time in Jerusalem. The Judaism community includes the Pharisaic, Sadduceean, Essene and Christian sects. The sects are struggling with Greek cultural internationalism and Roman military imperialism. It is written that Joshua (Jesus) selected 12 Apostles from his many disciples. This is a Judaism tradition and likely is added at a much later date to legitimize the various Christian Sect positions. Some evidence suggests Simon Peter son John, James and John sons of Zebedee and Mary governs the early church. Peter only considered himself as an Elder of the Church, not its leader. All evidence points to James (d-62) the Just as the leader of the Christian Judaism sect. The notion of Apostle, Bishop and Pope is alien to this century. It is noteworthy that Mk 9:38 suggests that all Christian Sects must not be stopped as anyone who is not against us is for us. It is also noteworthy the Essene Judaism Sect and Josephus the historian both imply that the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, an Ebionite Christian Judaism Sect, the brother of Jesus is the most likely leader of the new James of Jerusalem Sect. James the Just should be considered the first Pope for those who need continuity of succession. Herod Philip (4 B.C.-34 A.D.) the half brother of Herod Antipas and tetrarch of Trachonitis and Gaulonitis died (late 33 or early 34) at Julias. His reign is one of moderation and quietness. Upon his death the territory is added to the Roman province of Syria." 35 "Pontius Pilate (26-36) until this time was answerable directly to Rome. This year he is answerable to Vitellius, the legate to Syria." 35 "A complaint from the Hellenistic-Messianic sect against the Hebrew-Messianic sect results in the election of Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas and Nicolus of Antioch as apostles. This officially established two early churches that would begin evolving different doctrines. This would anger the Synagogue of Freedmen who come from Cyrene and Alexanderia. The apostles now numbered 20 or more and only much later would the scribes attempt to historically limit the number to twelve the 12 ancient Jewish patriarchs. Simon Peter son John, James (d-43) son Zebedee and John son Zebedee are the first among the many apostles. They are all fishermen from the Sea of Galilee and worked together before Jesus arrived. It is also noteworthy that Andrew brother of Simon Peter and former follower of the Messianic Essenes (John the Baptist) is not among the short list." 35 "The Judeo-Messianic sect of Jerusalem is estimated to total some 5,000 members (likely inflated) causing uneasiness among the members of the Orthodox Judah sect. These splinter sects are not uncommon at this time. Theudas the prophet assembled some 400 followers in 45 A.D. and Judas the Galilean had also attracted large crowds of supporters. Ignatious of Antioch (35-107) is claimed to be the second bishop of Antioch after Peter the Apostle, according to Origen. Eusebius of Caesarea holds that Ignatius was the third bishop of Antioch after Peter and Euodius (d-69). Ignatious was arrested, escorted to Rome and martyred in the Coliseum according to Origen and Polycarp." 36 "The Syrian Governor Vitellius ordered Pontius Pilatus (26-36) Prefect of Judea to return to Rome to give the Emperor his account of matters with which he is charged. He removed the high priest Joseph Caiaphas (18-36). Jonathan (36-37) of the House of Annas became the high priest of Jerusalem. Philo wrote to Emperor Caligula that Pontius Pilatus (26-36) Roman procurator (Prefect) used briberies, insults, robberies, outrages, wanton injuries, constantly repeated executions without trial, ceaseless and supremely grievous cruelty. Flavious Josephus (37-100) wrote Pontius Pilatus (26-36) is lacking in concern for Jewish religious sensibilities and as capable of rather brutal methods of crowd control." 37 "Gaius Caligula (37-41) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. If not insane at this time he is a megalomaniac, irrational and soon become totally unbalanced. He considered himself as a god and desired for an absolute monarchy. He murdered his own brother among countless others during his reign." 37 "Stephen of Jerusalem, a Hellenistic Judeo-Messianic sect leader, angers the Orthodox Judah community by claiming that many of the old biblical traditions are obsolete. He advocated the New Sect break from traditional Temple worship. He accused the Judah religious leaders of being a stubborn people, with pagan hearts and pagan ears always resisting the Holy Spirit. He is martyred (36-37) by stoning for his heretical ideas. If death is by stoning then it is likely authorized by the High Priest Jonathan (36-37). When they stoned him to death, it is said Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul the Roman witnessed the event with self-proclaimed approval. That day a bitter persecution started against the Judo-Messianic Sect disciples. Everyone except the apostles fled to the country districts of Judaea and Samaria. Because of the persecution of Stephen some escaped as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus and Antioch and began converting the uncircumcised." 37 "Saul of Tarsus (10-67), alias Paul the Roman, went from house to house arresting both men and women sending them to prison. Philip the new Hellenistic apostle went to (Caesarea) Samaria in Palestine preaching, curing the sick and driving out unclean spirits. Marcellus (37-37) is appointed Prefect of Judea. Marullus (37-41) is appointed Prefect of Judea. It is interesting to note that Simon Peter (died 64-67) of Bethsaida is teaching that the Judo-Messianic sect followers must follow Judah tradition, just as Christ did during his lifetime. 37 "The Judo-Sadduccees Sect divided into two fundamentally opposed groups. These sects are the Orthodox Sadduccee with their militant attachment to the law and the Messianic Sadducees Sect. The Essenes are also a Messianic Sect. The Galilean Sect generally follows the beliefs of the Pharisee Sect that is middle of the road but have an inviolable attachment to liberty. This faction would eventually become the Zealot Sect but the term Zealot is not used until about 66 A.D. Flavious Josephus (37 or 38-100) alias Joseph Ben Matthias the Hebrew historian is born into the Jerusalem Temple's aristocracy and claims to be a descent from the royal priesthood of the Hasmoneans through his mother. He later deserted his heritage and moved to Rome. Many suggest he is a traitor." 37 "Theophilus (37-41) of the House of Annas became the high priest of Jerusalem of the Sadducees Sect." 38 "Philip of Bethsaida on the road from Jerusalem to Gaza encountered a eunuch, an officer at the court of the Queen of Ethiopia on his way home. Philip of Bethsaida converted the eunuch who spread the good news of Jesus from Azotus to Caesarea." 38 "Simon Peter and John son Zebedee visited Philip the Hellenist in (Caesarea) Samaria in Palestine." 38 "Herod Agrippa I (41-44 as king) son Aristobulus visited Alexandria in Egypt and the popular reaction to his visit is a series of anti-Jewish attacks tolerated or instigated by the Roman Governor of Egypt. Jews are arrested, scourged, tortured and then crucified." 38 "Saul of Tarsus (10-67), alias Paul, the Roman, belonged to the rigid sect of the Pharisees. It is suggested that Saul is a convert to Judaism as he aspired to marry the High Priests daughter following in the footsteps of Herod. The Pharisees are intending to slaughter any members of the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus or any of his disciples either men or women. Word had arrived in Jerusalem that the Jesus Sect had spread to Domascisus (Syria) and Saul is determined to crush this new expansion. On the road between Jerusalem and Damascus of Syria his disciple Luke (not the Apostle Luke) claims Saul is struck down and converted to the Jerusalem Community Sect of James the Just by Ananias of Damascus. Saul himself however never makes this claim and many biblical scholars question the validity of Lukeís account in the Acts of Paul. The Apocalypse of Paul by an unknown author is denounced by the Roman Church but renders a vision and revelation of Saul's conversion more consistent with Paul's own writings in 2 Corinthians. Saul of Tarsus (10-67) a self proclaimed Apostle however claims to be appointed directly by God rather than through Jesus or any of his Apostles. It is noteworthy that Simon Peter or any other Apostle never endorsed Paul as an apostle with the laying on of hands. An Apostle is one who witnessed Christ first hand being sent forth to preach the word of God. The Gospels are also strangely silent concerning this Judo-Roman-Pharisee. His letter to the Galatians suggests Paul avoided the Apostles to capitalize on the Jesus incident to create his own following. Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul, the self-proclaimed apostle and a Roman-Jewish-Pharisee-Christian, began preaching in the synagogues at Damascus that Joshua (Jesus) is the Son of God and it is said the people are amazed. The amazement is that Saul is considered to be Roman who deserted his Pharisee faith and is considered to be of the darkness. The current belief is that a Pharisee will travel over sea and land to make a single convert and make him twice as fit for hell as the teaching Pharisee. A plot is developed by the Nazirite Zealots to kill Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul so he fled the city with assistance of the Herodian Priests and Roman soldiers. The Zealots took an oath not to eat nor drink until they have killed Paul. Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul in Galatians 1-16 suggests that after his self proclaimed conversion he did not go to Jerusalem to meet with the Apostles but went to Arabia." 39 "The insane Emperor Gaius Caesar Germanicus (Caligula) (39-41) proclaimed himself a living God and commanded that Jerusalem worship him as the King of the Jews. This action is likely taken to defocus the Judah prophecy that said a world ruler (The Messiah) would come out of Palestine from the House of David. The King of the Jews deeming the Jews are disrespectful of his divinity ordered the placement of statues of himself as Zeus incarnate in Jerusalem's Temple. He ordered Petronius the new Syrian Governor to take two legions (12,000 soldiers) into Judea to enforce his edict. Caligula the King of the Jews banished Herod Antipas I (4 B.C. - 39) the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa to Gaul for requesting the title of King." 39 "James (died 62) Bishop of Jerusalem, High Priest son Zebedee, the Righteous, the Ebionite began preaching a Judo-Messianic Sect faith that would next century become known as Christianity. It is clear he had no intention of creating a new religion but is a Judah Sect reformer. James wore priestly robes and is allowed to enter the innermost and holiest of the Judah Temples. He is also called the Brother of the Lord. Later Christian tradition attribute an Epistle to him but this is not likely nor accepted by all Christians. The Letter of James is in nature of the Essene Sect style. This sounds like confusion between James son of Zebedee and James the Just brother of Jesus."

40-50 AD

40 "Jerusalem is still divided into numerous religious groups and Sects. The first major division is among the ruling class of Establishment or Herodian Sadduccees and the Orthodox (Purist) or Nationalistic Traditions. The second major division is along a Messianic and non-Messianic belief. The evolving Nationalists (Zealots) are mainly drawn from the Pharisees and Messianic Essenes Sects. The Essenes however are claimed to be non-violent in nature. The Sadducees are the religious establishment and align with the Roman power base to maintain their position. Many from all Sects follow a more Liberal philosophy than the Sadducee position. The Judo-Messianic Sect members are split between following Jewish tradition like Christ and abandoning some if not all the Jewish tradition. King Agrippa I at this time and his son Agrippa II (60 A.D.) observed the Torah thereby aligning them with the Orthodox camp." 40 "The Judah Sects, both Purist and Messianic Sects, embraced a historic tradition a Community Rule that only differed in the belief that the Messiah is coming or the Messiah has come. Examples are; anything touched by Gentiles is unclean and cannot be consumed or offered in sacrifice. Gentiles are not allowed in the temples. He who can't see or hear or has damaged male organs is unclean and shouldn't enter the temple or marry. Intermarrying is polluting the Holy Seed. The Ammonite and Moabite and the bastard are especially singled out." 40 "The Perfection of the Way Sect of Jerusalem is being led by James the Greater (d-62). Bishop of Jerusalem, High Priest remains faithful to the Torah following the Jesus tradition. He would likely be more aligned with the Messianic Essenes and Judah Sects. James (d-62) the Greater insisted upon righteousness, abstention from blood, fornication and food/things sacrificed to idols. The Judo-Hellenistic-Messianic sect, formally led by Stephen (d-37) wanted to break away from Temple worship, as did other Opposition Sects. Some Pharisee Sects at this time are not allowed to sacrifice in the Temple. The Pharisee and Sadducee have some fundamentally differing doctrines. It is noteworthy to remember that many Judah Sects existed at this time and most still sacrificed in the Temple including the new Judo-Messianic sects both Orthodox and Liberal. The Orthodox Judah Sects began proclaiming the Gentile sacrifices as impure being a sacrifice to idols that seduces them. The Semite faithful are told not to marry the Semite-Ammonite, Semite-Moabite, those bastards and men with crushed testicles and damaged male organ who are entering the assembly of the Temple. Do not bring dogs into the Holy Camp of Jerusalem is the cry of the Orthodox. It is noteworthy that the Judah people are descendants of the Semite-Canaanite as are the remnants of the Israelite Sect." 40 "The Syrian Governor Petronius with his army is camped at Ptolemais on the Mediterranean seacoast due west of Galilee. He is under orders of Caesar Germanicus (Caligula) (39-41) to establish his statue in the Jerusalem Temple. Many tens of thousands of Jews unarmed with their women and children approached the Roman army pleading that they not profane their Temple in Jerusalem and promise their loyalty to Rome. Petronius withdrew his troops to Antioch and the timely assassination of the Emperor Caligula in 41 saved Petronious from execution." 40 "The Essene Sect used the term of finding the Way in the wilderness. The followers of James the Just used the term Perfect or Perfection of the Way to describe their Sect." 41 "Emperor Gaius Caesar Germanicus (Caligula) (39-41) is assassinated. Emperor Tiberius Claudius Drusus (41-54) is Caesar of the Roman Empire and he pacified Spain. Romans considered him a driveling imbecile, subject to the whims of his (four) wives. He reinstated all lands ruled by King Herod the Great to King Herod Agrippa I son Berenice and Aristobulus, who ruled Palestine (41-44). Aristobulus is the daughter of Herold the Great. Herod Agrippa I also is give the title King of the Jews. He resided in Jerusalem and observed the Jewish tradition of his people. Matthias (41-42) of the House of Annas became the high priest of Jerusalem. This appears to be in error? Agrippa removed Theophilus son Ananus as high priest making Simon (Cantheras), the son of Boethus, the new high priest. Simon's daughter had married King Herod." 41 "The Pharisee Pollio and Sameas advised the people of Jerusalem to open the city gates to Herod Agrippa I (41-44). Herod appointed Ismael son Fabi as High Priest. Herod bestowed favors on the Pharisee and executed some members of the Sadducee. Some suggest a man named Saul had invited the Romans into Jerusalem to put down an uprising. This could be Saul alias Paul (10-67) the Greek Roman citizen. This action set the stage for Rabbinical Judaism. It is noteworthy that the Pharisee (Rabbinical Sect) is not popular at this time. The High Priest Ismael son Fabi a Pharisee so divided the priesthood that stones are thrown and many Sadducee priests are starved to death due to withdrawal of their food." 41 "Saul of Tarsus (10-67), alias Paul, claims to have visited Cephas (Peter) in Jerusalem and stayed with him fifteen days, three years after his conversion and five years after the death of Jesus. He also claims to have visited with James the Lord's brother. Saul insists he did not go to ask their permission for what he was doing and it was just for a visit. During the reign of Claudius the Galilean Sect of Jews attacked (about 41-45) the Sumaritans. The Zealots Eleazar, son of Deinaeous and Alexander from Jerusalem raised a band of brigands and attacked the Samartian towns massacred the inhabitants, sparing neither young nor old, and set fire to the villages. Cumanus (38-52) from Carsarea led a cavalry troop called the Sebastenians against the Zealot brigands. Many of Eleazar's companions are killed. The Romans put down the rebel Galileans placing them, their wives and children into slavery. Some Jews pleaded that Jerusalem be spared retaliation for burning the Samaritan towns. Many of the Zealot army scattered all over the country plundering and killing. The High Priest Jonathan (36-37) of the House of Annas sent a delegation to Syrian Governor Quadratus blaming Cumanus (38-52) for the riot. Syrian Governor Quadratus as an example crucifies many rebels. He caught 18 Zealot leaders and had them beheaded. He ordered the high priest Jonathan, the son of Ananias and current high priest Ananias, Ananus (43-43), the son of the latter and some other Jewish notables, together with most distinguished Samaritans to report to Rome Emperor Claudis (41-54). Caesar would eventually banish Cumanus (38-52)." 42 "Joseph Cabi son Simon is High Priest of Jerusalem." 43 "The Roman Empire began the conquest and occupation of England." 43 "Peter (died 64-67) alias Symeon or Simon (also Cephas meaning rock) born Bethsaida, on the Sea of Galilee a married man living in Capernaum a disciple of John the Baptist son of Jonas is the leader and spokesman of the Apostles. Peter's brothers are Andrew, James (d-43) and John. This likely means brothers in Christ rather than real brothers? It is noteworthy that Simon Peter (d-64-67) is excluded from the first lists of Bishops of Rome and it isn't until the late 2nd century or early 3rd century that the Roman Church considers him as the first Pope. It is noteworthy that in the 4th century St. Peter and Paul are considered as joint founders of the Roman Church. All first century claims to Papal succession is highly speculative due to the dynamic nature of the various movements. Early members of Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus at Capernaum are called Minim meaning sects holding views unacceptable by Pharisaic tradition. They are also known as the 'Followers of the Way', a term from the Essene philosophy. Simon a renowned great magician of Samaria converted to the Judo-Messianic sect and followed Philip and is astonished by the miracles. Simon Peter (d-64-67) and John the son Zebedee visited the growing Samaria church to lay on hands to raise some members to Apostles." 43 "James (died 62) the Righteous (the Just), had gained favor even with the Judo-Pharisees, leaders of the synagogues who are becoming prototypes for the coming age of rabbinical Judaism. The Judo-Sadducees, an aristocracy of high priests saw James (d-62) the Righteous as a growing threat to their power because of his very Righteousness. The Judo-Sadducees is remnants of the Herodian dynasty of Roman puppets. The Judo-Sadducees proclaimed that James (d-62) the Righteous One has gone astray and his death is prophesied by Isaiah 3:10-12. The Judo-Sadducees bludgeoned James (d-62) the Righteous to death in order to fulfil scriptures. The Qumran of the Messianic Essenes refers to James (d-62) as the Teacher of Righteousness. This is likely because he is of the Judo-Messianic sect who did not reject the law and covenant. King Herod Agrippa I (41-44) deposed the high priest Ananus (Anas) II (43-43) son Ananus I (6-15) after only three months because he ordered the stoning death of James (d-62) the brother of Jesus. Ananus (Anas) II the High Priest followed the teachings of the Sadducee Sect that are heartless when they sit in judgement. The King appointed two high priests in his place namely Jesus son of Damnaeus and Jesus son of Gamaliel. After this these two high priests hurled stones at each other." 43 "Herod Agrippa I King of the Jews (41-44) orders the beheading of a senior Apostle James (d-43) son Zebedee, brother of John. This account differs from the historian Flavious Josephus (37-100). After he saw this pleased the Jews, he proceeded to arrest Simon Peter during the festival of Unleavened Bread (Passover)." 43 "Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul claimed that after his lengthy stay in Arabia he returned to Damascus, Syria. Saul's disciples claim he then traveled Damascus to Jerusalem. In Jerusalem Paul alias Saul (10-67), creator of the Paulist Cult and a Pharisee, says that he boldly preached about the city but many of the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus Sect are in fear of this man. Barnabas a companion and fellow preacher with Paul vouched for him but the Zealots are determined to kill him. The Herodian brotherhood knew of the plot so they took him to Caesarea and sent him to Tarus in the Roman Province of Cilicia the place of his birth. Paul records that he stayed in Tarus for the next fourteen years. All records suggest the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus is totally unaware of Paul and it is highly unlikely that he preached throughout the city. This story is likely added to establish credibility." 43 "James the lesser alias the just, cousin and brother of Jesus, chief among the Apostle and first bishop of the Christians in Jerusalem in the Protevangelion Gospel attributed to James the just, claims to have retired to the desert (Jericho) until the death of Herod. Some claim that James the Just, Brother of Jesus is injured in an attack by Paul (Saulus) the Herodian but escaped." 43 "Saul of Tarsus (10-67) alias Paul, of the Paulist Cult, and his disciple Barnabas are mistaken for the messengers of the Gods Zeus and Hermes (Thoth) by the people of Lystra, Turkey. Hermes the Greek alias Thoth Trismegistus the Egyptian as a spirit concept is a messenger of the gods. The people labeled Paul as a disciple of Thoth meaning an interpreter of the divine will of mankind. Based upon this understanding others suggest Paul is being mistaken for the messianic messenger of the Mount of Olives the so-called Egyptian. Antioch, Syria becomes the center of the Judo-Hellenistic Messianic sect. This is the year in Syria that some allege that Simon Peter (d-64-67) the Judah-Messianic leader and Paul alias Saul (10-67), of the Paulist Cult, a Roman heatedly argued the keeping or abandonment of ancient Jewish tradition, according to Paul. There is no evidence to suggest Peter even knew that Paul existed. Simon Peter (d-64-67) the Joshua-Judah leader, keeper of the covenant had been preaching that Judo-Messianic sect members must observe Jewish tradition just as Joshua (Christ) had remained in God's covenant. Paul alias Saul(10-67), of the Paulist Cult argued that it is not necessary to follow Judah tradition. This likely represents the beginning of the schism between Eastern and Western Messianic orthodoxy. It is noteworthy that the Messianic Essenes Dead Sea Scrolls prophesy, that the Messiah will not turn aside from the Commandments of the Holy Ones. The actions of Paul the Roman clearly violates this prophesy leading many of the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus to consider Paul (10-67) a heretic of the darkness. Paul would be considered the liar who rejects the law and covenant that is disguising him as a servant of righteousness, the sons/servants of darkness. It is very evident that Paul or the authors attributed to Paul borrowed heavily from the writings of the Essene Sect and this likely infuriated the Essene Scribes. It is noteworthy that Paul is Roman, a Pharisee and a killer of Jews and that would not sit well with the Essenes under any conditions." 43 "The Romans sent four legions (20,000 men) to subdue the Belgae of England." 44 "The Orthodox Judah Sects of strict observance began to persecute those who preached that it is not necessary to follow long held tradition. James the younger (d-62) son Alphaeus and brother Judas becomes the second Papa of Jerusalem. This is likely the motivation needed for Paul alias Saul (10-67), the self-proclaimed apostle alias a Pharisee, and a Roman citizen to depart from Jerusalem. If true this must be in 62 AD??" 44 "A large crowd assembled at Jerusalem for the feast of unleavened bread turned on the guards for what they called an obscene gesture, an insult, and a blasphemy against God. They began stoning the guards so Ventidius Cumanus future Governor (48-52) ordered his 600 man Palestine auxiliary force to prevent a general revolt. Panic seized the crowd and many are trodden under foot and crushed to death. Twenty to thirty thousand are killed during this Passover." 44 "On the death of Herod Agrippa I King of the Jews (41-44) his daughters Mariamne age 10 and Drusilla age 6 are forced into prostitution by the Jews from the towns of Cesarea and Sebaste. Cuspius Fadus (44-46) is appointed Procurator of Judea and ordered by Caesar to chastise the towns of Cesarea and Sebaste." 45 "During the reign of Cuspius Fadus (44-46) a prophet (magician) named Theudas persuaded a great number of people to follow him to the Jordan River where he would divide the river. Fadus sent his troops and slew many of them and cut off the head of Theudas." 45 "Others suggest the 1st mission (45-49) of Paul (10-67) alias Saul, the self-proclaimed Roman Apostle of the Paulist Cult with Barnabas traveled this year from Antioch (Syria) via Cyprus to Attalia (Antalya, Turkey) and back to Syria and Jerusalem by 48. Paul himself however suggests he spent 14 years in Tarsus. Paul (10-67) of the Paulist Cult abandoned the ancient Hebrew dietary laws and circumcision clearly separating himself from the Covenant of the Holy Ones and the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus. The Apostles are admitting women to divine service, a clear transgression from ancient Judah tradition. It is noteworthy that the Paulist Cult preached equality yet retained the Judah tradition that women are servants to man." 46 "Tiberius Julius Alexander (46-48) is appointed Procurator of Judea. Josephus the historian claims Alexander crucified James and Simon during his reign." 48 "The Judeo-Messianic followers are divided into three different Sects, the Gentile Paulist Cult under Paul (10-67) and Barnabas, the Essene Sects and the Judo-Greek Messianic sect including the Hellenistic Sect under Peter (d-64-67) and James (d-62) the younger. Paul (10-67) the leader of the Paulist Cult visited Jerusalem but did not visit any of the Apostles likely for fear of rejection by the Church Council. It is noteworthy that he didn't attend the First Council (48-49) of the Messianic Gentiles and Judo-Messianic sect of Jerusalem this year. The Paulest Cult would evolve into the Roman Catholic Cult having no direct affiliation with the Christian Sects of Simon Peter. It is noteworthy that Flavious Josephus (37-100) the historian made no mention of Paul. Ventidius Cumanus (38-52) is appointed Procurator of Judea." 49 "The first Council (48-49) of the Messianic Gentiles and Messianic Judaism sect of Jerusalem met to discuss the fundamental issue if the Judaism Law is binding on the Messianic Judaism Sects. Simon Peter (d-64-67) the alleged Messianic Sect Leader had been teaching the doctrine that the Messianic Judaism sect members must follow the Judah Law where as the Greek-Judaism sect claimed that the Messianic sect did not have to follow the Judaism Temple Law. Most evidence suggests that James the Just the brother of Christ is the leader of the Messianic Judaism sect. This schism from Judaism is also the theology of the Roman Paulist Cult. The governing triad of James, Peter, and John must have been aware of Paulist with their self-proclaimed apostle at this time but for unknown reason they are totally ignored." 49 "The first Apostolic Council, it is believed by the Romans Paulists, concluded that Judah Law is not binding on Gentile Messianic Cult as is the need for circumcism. The Messianic Judaism sects would continue to adhere to Temple Law. The Gentile Cults also established their right to create Church policy or dogma, so some believed. This is likely not true as Messianic dogma and policy did not develop until much later. This great schism of Jerusalem would begin to entrench causing the Messianic sect to begin its cultural shift toward a Gentile Roman-Messianic Cult tradition. A result of the first council divided the early church into two fundamentally different sects. Later the Gentile Messianic sect would again split into a West and Eastern Messianic sect. The Messianic Judaism sect is headed by James the Just or as some believe Peter (d-64-67) of Judah. The Gentile sects are split between the Greek sect who still follow the Jerusalem sect and the Roman-Paulist Cult headed by Paul (10-67), the self-proclaimed apostle and a Roman citizen. It is noteworthy that Paul the Pharisee leader of the Paulist Cult did not attend this council and is ignorant of the results even as late as the year 58. This strongly suggests the Pauline Cult being established is not affiliated with any of the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus or the authorized Hellenistic Christian Sects." 49 "Emperor Claudius (41-54), as Caesar, expelled Judah, Roman-Paulist Cult and the Jerusalem and Hellenistic Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus Sects from Rome being unable to see any difference between what he considered the various Judah religious sects. About this time the Antioch Messianic sect began to call themselves Christians to differentiate themselves from the Paulist Cults. Paul alias Saul (10-67), leader of the Paulist Cult embarked on his second journey (49-52) with longer stays at Corinth. It is assumed he there wrote the 1st and 2nd Letters to the Thessalonians. Some suggest that a man named Luke, became a follower of Paul about this time. These claim however has no supporting evidence." 49 "The letters of James (d-62) the Just to the twelve tribes of the dispersion is believed written about this time and before the letters of Paul (10-67). Others contend the letters of Paul are written first but only because Paul is ignorant of the results of this council." 49 "There is evidence that the first Jesus Sect members are living among the Jewish Sect Community in Rome. This claim is interesting when the Romans of this time are unable to distinguish between what they consider as just another Judaism sect."

50-60 AD

50 "Celt-Germanic tribes are in the Rhine. Tribal assemblies determined policy. Custom followed their Viking tradition of compensation for damage or injury. Rome has deployed six legions (30,000 men) against the Sennones, a Teutonic tribe. Much of the Roman army would later be composed of these Germanic-Viking peoples during Rome's decline and fall." 50 "Paul (10-67), alias Saul the Roman, (a self-proclaimed apostle also a Pharisee), conducted his 2nd mission (50-52) with his disciples Silvanus and Timothy to Greece. They visited Thessalonika, Beroea and Athens. The Judaism Christians in Greece are hostile toward Paul because of his Roman citizenship and his anti-Semite teachings. It is alleged he wrote the Letters to the Thessalonians during this period (50-51). At this time Paul established his Paulist church at Philippia, Macedonia (Greece) in opposition to the Hellenistic Christian Church." 50 "The three major conversion trips of Paul are believed to have taken place between 50-60 A.D. driven by the belief that Jesus would rise again before the death of Paul." 50 "Eusebius (260-339) contends Paul called his followers soldiers rather than diciples. He also contends Paul referred to his letters as "according to my Gospel". We need to keep in mind that many in the Churches during Eusebius time did not consider the writings other than the four Gospel as canonical." 50 "The Messianic Essene's, doers of the law, established the ritual that the priest shall stretch out his hand first to pronounce a blessing with the first portion of the bread and the wine. Only full members of the Sect could participate in the daily communal meals at Qumran. The Messianic Essene Sect shares all property in common, eat communally, bless communally and take counsel communally. (Acts 2:44, 4:32) They even carried their belief to the grave. The excavated graves contained no burial goods that is common among pagans, Judaism and Messianic sects of this and later periods. No women are found among the 1,000 some graves at Qumran. Other nearby graves has some children and females including beads and earrings. Flavious Josephus (37 -100) tells us that not all Messianic Essene Sects are celibate but they agree with the Essene customs and laws. Their logic is that if all men were of the same opinion, the whole race of mankind would fail." 50 "The Kushans who live south of the Huns established superiority among the Cue-Chi tribes and began an invasion of India, conquering the Suren Kingdom by 75 A.D." 51 "Peter of Tarsus (Turkey) is considered a heretic by the Judah's sects. He doesn't keep Judah festivals nor does he preach the need for circumcision. Most of the Judah could not accept a crucified messiah." 52 "Paul (10-67), alias Saul the Roman, a self-proclaimed apostle and a Pharisee with Barnabas and Titus, returns to Jerusalem then on to Antioch. This is likely the time of recognition when Paul (10-67) openly attacked James (d-62) the younger that heads the Messianic Church of Jerusalem as the Papa. The main theological rupture is the observance of Jewish tradition. The followers of James (d-43) the Just called the Jerusalem Community of James or Ebionite Jewish-Christians or poor men, considered Paul the enemy, the Anti-Christ. Some of Paul's followers would later call James the Just, the brother of Jesus, the wicked demon and devil saying they didn't regard Jesus as divine. Also saying they observed the Sabbath and other ceremonies just like the Judaism (just like Christ). It is noteworthy that Paul (10-67) a Roman-Pharisee is considered by the Orthodox Christians and Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus to be part of the generation of vipers who like leaven in bread make men fit for hell." 52 "Paul (10-67) alias Saul the Roman claims Peter (Cephas) came to Antioch where Paul opposed Peter to his face, because Peter stood self-condemned; for until certain people came from James, Peter used to eat with the Gentiles. Other Jews joined Peter in this hypocrisy, so that even Barnabas was led astray by their hypocrisy. James the Just believed that in mixed churches such as Antioch Christian Judaism had to prevail over Christian Paganism. Before Jamesís intervention they ate with pagans like pagans, and the pagans ate like Jews with Jews. Paul called this common courtesy hypocrisy. Paul, in any case, refused to give in, found himself isolated, went westward, never to return to Antioch." 52 "The Syrians are stirring up resentment among the Galilians against Roman rule. The Galilians are called Sicarii and considered as bandits." 52 "At this time a prophet out of Egypt gathered his followers about 30,000 people to the Mount of Olives to demonstrate that he could command the walls of Jerusalem to fall. Others suggest he intended to force an entrance into the city. At this same time the Roman Procurator Antonius Felix (52-59) brother of Pallas ruled the entire country. He ordered his troops to deal with this imposter and 400 of the sect are killed and 200 taken prisoner. The Egyptian prophet however escaped. The Zealot leader Eleazar and his men who had plundered the country for twenty years are captured and sent to Rome as prisoners. Nero crucified the brigands who were too numerous to count. Procurator Felix (52-60) of Judea in alliance with the priesthood throughout his reign had to arrest imposters and brigands on a daily basis and have them crucified. Felix is the brother of King Agrippa II (60). Near the end of his reign the alliance broke down in open quarrels. Galilea is under the governor Cumanus and the Samaritans are under Felix and these two regions are at war among themselves. Quadratus President of Syria had to be called in to establish the peace." 52 "Eleazar's band of Zealots being terminated did not stop the plundering as a new group sprang up called the Sicarii. They committed numerous murders in broad daylight and in the middle of the city. They mingled with the crowd during festivals carrying short daggers and stabbed their opponents. Johathan, the high priest is one of the first victims. The secret sect was never discovered. In addition another rebel sect claiming divine inspiration incited a mob to frenzied enthusiasm led them into the wilderness. They believed God would show them omens of freedom. Civil war broke out in every part of the country as the people joined numerous sects and gangs throughout the country looting, burning and killing their fellow Jews." 53 "Paul (10-67), alias Saul the Roman, a heretic apostle, conducts his 3rd mission (53-58) Apollos at Ephesus and then Corinth. At Ephesus (Turkey) Paul the leader of the Paulist Cult claims to have given the Holy Spirit to twelve disciples of John the Baptist the Essene. He cautioned them to teach no other doctrine but his doctrine. He established Tychicus as the Papa of his Paulist Cult at Ephesian. It is noteworthy that Paul is the only self proclaimed apostle and that the Apostle John commented that the brotherhood of Ephesus cannot stand wicked men, and how they tested the imposters who called themselves apostles and proved they were liars. Paul defends himself saying God appointed him as an apostle. Paul says even if he is not an apostle to others, he is an apostle to the Paulist Cults. It is noteworthy that the Ephesians are generally worshippers of the Great Goddess Diana. 53 "The Apostle John son Zebedee and brother of James is the Papa of the seven churches in Turkey. The Seven church are located at Ephesus, Smyrna (Izmir), Pergamos, Thyatira (Akhismar), Sardis, Philadelphia (Alasehir) and Laodicea all located in modern day Turkey." 53 "Flavius Josephus (37-100) alias Joseph Ben Matthias entered the Essene sect as a postulate (53-56), as a disciple of Bannus the Hermit. This decision is made after he studied the three principal Jewish Sects of Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes. After three years he found the rules too difficult and joined the Pharisee sect. A full member Essene after 3 years as a postulant must swear to the following beliefs. To practice piety toward God, to observe justice toward men, to wrong none whether of his own mind or under anotherís orders, to forever hate the unjust and fight the battle of the just, to forever keep faith with all men, especially those to whom God has entrusted power, to refrain from abusing power, to refrain from outward marks (dress) of superiority, be a lover of truth, to expose liars." 53 "The 4,000 Essene Sect is barred from the Jerusalem Temple Sanctuary because their ritual of purification for their sacrifices does not conform to temple standards of the time." 54 "Nero (54-68) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. He is a thoroughly evil man who killed various relatives including his brother, his pregnant wife and his own mother." 54 "Paul (10-67) the heretic begins his 4th journey (54-58) to Ephesus with letters to the Philippians, Galatians, and Corinthians 1st and 2nd, and Romans. He then traveled to Corinth and Jerusalem where he is arrested and imprisoned (58-60) in Caesarea." 55 "Paul (10-67) alias Saul the Roman, the self-proclaimed apostle, traveled from Antioch (Syria) through Asia (Turkey) to Troas (Troy, Turkey) on the Aegean Sea. He then traveled Macedonia Achaea (Greece) from Neapolis (Kavala) to Athens (Athinai). Departing Athens he sailed back to Asia (Turkey) then on to Jerusalem, Judaea and back to Antioch, Syria. 56 "Paul (10-67) alias Saul the heretic is claimed to have written the Philippians about this time (56-57). Paul warns his church to beware of dogs, those people who are making mischief, the cutters (Judaism circumcisors), (especially the followers of James and Simon Peter) we (gentiles) are the real people." 57 "It is claimed Paul (10-67), the Roman wrote his letters to the Corinthians at this time. The Christian Churches at Corinth, Greece had split into differing factions, the Roman-Paulists, Apolloists and Caphas Sects. Paul the leader of the Paulist Cult claims he only baptized the House of Stephanas. Paul at this time recommends the killing of a man for immorality. As a result many Christians contend Paul is not a disciple of Christ and is accused of making merry by eating, drinking and traveling with women. Other Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus Sect is at Corinth attempting to convert the Roman Paulist and Paul calls Simon Peterís people as them counterfeit apostles. Paul claims to be more Christian than those other apostles are because he works harder and suffered more than any of them. Paul (10-67) alias Saul the Roman, a self-proclaimed apostle alias a Pharisee, in 2 Corinthians 11:13 is accused of being personally ambitious and he retaliates by attacking the Jerusalem Church (Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus Sect) claiming they are counterfeit Apostles of Christ and dishonest workmen liking them to Satan. He goes on in Galatians 4:9-10 to attack the Judaism Sabbath, festivals and jubilees. The weeks of holiness, monthly flags, festivals of glory and eternal jubilees." 58 "James (d-62) the younger heads the Messianic Church of Jerusalem and the Christian Church of Greece as Papa and is alleged to have written the Letter to the Christian dispersion." 58 "Paul (10-67) alias Saul the leader of the Paulist Cult who has been defaming Jewish tradition is arrested in Jerusalem by the High Priest Ananias (Anas) son Nebeus who hold him personally responsible for the schism in the Judah Churches. It is believed he is in and out of prison until being alleged executed about 67 AD. No evidence suggests he is ever executed. He is considered as being single-minded, stubborn of great dedication with a complete disregard for the cost of his decisions. This is also true when he persecuted the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus Sect members before his alleged conversion. Some suggest he has an inferiority complex, is defensive and is an anti-Semitic. It is believed he wrote the Galatians about this time but he is ignorant of the decree of 49 of the Council of Jerusalem." 58 "Paul for the first time claims that Jesus Christ gave him his apostle authority as well as God. This is a false claim made to the Galatians of Turkey who have turned away from Paulist theology to different followers of the Good News. He warns that anyone who preaches a different version of the Paulist Good News is a troublemaker even if it is an angel from heaven and they should be condemned." 58 "Paul (10-67) alias Saul the leader of the Paulist Cult, according to Galatians suggests he and his Greek Paulist teachings are under severe attack by the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus and his Church. Paul proclaimed God chooses him while still in his motherís womb. He acknowledged he did not consult with the Apostles of Jerusalem even during his visits. He did admit one encounter with James the younger (d-62) the brother of the Lord in the year 52 or 54. This is when he attacked James the Just causing bodily harm to the saint. He firmly believes the Apostles of Jerusalem have nothing to add to his Cults Good News. He believes Simon Peter is only commissioned to teach the circumcised and he Paul is commissioned to teach the uncircumcised. Paul thereby places himself equal if not superior to Simon Peter. It is noteworthy that most Roman Christians are circumcised according to Jewish tradition until the twentieth century." 58 "Paul claims he opposed Simon Peter (Cephas) on his visit to Antioch showing Peter to be manifestly in the wrong. Paul attempted to belittle Simon Peter for associating with the pagans just as Jesus was belittled for associating with sinners. Paul did not accept Peter as the head of the Christian Church. It is noteworthy that most sources suggest that James the Just, brother of Jesus rather than Peter, likely heads the Jerusalem Community Church." 58 "Paul (10-67) leader of the Paulist Cult traveled the same route through Asia (Turkey) and Macedonia Achaea (Greece) but returned along the coast then on to Jerusalem in Judaea. Saul (10-67) of Tarsus is brought to trial before the procurator of Judea, Antonius Felix (52-59), and appealed to the Roman Emperor as a Roman citizen. Paul (10-67), the leader of the Paulist Cult is claimed to have written or influenced over 50% of the New Testament yet the other Gospels are strangely silent about this man. Paul (10-67), the leader of the Paulist Cult is imprisoned at Caesarea (58-60) and then appealed as a Roman Citizen to the Judgement of the Emperor. Traveling to Rome he is alleged to have written the letters to the Philippians, Ephesians and Colossians. It is noteworthy that Procurator Felix (52-59) is replaced by Porcius Festus (59-62) as Procurator of Judea. Festus captured a considerable number of Zealot rebels." 59 "At Caesarea the Jewish population came to blows with the Greek Syrian inhabitants claiming the city as theirs. Whipping and imprisonment punish the more pugnacious offenders but this did not check the fighting. The Roman troops are used and they killed a large number of offenders and plundered their property." 59 "The Judeo-Messianic sect of Jerusalem all lived together and owned everything in common, like the Messianic Essenes. They went to the temple as a group but met in private homes to break bread, another practice of the Essenes. After the fall of Jerusalem all Jews are forced into home worship."


60 "Rebels of the Temple of the Jerusalem Church over the past twenty years began drawing religious battle lines both with Rome and the new Judo-Messianic sects. The Roman citizens considered all Judah Sects as a sordid lot. The Judo-Messianic sects went as a body every day to the Temple of Jerusalem. The Judah Sect insisted on the banning of fornication of the Holy People of the Temple. Fornication is considered any mixing of Judah and Gentile by marriage thereby polluting the Holy Seed of Judah. This definition is expanded to include anything of a Gentile nature including articles for sacrifice. The Law renders them unclean and thereby trespasses on the purity of the Temple. The Law is based on Israel and Judah being a Holy People, a Holy Seed. The Judo-Messianic sect of Jerusalem are taking a non-righteous stance by claiming there are no forbidden things, that accepting Gentiles into the Brotherhood is not fornication. They openly fornicate with Gentiles, prostitutes using articles and activities of impurity. Sleeping with ones wife during their periods as an example is considered unclean and the man therefore brings pollution to the Temple. The use of Gentile made or handled cups as an example renders the contents unclean and therefore blasphemous. The extremists would eventually trigger a war with Rome 66-77 AD by stopping sacrifices on behalf of Romans and other Gentiles in the Temples." 60 "Roman-Christians from Antioch and Edessa are penetrating into northern Iraq." 61 "Two of England's largest armies are ruled by Queen Boadicea of the Iceni tribe. This most powerful Celt leader is a long red hair woman who destroyed the Roman London and nearly drove the Romans from England before being killed. The Romans said they invaded Britannia because the Celts of England are supporting the Germanic-Celts of Gaul by supplying food. The Iceni tribe used chariots in battle and practiced equality of the sexes." 61 "Paul (10-67) the Roman the self-proclaimed apostle is alleged jailed in Rome (61-63) and it is claimed he writes letters to Colossians, Ephesians, Philemon (and to Philippians?). Paul claims some of his oppressioners do so out of rivalry and competition (jealous, selfish motives) implying some of the Messianic Sect are behind his imprisonment but the rest preach Christ with the right intention. At this time Paul (10-67) the Roman began to consider himself as a saint." 61 "Paul spent 2 years in Rome under no restraint. When he went to trial non of his soldiers (diciples) supported him, they all left him to his fate. This is according to Eusebius (260-339)." 61 "Many scholars believe St. Peter visited Rome about 61-63 A.D. and is executed there in 67. It is interesting to note that no direct evidence supports this myth. This story first surfaced about 170 A.D. by Irenaeus and Dionysius of Corinth." 62 "Ten thousand Romans invade England and eighty thousand Pict-Celts (Britons) are massacred." 62 "Paul (Saul) (10-67), the leader of the Paulist Cult, is responsible for establishing a harsh condemnation of women in the western world that would perpetuate until the twenty first century. Based on the Second version of the creation of mankind Saul (10-67), the heretic classified women as the reflection of man's glory. He said that women came from man and that woman is created for the sake of man. Based on this misunderstanding he proclaimed Roman Church Law that stated: Women are to remain quiet at meetings since they have no permission to speak. They must be subject to their husbands and fathers. They must keep in the background as the Law (Judah) says. Woman caused the fall of man from God's grace and therefore changed what was known as good is now known as evil. This distorted Paulist logic established the destructive doctrine of hereditary guilt. This Brotherhood or Christian tradition divided the early church into two camps. The Brotherhood led by James the younger (d-62) preached to remain faithful to the Judah Law. The Paulists led by Stephan wanted to break away from temple tradition. As a compromise the Roman Hellenistic Churches forced the Principle of Salvation through Faith in Christ thereby dispensing non-Judaic Christians from obeying the Law of Moses. This it is claimed had been established at the Council of Jerusalem in 49 A.D. but this alleged ruling would continued to haunt the Church for many centuries." 62 "These early Messianic sects of Jerusalem are socialists and later Roman Christian Church descendents would condemn these practices as being pagan and heathenistic. The early Jerusalem Community James Sect's practice can be compared to the North American Indian Potlatch. They shared their food gladly and generously. They owned everything in common. No members are in want. They met by common consent. The Church of Rome became Romanized and would call these traditions a squandering of ones belongings and ban the practice. Those who later followed these early Essene and Christian principles would be persecuted by the Roman Church." 62 "James (d-62) the Just, Brother of Jesus, the Righteous and a Nazarite is claimed to be holy from birth, he drank no wine or intoxicating liquor and ate no animal food; no razor came near his head, he did not smear himself with oil and took no bath. He alone was permitted to enter the Holy Place, for his garments were not of wool but of linen. James is thrown from the parapet of the Jerusalem Temple and clubbed to death." 62 "Ananus the High Priest of Jerusalem assembled the Sanhedrin of the Judges (including the prefects Porcius Festus (59-62) and Albinus) to condemn James the Brother of Jesus the Christ and some others of his companions. After the untimely death of Porcius Festus (59-62) as Procurator of Judea and before Albinus arrived James (d-62) the younger (40's-60's), second Papa of Jerusalem, the brother of the Lord who heads the Judo-Messianic Church of Jerusalem is stoned to death by the Sadducean High Priest, Anas or Ananus son of Ananus. James the Righteous was thrown down from the parapet and beaten to death with a fuller's club. He was accused of breaking the law. Neither the High Priest nor the Sanhedrin has the authority to kill so this decision is murder. Only the Procurator of Judea has this authority. Agrippa took the high priesthood from Ananus for this crime and gave it to Jesus the son of Damneus. Albinus the Procurator of Judaea shut his eyes to the seditious activities of Jews against Jews provided they offer bribes. He released from jail all those who could afford ransom. Albinus at first acted firmly against the Zealot Sicarii sect. Albinus cooperated with the high priest, Ananus, the son Nebedeus so the Sicarii sect attacked Ananus' circle in order to pressure Albinus to release Sicarii prisoners. Large numbers of rebels are released into the country. Tyranny reigned everywhere as numerous gangs terrorized the country. Even the various High Priests and anti high priest are seen physically fighting in the streets." 62 "The King Agrippa II removed Joseph from the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to this office upon the son of Ananus the Elder highpriest (6-15), who is likewise called Ananus. Ananus the High Priest was rash in temper and unusually daring. He followed the school of the Sadducees, who are more heartless than any other Hebrew when they sit in judgement. Ananus killed James the Just without authority and is deposed by King Agrippa after only three months in office and replaced by Jesus the son of Damascus." 62 "Symeon son of Clopas the brother of Joseph therefore the cousin of Jesus is elected the second Papa of the Church of Jerusalem. This is according to Eusebius (260-339). This would make him the second Pope of the Christian Churches if they used such titles in these days." 62 "Simeon son Cleophas and Mary (sister-in-law of the mother of Jesus, third Papa of Jerusalem succeeding James (d-62) the Lesser as head of the Judo-Messianic Church of Jerusalem. The Gospel attributed to Thomas claims the third Papa of Jerusalem is James (d-43) the Just." 62 "Annianus of Alexandria is considered the first Papa (Bishop) of Alexandria. Euodius of Antioch is considered the first Papa (Bishop) of Antioch after James the brother of Jesus." 62 "During the reign of Albinus, Roman Procurator of Judea (62-64), Jesus (d-62), son of Ananias a Sadducee, a peasant spoke against the Temple, is arrested and beaten by Jewish authorities and then released. He had been speaking prophecy for seven years and five months before being stoned to death this year. Annas (Anas) or Ananus II (62) of the House of Annas a Sadducee became the high priest of Jerusalem. Albinus (62-64) relentlessly pursued the Sicarii Jews (Galilian Sect) while heaping praise on the Sanhedrin, the Jewish supreme council and court of justice. Many nonconforming priests are starved to death because their food is withdrawn." 63 "The Romans captured the last remnants of the Babylonian Empire in Northern Syria. The Judo-Messianic sect of Nazareth believed that Satan resided to the Northwest of Nazurith. Rebels killed the High-Priest Ananus (Anas) II (62-63) of Jerusalem hoping to return the Priesthood to the traditional House of Zadokite." 63 "Paul (10-67) alias (Saul the Roman citizen), the self-proclaimed apostle alias a Pharisee, is set free and possibly travels to Spain. Others suggest he is the Paul (Saulus) who played a key role in the events leading up to the destruction of Jerusalem. Paul the leader of the Roman Church has an obvious inferiority complex that is expressed in his anti-Semitism and defensiveness. It is suggested his attitude is such because he is a convert to Judaism as he aspired to marry the High Priest Daughter but is rejected by most sects of Judaism. Paul basically disappears from history, even his disciples fail to mention his whereabouts." 64 "The Roman-Paulists and Christians are a despised sect and already are a considerable group in Rome. They are spreading a prophecy of an imminent second advent of Christ and a worldwide holocaust. Suetonius writing in 122 AD says that Nero blamed a class of Men, loathed for their vices, who the crowd styled Christians, for burning Rome. The term Christians is not acknowledged in Rome until 111 AD by Pliny and by Tacitus in 115 AD. Tacitus says the Christus. the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberious, be sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for the moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find vogue." 64 "Joseph Ben Matthias (37-100) the historian went to Rome to obtain the release of certain priests who had been sent there by Procurator Felix (52-59) of Judaea. On the way like Paul (10-67) alias Saul, of Tarsus (Turkey) he is ship wrecked. He achieved his goal with the help of Aliturus and the Emperor's wife Poppaea who is God fearing." 64 "The Roman Governor of Syria Florus is determined to fan the flames of hatred into a blazing war." 64 "The Great Fire of Rome, in six days leveled the city and some blamed Nero (54-68). Nero in turn blamed the fire on the Messianic Judaism sects and so began their persecution. It is noteworthy that Nero (54-68) married Poppaea a Judian. Until this time the Jerusalem Community of James the Just, brother of Jesus Sects, Roman Paulists and the various other Judo-Messianic sects are still considered the same sect by the Romans. This growing Roman scorn is because these Roman-Christians and Paulists are waiting for the last judgment and failed to participate in political and social life of the Empire. The Roman-Christians and Paulists are rumored to hold orgies, killing small children to provide the blood and body they consumed during their services. Those Roman Messianic sects also welcomed inferior beings, women and slaves into their culture and proclaiming all other traditions false. Beliefs became truths and became the basis for judgment of who is or is not civilized. The persecution of Judaism and Messianic sects in the Roman Empire would continue sporadically, often brought on by a calamity, such as an earthquake, flood, or even a loss in battle, for which the Judah Sects are then held responsible. The Edict of Milan in 313 is finally granted giving official sanction to Roman-Christianity within the Empire. Roman Christianity and some other Messianic cultures like the Paulists would begin to merge and the Roman-Christians would become essentially a New Roman Culture basically void of most Judah or Judo-Messianic traditions. Publius Cornelious Tacitus (55-116? A.D.) a Roman historian wrote that the Roman Christian Sects are being severely punished not to protect public welfare but to satisfy the ferocity of Nero (54-68) the Emperor of Rome." 64 "Publius Cornelius Tacitus (55-116? A.D.) a Roman historian writing about the Great Fire of Rome noted; Christus, the founder of the name had undergone the death penalty in the region of Tiberious, by sentence of the Prefect Pontius Pilatus (26-36), and the pernicious superstition was checked for the moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. Simon Peter the Apostle who most likely died 64 or at the latest by 67 AD had urged the Gentiles to abide by Judah dietary Laws. Peter (d-64-67) accepted the correction and changed his ruling establishing the precedent that Church officials are not free from grievous error in matters of faith and morals. Peter is surly aware of the schism developing within the Judo-Christian community. It is also noteworthy that Peter (d-64-67) never claimed to be Papa of Rome." 64 "There is no evidence to support the claim by Irenaeus and Dionysius of Corinth in 170 A.D. that St. Peter visited Rome. Simon Peter (d-64-67) the apostle is crucified on the Mons Vaticanus. Christianity is spreading from Antioch to Syria and Edessa, from Ephesus to Asia Minor and Gaul, from Alexandria to the south and south east of the Roman Empire, from Rome to Italy and Africa and from there to Spain. Constantinople became the center for the spread to the Balkans (Goths and Slavs.). The early Church held fast to the doctrine of the Kingdom of God being different than the Kingdom of Man. Jesus had refused to make sacrifices to the Roman Emperor God person. The Churches would later abandon this fundamental doctrine." 64 "Pliny the Younger writing to Emperor Trajan noted that fraternities are forbidden in Bithynia in Asia Minor yet he arrested two female Judo-Christian deaconesses. It should be noted that female priests are fairly common in the early Jerusalem Judo-Christian Church sects. The Roman Christian Sect would abandon this practice and most Jewish tradition. Rebels killed the High-Priest Jesus (63-64) of Jerusalem hoping to return the Priesthood to the House of Zadokite. Gessius Florus (64-66) is appointed Procurator of Judea. He exceeded the evils of Albinus by declaring that anyone might become a bandit as long as he received his share of the spoils. Many Jews fled the region to foreign provinces. The Galilean Sect (Zealots) began to go wild and revolt against Rome during Florus reign. Josephus the historian suggests that Gessius Florus (64-66) the Procurator started the rebellion in Jerusalem. He ordered his soldiers to sack the upper market. About 3,000 men, women and children are killed. He ordered senior Jews with Roman status to be whipped and then nailed to the cross." 65 "Matthias (65) son high priest Theophilus (37) of the House of Annas became the high priest of Jerusalem of the Sadducees Sect." 65 "Paul (10-67) alias Saul, a Pharisee, a Roman Citizen and a self-proclaimed apostle is believed to have written 1 Timothy and Titus while not captive in Rome. Paul believing his life is near its end established Timothy as his successor. He warns of hypocrites who say marriage is forbidden among the clergy. This will later cause a schism between the Roman and Eastern Orthodox Churches." 65 "A widespread conspiracy against Nero (54-68) is discovered and many senators are executed or forced to commit suicide this year. The revolts, conspiracies and executions would continue to Nero's suicide in 68." 66 "The Judah Zealot Sect revolt against Rome rule (66-73) is triggered by the spread of the Messiah prophecy stories circulating throughout the Empire according to eye-witness Flavious Josephus (37 -100). The Judah prophecy said that a world ruler would come out of Palestine from the House of David. These stories are likely intensified to differentiate the Judah Sects who believed the Messiah had not yet come from the various Judo-Messianic Sects who believed Joshua is the Messiah. Flavious Josephus (37-100) the historian and son of Matthias is appointed General of 100,000 men to defend Galilee against the Romans. John of Gischala with a band of 400 men tried to depose General Josephus. The Gischala army grew to 3,000 as the army of Josephus began to desert and they nearly succeed in overthrowing the Josephus army. These followers of John likely became known as the Zealot sect." 66 "The Galileans attacked Sepphoris and Tiberias venting their hatred on the cities, setting fire to the houses and looted everything. Tiberias is friendly to King Agrippi II." 66 "Cestius Gallus led the Roman Twelfth Legion against Jerusalem but is routed and retreated causing a great disgrace to the Romans. The Roman General Titus Flavius Vespasianus born 9 A.D. began to march on Galilee. During his campaign against the Jews he is recorded by the Roman historian Tacitus (?70-100) to have cured the lame and a blind man by putting some of his spittle upon the balls of his eyes. He ended his days as a moneylender among the Helvetii, ancient Swiss." 66 "The Hebrew people did not unite against the Roman threat but rather began to attack fellow Hebrews who followed differing beliefs. The Masada Zealot Sect considered the most violent of the Zealots attempted to take Jerusalem but failed and fled to Masada. The captured Masada from the Romans and slew them." 66 "John the Essene commanding northwestern Judaea in the revolt against Rome, died in an assault on the coastal city of Ascalon." 66 "Judaism has a strong position in the Roman Empire. About ten percent of the Empire is Jewish. Alexanderia as an example is forty percent Jewish. The Judah Sects of the Essenes and Qumran believed that Jerusalem had become venal and corrupt. The Dead Sea Scrolls from cave #3 listed the Temple treasure suggest the Messianic Essenes may have been attempting to sequester the Temple treasures for hiding because of the coming Roman armies. The Ark of the Covenant is not on the list. This listing suggests the Messianic Essene is a mainstream Judah activist group, and likely militant. No evidence suggests the Essenes are militant. The Judo-Pharisees also rejected the temple in favor of self-governing communities such as Jabneh. The Dead Sea Scrolls speak of one God-like the Judeo-Joshua Messiah. Flavious Josephus (37 -100), the Roman historian of this period writing about the Judah Wars said the chief inducement to go to war is an oracle found in their sacred writings, announcing that at that time a man from their country would become King of the whole world. These Messianic Essene are without women renouncing all sexual desires. They have no money yet day by day the throngs of refugees are recruited to adopt their manners. Many would suggest these are the earliest Judo-Christians." 66 "The Judah Zealots, a strict religious sect, captured the Roman stronghold of Masada by the Dead Sea. King Herod the Great originally built Masada about 40 B.C. The Zealots used this as their base to attack the Romans. Others suggest they didn't attack the Romans from this stronghold. Most Judah Sects at this time considered these zealots as extremist rebels." 66 "The tenth Roman Legion marched on the Judah Zealot stronghold of Masada by the Dead Sea. Eleazar the leader of the Judah Zealots ordered on April 15, 67-73 AD the suicide of all the defenders of Masada Zealots so as not to fall into the hands of the besieging Romans. Two women and five children hid surviving the killings to tell their story. It is recorded that about 960 killed themselves but archeological digging only turned up 29 bodies suggesting they either escaped or are taken prisoner. Many Judah citizens at this time would emigrate to Italy and Germany to avoid persecution." 66 "Linus (about 66-78) a soldier and companion of Paul (10-67), the self-proclaimed apostle and heretic, is listed as the first Papa of Rome (bishop) being given this position by Paul (10-67). Tertullian (160-225) and Jerome (331-420) claim St. Peter (d-64-67) appoints the Paulist Clement (64-95) as the first Papa of Rome. This claim is likely because Linus (66-78) and Anacletus (79-91) are Paulists and are not endorsed by Peter or his church. Simon Peter and Paul differed concerning theology so it is unlikely he would endorse a follower of the Paulist Church. Saint Peter most likely died before Linus is made papa. Most early Papa's of Rome are highly suspect and likely retro invented much later. Irenacus of Lyons about 180 and Hegesippus about 160 are alleged by Eusebius (260-340) to have listed Linus as the first papa of Rome. It is noteworthy that Paul (10-67) never recognized or followed the Judo-Christian Church headed by James the Just, brother of Christ or St. Peter and it is highly unlikely Peter would endorse any follower of the heretic Paulist Church. The first listing of Roman Papa's lists them as Paul, Linus, Anencletus then Clement as the first Papa's of the Roman church. The Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians is attributed to the Paulist Clement (64-95). Clemens Alexandrinus call him an apostle. Jerome says he was an apostolic man, and Rufinus that he was almost an apostle. Eusebinus calls this the wonderful Epistle of St. Clement, and says that it was publicly read in the assemblies of the early church. It is included in early Canon Scriptures but later rejected by the Catholic Church. Clement (64-95) places St. Peter and Paul as Apostles of the Catholic Church but suggests schism between the two churches. It is noteworthy that there is no indication that early Christian communities in Rome were presided over by a bishop. Bishops as an authority hierarchy did not appear until another one hundred years and then first in the Eastern Churches. The Roman Paulist Church didn't have Bishops until Hippolytus (217-235)." 66 "Eleazar, son Ananias the high priest, holding the position of captain persuaded the officials of the Temple to accept no gift or sacrifice from foreigners. This effective blocked any sacrifices offered for Rome and the Emperor. The Pharisees and leading citizens of Jerusalem feared they face an irreparable disaster as a result of this position. All experts agreed that their ancestors had accepted offerings from aliens. The Temple leaders and Zealots would not change the new religious law. The Pharisees sent Saul, Antipas and Costobar all members of the royal family to beg the Romans to come to Jerusalem before the revolution gets out of hand. Florus is delighted that a pending war is kindling and ordered more troops into the city. Seven days of mutual slaughter resulted. The Sicarii infiltrated the Upper City. The house of Ananias the High Priest and the palaces of Agrippa and Bernice are burnt. The public archives are also burnt so that the moneylenders are prevented the recovery of debts. The High Priest Ananias along with his brother Eezekiah are killed. Menahem, and Absalom also died this day." 66 "The Judah in revolt executed the Judo-Sadducees as pro-Roman collaborators and drove the Romans from Jerusalem. The Messianic Essene knowing that Roman legions would retaliate with vengeance, hid their script collection to become known as the Dead Sea Scrolls." 66 "The Jewish Zealots attacked the town of Scythopolis (Bethshean) an ancient Canaanite town where the resident Jews sided with the town folks. A well known man Simon, son of Saul a Jew went out day by day and killed many Jews who were attacking the city. The city folks eventually turned on their own Jewish citizens and put them to the sword. As a result other cities attacked their resident Jews." 67 "Paul (10-67) the Pharisee-Christian alias Saul the Roman citizen, a self-proclaimed apostle, writes 2 Timothy and the Letters to the Hebrew just before his death. Paul (10-67) alias Saul the Roman, and self-proclaimed apostle, traveled from Jerusalem to Rome where it is believed he died this year. His ship is wrecked on the way at Melita (Malta) south of Sicily. The Roman Saul's journeys spanned the years 46-62 (67?). It is noteworthy that there is no direct evidence that he is executed in Rome in A.D. 67. Irenaeus and Dionysius of Corinth established this tradition in A.D. 170. Some suggest he is Saulus alias Paul who played a key role in the events leading up to the destruction of Jerusalem. If this is true it explains why the Paulist Church writings are strangely silent about his death or whereabouts after this time. Paul (10-67) the Roman-Paulist is alleged killed in Rome under orders of Nero (54-68) the Roman Emperor. Others say Paul (10-67) is beheaded on the road to Ostia. Others suggest he escaped to Spain. At this time it is alleged Linus (about 67-76) is appointed by Paul (10-67) as the first Papa of Rome and headed the Roman Greek Paulist Christian Church not Peter as is commonly assumed. Simon Peter (d-64-67) is never once recorded as Papa of Rome and likely only spent 3-4 years in Rome. Most evidence suggests that James the Just is Papa of the Christian Churches. The writings attributed to Saul (10-67) comprise nearly 1/3 of the New Testament and are not edited and compiled until nearly five hundred years after his death. Some think Paul is likely killed as being a member of the Roman conspiracy and revolution of 64-68. It is noteworthy that Emperor Nero (54-68) toured Greece executing more conspirators. It is noteworthy that Flavious Josephus (37 -100) the Jewish historian makes no reference to Paul alias Saul but does speak of Saulus." 67 "Flavius Josephus (37 -100), the Jewish historian, is in charge of the Jewish revolt in Galilee holding out at Jotapata for six weeks and eventually surrendered to the attacking Roman General Vespasian this year. He predicted that one day Vespasian Flavious would become the Emperor. He is jailed but released in 69 having accurately foretold that his captor would become Emperor. He remained in Rome (69-96) where he wrote his histories. He believed God had abandoned the Jews and he now sides with the Romans." 67 "The historian Appian says that Gaul is populated by 400 Celt nations. Josephus the historian says 305 nations comprise Gaul. They had all the means of production in their own lands and flooded almost the whole world with their merchandise. There are over 800 towns in Gaul." 67 "The Roman Governor of Spain proclaimed that the Emperor of Rome is unworthy and began to march on Rome." 68 This year is known as the year of the four Roman Emperors Servius Sulpicius Galba (68-69) (murdered), Marcus Salvius Otho (69-69)(suicides), Aulus Vitellius (69-69) (killed) and Vespasian (69-79) (Legate of Judea) prevailed. The Senate is considered as helpless during this period of internal revolution. The Judah staged a full-scale revolution that required the attention of six Roman Legions. The Roman General Vespasian marched on Jerusalem leaving scorched earth behind him and driving the Zealots into Jerusalem. The Zealots turned against the hereditary Temple aristocratic and high-priestly leaders replacing them by lot with lowborn individuals. This stage of the rebellion represents the peasants against the aristocrats. The Judah Sects complained that the tax rate of 25 percent on top of the temples 22 percent is unacceptable. Civilis the Roman commander guarding the Rhine also rebelled against Rome in support of Vespasion. At this time Rome is gripped by a civil struggle between Aulus Vitellius and Vespasian who would become Emperor. Many outlying regions seized this as an opportunity to gain advantage. Pliny the Elder a Roman historian is exploring the Jordan Valley and Dead Sea regions. A few miles south of Jericho, where Qumran lies, he described a settlement of deeply religious men, whom he called the Essenes. The settlement has no women and the Essenes no money yet by recruitment through thousands of ages a race in which no one is born lives on forever. The Messianic Essenes gathered and copied texts from diverse places, placed them in terra-cotta jars and sealed them behind false rock faces for safekeeping. The texts included Greek and Hebrew from the Book of Isaiah to land deeds, marriage contracts, bill of divorce, scriptural commentaries all mingled. They even included a list of the hidden treasures of Jerusalem suggesting the Messianic Essene are likely a main stream Judaeans. The Dead Sea Scrolls are the oldest source of the Old Testament and does not include the book of Esther. The Romans later this year occupied the Qumran temple and the fate of the Messianic Essene Sect is unknown. It is believed the Dead Sea Scrolls are buried this year. The Essene Sect had groups of followers in every town of Judea and is likely absorbed into one of the evolving Judo-Christian Sects. 69 Titus Flavius Vespasian Augustus (69-79) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. Emesa, Commagene and Armenia Minor are annexed into the Roman Empire. It is noteworthy that the apostles Jude and Bartholomew established the Byzantine Christian Armenian Church. 70-80 70 The Titus Flavian son of Emperor Vespasian (70-79) and heir to the Roman Imperial throne (79-81) and eighty thousand men put an end to all Jewish independence and destroyed the second temple of Jerusalem, sets it afire and tore down the walls. Some suggest it is Titus Flavian who carried off the Ark of the Covenant and the seven-branched candelabra, both sacred emblems of Judaism. Vespasin and Titus are of humble origin and strove to maintain peace within the Empire. The Judah debated in the town of Yagnar, which books to include in the Bible. This is believed to be the first complete Old Testament. Some books included by Christian sects are not included by the Judah sects. It is noteworthy that Jerusalem had a special access gate for the Essene. This gate is past the place called Bethso in the southwestern corner of Jerusalem's old first wall. It is believed the gate was installed about 30 B.C. by Roman engineers and destroyed in 70 AD. The Dead Sea Scrolls are completed by a Judo-Christian Monastic Sect called Essenes who lived 200 B.C. to 70 A.D around the Dead Sea. It is known that some early Judeo-Christians withdrew into the desert to a Monistic existence. Some believe this Judah Sect eventually evolved into some of the early Eastern-Christians. The Greek Orthodox Christians as an example hold the Monastic tradition as an ideal. The last of the Dead Sea scrolls is written in Aramaic. The Messianic Essenes are also traced to 8th century Kerites a heretical Judah sect from Persia who followed the Essene writings. Some suggest that the Gospel and Letters of John could be written by the Essene or are based upon the Essene documents of Qumran. The Messianic Rule of the Essenes "when they shall gather for the common table the priest shall bless the first fruits of bread and wine, thereafter the Messiah (Jesus) of Israel (Judah) shall extend his hand over the bread, and all the congregation of the Community utter a blessing. Judaism and the Brotherhood of Jesus are still largely indistinguishable during the first century after the death of Jesus Christ. One serious difference being the latterís belief that the messiah in the person of Joshua (Jesus) had come. The major theological difference is the failure of some Hellenistic Christians and Roman Paulists to follow Judah Law according to the Council of 49. During this Essenes Period Judaism is extremely diverse in its beliefs and values. On the Orthodox side the people are awaiting the messiah to wage war against the forces of evil in a final Apocalyptic Battle. A forty year battle of the children of light vs. the children of darkness. This is an ancient tradition that good triumphs over evil. The more Christian/Rabbinical form of Judaism had moved from speculating about God's activities in the world to analyzing and commenting on Scriptures and their meaning. It is clear that the Biblical texts are fluid and have evolved rather than being rigid like the fundamentalists would like them to be. In fact the canon or recognized set of collected works within the Scriptures that is considered authoritative varied with each religious sect. Roman-Christian Europe would embrace an Apocalyptic War set of beliefs and values and attempt to enforce them on their fellow man. Joshua, the Egyptian Christ, was not out to change the way people act or believe but rather to change the way they think through example and parable. The old Middle East way is to use fear, force and power as a persuader. Titus and Tiberious Alexander lay siege to Jerusalem causing its complete destruction. The Roman-Christians believe this action revokes the special convenient between God and the Judah and the Judo-Christians for that matter. This belief makes the Judah people even more distrusting of Roman-Christians. Some biblical scholars suggest John Mark of Jerusalem who assisted Peter, Paul who died 67 (a self-proclaimed apostle) and Barnabas is the first to recorded the Gospels this year in Rome based upon the teachings of Peter the Apostle. This is pure speculation with no basis in fact. It is noteworthy that Barnabas a companion and fellow preacher with the Paulist sect is attribute to writing the General Epistle of Barnabas. This Epistle had canonical authority in the early Christian Churches. This Epistle attributed to Barnabas however is likely written after 100 A.D. Early Roman Christian writings show no knowledge of the Gospel attributed to Mark. No evidence supports this theory and the earliest known fragments excluding the Dead Sea Scrolls are dated about 125-150 AD. The Oldest surviving copy of the book of Mark dates to 225 A.D. It is generally accepted that the Gospel according to Mark represents the oldest book and that the Matthew, Luke and John books used Mark as their source. The Dead Sea Scrolls suggest that maybe John is the first Gospel written. The Gospel according to Saint John is written by an Essene (a Jewish Sect) and is therefore likely the earliest version of Gospels. Others suggest the first records (Quelle) likely only represented the parables and the balance is later added resulting in some conflicting stories. The actual authors of the Gospels are not known. The Roman Church attributed them as Mark, Matthew, Luke and John but there is no basis in fact to support this contention. The gospel of Matthew is believed first written in Aramaic. Evidence suggests that these writings are copied from an early source called 'Q' or source. The earliest surviving copy of Mark is 225 A.D. and some suggest it is written with the implicit purpose to clear Judo-Christians of any involvement in the Judah rebellion. Matthew 23:8-10 commands "you are not to be called Rabbi, for you have one teacher, and you are all students. And call no one your Father on earth, for you have one Father, the one in heaven. Nor are you to be called instructors, for you have one instructor, the Messiah". This would tend to indicate that the Rabbi Pharisee Sect is gaining in authority over the Matthean Sect. The early Christians also had access to the Egyptian sacred writings and some of this philosophy like is incorporated into the biblical writings. Some of this philosophy is later discarded as Gnosticism (a Religion of knowledge or insight). It is noteworthy that most of the ten commandments can be sourced to the Egyptian philosophy. The final commandment of love of self and love of neighbor is also incorporated in Egyptian philosophy but not in Jewish philosophy. The Epistles attributed to Paul the alleged Apostle that are rejected by the Roman Catholic Church is to the Laodiceans, to the Seneca and Thecla. These books make reference to Paul's book of many Epistles that were not authored by Paul but presumed to represent his teachings. Some of these books are believed authored by Paul and written by others. Some Christian churches include these books in their bibles. Some contend the Acts of Paul and Thecla dates to 492-496. The Jewish aristocratic class of priests (Sadducees) is destroyed forever and the scribal class of legal experts (Pharisee) inherited the Jewish leadership. They assembled at Yavneh, west of Jerusalem near the Mediterranean coast, to save Judaism. The Pharisee advocated religious fidelity and moral integrity and extended the lost Temple ritual into every Jewish home. The home regular meals will be observed as once was the Temple and its sacrificial meal. Return to Jerusalem of a group of Judeo-Christians (Epiphanius). Rome banished the professors of philosophy on the grounds their doctrines encouraged disloyalty. 75 Plutarch a Greek biographer recorded the sailing of pilgrims from Britain to a shrine beyond the Atlantic Ocean. Flavious Josephus (37-100) wrote his history in Aramaic and over the next four years translated his books into Greek. It is noteworthy that only the Greek version survived. It is also noteworthy that the Greeks did not believe the antiquity of the Jews (5,000-yr.) but contend they originate from more recent times. 76 Cletus (Anacletus) (?76-88) a Paulist became the first Papa of the Roman-Paulist Church and some claim he is appointed by Paul and Peter. It is noteworthy that both Paul and Peter are claimed to have died about or before 67. King Alexander Jonathan (Jannaeus) died this year. 79 Mount Vesuvious erupted August 24, blasting a column of pumice twelve miles into the air, destroying the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Some sixteen thousand people living in cities and towns around the base of the volcano had been killed. Pliny the Roman historian is among the causalities of Pompeii. A plague swept through the Roman Empire ending in 88 and reports indicates that ten thousand people died a day at its height. At Herculaneum is discovered a symbol of a cross leading to speculation that Roman-Christianity is practiced in secret. The cross could be from 64 A.D. as it appeared to be covered probably during the period of persecution. The cross at this time is the symbol of slavery whereas the fish is the symbol of Christianity (freedom). To consider the cross as a Christian symbol at this time doesn't hold much credibility. The saying take up your cross and follow me would be the same as saying take up your gallows, or gas chambers, or guillotine and follow me. Titus Caesar Vespasian (79-81) 'the conquer of Jerusalem' and eldest son of Emperor Vespasian (69-79) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. The citizens of Naples still speak Greek. St. Anacletus or Anencletus also Cletus (about 79-91) likely a Greek Paulist is listed as the second Papa of Rome. Some papal lists in the 4th century listed Cletus as a different person than Anencletus. It is considered impossible to form any clear concept of his role in the early Churches. Eusebius (260-340) wrote Cletus died (93) in the twelfth year of Emperor Domitian's reign (81-96). Tertullian (160-225) and Jerome (331-420) claim Clement (64-95) is appointed by St. Peter (d-64-67) as the first Papa of Rome. All these claims are likely fabrications. 80-90 80 The Romans completed their infamous amphitheater called the Colosseum. The Roman Colosseum became the center of all Roman culture centered on violence and cruelty. This insatiable demonic desire for blood both animal and human lasted for 500 years of which 300 are under Christian control. The games usually began with the slaughter of animals. Human executions included crucifixion, burning and exposure to wild beasts. This is followed by gladiator fighting to the death including the use of women, children and blind people. The games are concluded by pure killing of criminals or slaves by cutting them down in there hundreds with sword, lance or spears. Many Judah-Christian Sect followers are ejected from the synagogues because they refuse to observe the Torah. These are the followers of Paul, the Roman and self-proclaimed apostle, who preached a disregard for Judah traditions. Prior to this time Judaism had a strong position in the Roman Empire. Rome began to consider the Jesus sect as religious fanatics for breaking the faith of their fathers. The Romans highly valued those who followed ancestral customs. Some believe the Gospels according to Mathew the publican is written 80-90 AD in Palestine is written in Hebrew and directed at Judaism. This is interesting given the language of the day is Greek and Hebrew a dead language. Mathew it is believed is grief stricken by the sacking of Jerusalem and the destruction of early Christian documents that he interpreted these events as a divine retribution for the Judah' rejection of Jesus the Christ. Gospels John and Luke are claimed to be written as the young Judo-Christian Church is abandoning its Jesus roots in Judaism. They ignored the Jesus Judah roots and incorporated an anti-Judah bias in their writings. Some believe the Gospel according to Luke a medical man of Antioch is also written about 80 to 90 AD. Biblical scholars suggest that both Mathew and Luke used Mark's version as a guide in their writings. It is quite clear that all these books are based on a common source book called 'Q'. The writings themselves suggest Matthew represent a more Judah perspective. No evidence supports this alleged early source and a much later date is most likely. 81 Titus Flavius Domitian (81-96) is Caesar of the Roman Empire and ordered hard fighting on the Danube against the Dacians. He is considered a cruel ruler with little respect for the Senate yet legislated against immorality and strictly controlled the governors. 84 Rome completed their defenses in England isolating the Picts and Celts from Caledonia to the north. The Hibernia or Celt-Scots at this time is in Ireland. 85 In the fourth year of Roman Emperior Domitian (81-95) the First Papa (Bishop) of Alexandria Annianus (63-85) died having served 22 years and is succeeded by the second Avilus (85-98), who reigned for 13 years according to Eusebius (260-339). Scholars suggest the Gospel attributed to Matthew is written (85-90) about this time in Antioch, capital of the Roman Province of Syria and the third largest city in the Empire. The author of Matthew is unknown but it is generally accepted it is a copy of the Gospel attributed to Mark. This unknown author(s) omits, changes and adds to the Mark source. Scholars also suggest the Gospel attributed to Luke is also written (85-90) in a Greek city of the Roman Empire. The author of Luke is also unknown but it is generally accepted it is a copy of the Gospel attributed to Mark. This unknown author(s) omits, changes and adds to the Mark source. Originally the Gospel of Luke is immediately followed by the Acts of the Apostles as a single linked, two-volume work. It is likely that 'Q' (or source), Mark, Luke, Matthew and John represent five different Sects of early Christianity during the turbulent first century. The Gospel attributed to 'Q' is Greek sources, likely written in Galilee. The Gospel attributed to Mark reflects a major shift away from rabbi authority. The Gospel attributed to Matthew reflects a major criticism of the Twelve Apostles, especially the inner Three. The Gospel attributed to Luke and the Acts of the Apostles reflects a major shift from the authority of Jerusalem to Rome. The Acts written by Luke, a Syrian from Antioch is a follower of the Paulist Sect and uses his writings to attempt to legitimize Paul as an apostle but he contradicts Paul's own writings who said he had no contact with the real Apostles for the first 14 years. The Gospel attributed to John is unlike the Mark, Matthew and Luke Synoptic Gospels. Experts can't agree if John is a copy of Mark or an independent work. The style is closer to an Essene sect style and therefore could be the earliest works. The Gospel attributed to Peter dates to the late second or early third century in Egypt and is given little authority by conventional studies. The Gospel attributed to Thomas alias Didymus the tax collector written in Greek and Coptic is found in Egypt and dates to 200-250. (Judas Didymus Thomas?), Didymus is Greek and Thomas is Syric and this Gospel likely originates in eastern Syria beyond the Euphrates. This Gospel emphasizes the authority of Thomas, especially against Peter and Matthew. 90-100 90 The Judo-Christian Church is practicing equality by allowing women to lead in prayer, to sermonize and to give religious instruction. They also freely associate with slaves and gentiles. The Judah Sect are horrified and proclaimed this year it is better to burn the Torah than to teach it to a woman. The Roman Paulist Church would abandon this equality practice by 100 AD under mounting Roman pressure. It is believed that the birth of Jesus stories are created and incorporated into Christian writings about this time. It is noteworthy that Paul in his writings about 48 to 62 contains no reference to the birth of Jesus except that he is born of woman of the house of David. 91 Eusebius (260-339) claims Anencletus after 12 years Bishop of Rome is succeeded by Clement a follower of Paul. During Clement's reign the Church at Corinth had open dissension with the Church at Rome. Clement wrote his own Epistle according to Eusebius. Clement I alias Clementis (64-95) a soldier of Paul and Presbyter is listed as the first Paulist Papa of Rome appointed by St Peter according to Tertullian (160-225) and Jerome (331-420) who claim Clement (64-95) is appointed by St. Peter (d-64-67) as the first Paulist Papa of Rome. We need to remember that during Tertullian's time the Roman Paulist Church is under attack of not being of apostolic succession as Paul is not an apostle. Irenaeus of Lyons (about 180) and Hegesippus (about 160) claim he is the third head of the Roman Paulist Church. Others suggest he is Titus Flavious Clemens a cousin of Emperor Domitien (81-96), who is executed and his wife is exiled in 95 for atheism by adopting Jewish customs. Other historians claim Clement is actually the one of the Jewish slaves of Titus Flavious Clemens. Still others claim he is a fellow-worker of Paul, a self-proclaimed apostle and therefore not of the true faith. Some claim he is responsible for the First Epistle of Clement written about 96 to the church at Corinth. Some believe he is the author of the Second Epistle of Clement, other disagrees. Some suggest he may also be responsible for the Apostolic Constitutions a collection of Ecclesiastical law. It is important to remember that a monarchical, or one-man, episcopate (Pope) had not yet emerged in Rome at this time. Rome likely had three or more Papa's representing the various Christian sects known to exist. Irenaeus (about 180) wrote that Clement I had seen and conversed with the Apostles and therefore is a repository of their teachings and traditions. If this reasoning holds true then Paul (10-67) who had not conversed with the Apostles is not a repository of their teachings and traditions. Paul actually stated he is the authority and can lean nothing from the Apostles. This disagreement over Clement I likely represents the friction between the Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman Paulist Sects of this era. Writings attributed to Clementis concerning the Peter Sect and Paul Sect says these men who live such holy lives and are joined by a great multitude of the elect who by reason of rivalry are the victims of many outrages and tortures. 93 Flavius Josephus (37-100) the historian wrote his Antiquities of the Jews containing the interval of 3,833 years. Josephus believed that Genesis is written by Moses but from a philosophical perspective. Josephus writes that Scripture says " A woman is inferior to her husband in all things." Let her, therefore, be obedient to him. It is noteworthy that this text didn't survive to current copies of the Old Testament. Josephus believed that Seth of Genesis is Seth or Sesostris, King of Egypt. 96 The Epistle of Barnabas is neither an epistle nor by Barnabas and is likely written 96-98 and shows no knowledge of the New Testament text. Nerva (96-98) is Caesar of the Roman Empire. 98 Trajan (98-117) is Caesar of the Roman Empire and sends ten legions (50,000 men) to subdue the Dacian people making this Rome's only Trans Danudian Province. Emperor Trajan conducted the greatest Roman games that continued for 123 straight days, offered the spectacle of 5,000 human and 11,000 animals murdered in cold blood. The crowds screamed for more blood. The Apostle John lived in Asia from the time of the Roman Emperior Domitian's death until Emperior Trajan's time (96-98) and the Gospel attributed to him is considered the greatest of the four Gospels according to Eusebius (260-339). |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |3rd Millennium BC: {to be done} |2nd Millennium BC: {to be done} |9th Century BC: {to be done} |8th Century BC: {to be done} |7th Century BC: {to be done} |6th Century BC: {to be done} |5th Century BC: {to be done} |4th Century BC: {to be done} |3rd Century BC: {to be done} |2nd Century BC: {to be done} |1st Century BC: {to be done} |1st Century: {to be done} |2nd Century: {to be done} |3rd Century: {to be done} |4th Century: {to be done} |5th Century: {to be done} |6th Century: {to be done} |7th Century: [YOU ARE HERE] |8th Century: [insert title Here] |9th Century: [insert title Here] |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

Where to Go for More

51 Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: Ammianus Marcellinus (AD 330-395)  Gibbon considered Ammianus to be the  most notable Latin historian after Tacitus, and the best contemporary source on the late 4th century Empire. Though he was a Syrian Greek, Ammianus wrote in Latin. His major work, written in AD 390, is Commentaries on the Remaining Conducted Affairs (Rerum gestari libri qui supersunt), of which books 14-31 survive.   Born into a wealthy family at Antioch in about AD 330, Ammianus became a Roman officer at an early age, and traveled through much of the Empire. Describing himself as miles quondam et Graecus ("a soldier and a Greek"), Ammianus brings to his writings both military experience and the comprehensive perspective of the Greek historical tradition which began with Herodotus. In the well-established canons of Roman historical writing, the historian epitomizes periods by selectively relating the major events. As Ammianus believed this method recorded only "incomplete knowledge," his writings stand out among the contemporary writers Eutropius, Festus, and Aurelius Victor. Telling his readers that his quest is to write the whole story, to record ad scientiam proficiet plenam ("with a view toward complete knowledge"), Ammianus describes wars, happenings at court, heroic acts, and the current state of the Roman empire, including growing turbulence along the frontiers.  The principle focus of his main written work, the Rerum gestarium, is the Persian campaign led by Julian the Apostate in AD 363, of which Ammianus provides an eyewitness account. In his capacity as miles, Ammianus first served in Persia as an officer under Constantinus II's general Urinus, where he witnessed the brutal events of the Persian capture of Amida in 359. He later served under Julian in the campaign that saw the Emperor killed and the army defeated near Nisibis in the summer of 363. Ammianus provides a lengthy, often emotional account of the events in Persia. This includes in-depth sketches of Julian himself, who commanded Britain and Gaul after being named Caesar in AD 355.  As attested by writings of both Ammianus and Julian (himself a prolific writer and competent historian), Britain was an important source of grain for Gaul. One large grain-producing area may have been Salisbury plain. Ammianus directly mentions ships arriving in war-weary Gaul: "He even constructed granaries in place of those burned, in which could be stored the supply of grain usually brought over from Britain" (Book 18, 2,3; AD 359).  Julian, in his AD 361 Letter to the Athenians, also mentions the arrival of ships from Britain after his campaiging of AD 358-9 effectively reopened the supply routes between Britain and Gaul: "Then followed the second and third years of that campaign, and by that time all the barbarians had been driven out of Gaul, most of the towns had been recovered, and a whole fleet of many ships had arrived from Britain. "  Ammianus spent the years 355-357 in Gaul. Between military accounts, he relates the history, geography, and culture of the Gallic provinces, based on his experiences and the writings of the Greek historian Timagenes. In retelling the story of Gaul, Ammianus includes mythological origins and the early history of the region. In his descriptions of Britain under the rule of Julian, Ammianus writes that unrest in Gaul distracted Julian from taking an active role as commander of Britain. During the winter of AD 360, he briefly sent the commander of the armed forces, Lupicinus, to the island:  "In Britain during the tenth consulship of Constantius and the third of Julian, invasions by the fierce tribes of the Scots and the Picts, who had broken the peace they had agreed upon, were causing destruction in those areas along the frontiers, and the provinces, worn out by numerous disasters in the past, were caught in the grip of fear. The Caesar Julian, who was wintering at Paris and was preoccupied by various problems, was afraid to go to the assistance of those across the sea, as I have related Constans did, in case he left the Gallic provinces without a ruler at a time when the Alamanni were roused to savagery and war. "(Book XX, 1)  In AD 367 barbarian tribes mounted a concerted invasion by land and sea, and breached Hadrian's Wall. As Ammianus states, "The Picts and Saxons and Scots [Irish] and Atecotti harassed the Britons with continual afflictions." Theodosius, sent to quell the revolt, rebuilt Hadrian's Wall, and restored peace to Britannia for the next 40 years. Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review  Vol.1, no.2] Eutropius (fl. AD 350-370)  Flavius Eutropius, a contemporary of Ammianus Marcellinus, and fellow soldier under Julian in the Persian campaign, became the court historian for the emperor Valens (364-378). Little else is known about his life. He should not be confused with his more notorious contemporary, Eutropius the Eunuch, who was a powerful advisor to the Emperor Arcadius and Consul in 399 (prior to being beheaded for high treason).  While working for Valens, Flavius Eutropius wrote a ten-book compendium of Roman history entitled Historiĺ romanĺ breviarium (A Concise History of Rome), which provides details of the British campaigns of Caesar, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian and Trajan, as well as later happenings in Gaul. His description of Claudius' conquest of Britain in AD 43 is based partly on Tacitus:  "He made war upon Britain, which none of the Romans after Julius Caesar had meddled with; and conquering it by Cnaeus Centius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble gentlemen, he had a famous triumph. He added likewise some islands, lying in the ocean beyond Britain, to the Roman Empire, which are called Orcades; and gave the name of Britannicus to his son." (VII, 13)  In discussing Nero's reign, Eutropius refers to Boudicca's rebellion:  "He [Nero] attempted no conquest in the military way, and very nearly lost Britain. Under him two very famous towns were there taken and destroyed" [ie., London and St. Albans, or Colchester] (VII, 14)  Eutropius also provides details on the successful campaign of Vespasian in Britain:  "[Vespasian] having been sent by Claudius into Germany, and from there into Britain, engaged thirty-two times with the enemy, and added two very potent nations [gentes], twenty towns, and the Isle of Wight [Insulam Vectam], near Britain, to the Roman Empire." (VII, 19)  Eutropius somewhat mistakenly attributes the construction of the Antonine Wall to Septimius Severus (who did in fact repair the wall):  "Septimius had his final campaign in Britain, and in order to secure the lines, he had built a palisade stretching 32 miles from sea to sea. "(VIII, 18)  This inaccuracy was picked up by Orosius in his History, from which it was later copied by Bede in his 8th century Ecclesiastical History (see below). Eutropius was translated into Greek in AD 380 by Paeanius as well as by a certain Capito (whose writings are now lost). Besides Orosius and Bede, Eutropius was used by both St. Jerome and Hincmar of Reims (ca. AD 806-882). More recently, he has been referenced by 18th and 19th century historians including Gibbon and Mommsen. Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review  Vol.1, no.2] Claudian (fl. AD 395-410)  Claudius Claudianus, a Greek born in Alexandria, is often considered the last great poet of the pagan world. He lived in Rome at the end of the 4th century AD, and is best known for verse written in praise of Honorius and his general Stilicho. One of his poems, On the Consulship of Stilicho, provides our only source for an expedition to Britain mounted by Stilicho in AD 396-8. Frere (1987) believes this is evidence of naval activity against the Irish, Picts, and Saxons. Claudian's colorful style in this poem and another, The Gothic War, also provides rare detail on the appearance of the Picts and Caledonians:  "There also came the legion set to guard the furthest Britons, the legion that curbs the savage Scot and scans the lifeless patterns tatooed on the dying Picts." (Gothic War, 416-418)  "Next spoke Britannia, dressed in the skin of some Caledonian beast, her cheeks tatooed, her sea-blue mantle sweeping over her footsteps like the surge of ocean."  (On the Consulship of Stilicho, II) Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review  Vol.1, no.2]
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