TIMELINE 10th CENTURY


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TIMELINE 10th CENTURY

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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 23 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide and 152 hotlinks to beyond Magic Dragon Multimedia. Most recently updated: 26 April 2000 [77 became 93 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795; and the Wikipedia. It also utilizes facts and quotations from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958].
Executive Summary of the 10th Century Jump Straight to the alphabetical list of Politico-Military Names Major Books of the Decade 900-910 Major Books of the Decade 910-920 Major Books of the Decade 920-930 Major Books of the Decade 930-940 Major Books of the Decade 940-950 Major Books of the Decade 950-960 Major Books of the Decade 960-970 Major Books of the Decade 970-980 Major Books of the Decade 980-990 Major Books of the Decade 990-1000 Other Key Dates and Stories of this 10th Century Major Writers Born this 10th Century Major Writers Died this 10th Century Decade by Decade 10th Century Science Background Decade by Decade 10th Century Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Executive Summary of the 10th Century

In Mathematics and the Sciences, the 10th Century was dominated by Arab, Byzantine, Chinese, and Persian scholars. With a few exceptions, such as Gerbert, Europe lagged behind, until the 11th century, when translations from Arabic into Latin gave European culture a great boost forward. The greatest physician/mathematician/philosopher/author was Avicenna (ibn Sina), born 980, whose major work began at the very end of the 10th century, or start of the 11th century.

Great Britain

The 10th Century, according to D.E. Smith, was not -- in England -- one of the great periods of mathematical or scientific thought. This was apparently due to political unrest and inconsistent support for education. "After the death of Alcuin [735-804], the brilliant era that started in Great Britain with St.Augustine of Canterbury [died c.604 or 613] closed as suddenly as it began. The ravages of the Danes put an end to that feeling of security which makes for intellectual development, and when Alfred [848-900] came to the throne [871] he could only lament 'there was a time when people came to this island for instruction, but now we must obtain it abroad if we desire it.' When Aethelstan [895-941], the grandson of Alfred, came to the throne [925], however, he showed great interest in the fostering of learning." [D.E. Smith, p.187]

Europe

Europe did have, later in the 10th Century, the remarkable nun Hrotsvitha, who wrote on Number Theory as one of the first notable female mathematicians in history, and also wrote plays. She exemplified the best of monastic education, as she dwelled in the Benedictine abbey of Gandersheim, in Saxony. "She wrote several plays and in these she shows a knowledge of the Greek language and of either Greek or Boethian arithmetic.... Hrotsvitha incidentally speaks of three perfect numbers besides 6, namely 28, 496, and 8128." [D.E. Smith, p.187] Perfect numbers are equal to the sum of their divisors (i.e. 6 has divisors less than itself of 1, 2, and 3; and 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 and 28 has divisors less than itself of 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14; and 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 = 28 ]. "Hrotsvit of Gandersheim was a tenth-century Saxon poet, playwright and historian, the first Western writer to adapt classical dramatic form and verse to Christian themes, and the first Saxon poet. Her extant works, completed by 973, comprise eight legends, six plays, two epics and a short poem, all written in Latin verse. There are also six other surviving writings, consisting of two prefaces, two dedications, a letter to her patrons and an explanatory note. The earliest and most complete text of Hrotsvit's work is a late 10th-to-early-11th-century copy discovered in 1494 in the monastery of St. Emmeram in Regensburg, one of the premier 10th-century intellectual centers. It was found by Conrad Celtes, the leading German humanist of the time, who later published it in 1501 in Nuremberg. It is thought to have been sent there by Gerberga, Hrotsvit's abbess. There are also several extant 12th and 13th-century copies of selections of her writings.... In this atmosphere of royal protection, superior scholarship, and freedom from political and episcopal domination, Hrotsvit wrote. She treasured her window of opportunity for self-expression and penned 10th-century Europe's most original synthesis of secular and spiritual themes." "Hrotsvit's erudition is evident in her writings. Her first book is a collection of eight legends, or hagiographic poems, seven written in dactylic hexameter, the verse of classical poetry. Her first poem, 'Maria', presents the life of the Mother of Christ and is based on the apocryphal 'Pseudo-Evangelium' of Matthew. The second poem, 'Ascensio', on Christ's ascension, is drawn from the Latin translation of a Greek narrative. Her third poem, 'Gongolf', is based on the legend of an eighth-century Frankish knight. The fourth, 'Pelagius', is an original account of the martyrdom of a tenth-century Spanish saint, executed by the Caliph of Cordoba. Hrotsvit based her poem on an interview with an eyewitness. The fifth legend, 'Theophilus', and the sixth, 'Basilius', both based on Latin translations of the vitae of Greek saints, are remarkable because they inaugurate the Faustian tradition in the West. Sinners sell their souls to Satan and are redeemed by repentance. Her seventh poem, 'Dionysius', and her eighth, 'St. Agnes', recount the martyrdoms of these early Christians. 'Dionysius' is based on a ninth-century French source, and 'St. Agnes' on a fourth-century Latin account. The wide scope of her subjects and sources, from early Christian apocrypha through tenth-century Spain, is noteworthy because tenth-century hagiographers usually wrote about local saints." ["Hrotsvit of Gandersheim Tenth-Century Poet and Playwright" http://msawomen.org/works/hrotsvit.html Brenda M. Johnson, M.A.] France could boast of Remigius of Auxerre, "a second great pupil of Alcuin's and a witness to the beneficient influence of the Church in France. Remigius of Auxerre, a Benedictine monk who did much for the schools at Rheims and who founded a school at Paris out of which the University [of Paris] is thought by some to have developed [alternatively, the University of Paris may have begun as a school of dialectics opened by William of Champeaux, circa 1100 to 110]. He [Remigius of Auxerre] wrote a commentary on the arithmetic of Capella, not an important contribution to mathematics, but typical of a period given to useless disputation and empty sophistry." [D.E. Smith, p.188] "In the 10th Century there may have also been written a treatise on the abacus by Odo of Cluny [879-c.942], although it may have been the work of a 12th century writer; but in general the period was a barren one. Only one other writer is worthy of mention, Abbo of Fleury [945-1003] a native of Orleans, who wrote on Easter reckoning, on astronomy, and on the arithmetic of Boethius. His chief title to remembrance, howver, is the fact that he was a teacher of Gerbert, the most learned man of his time, whose life and works are considered [in the web page on the 11th Century]. Another example of the ecclesistical scholar is seen in the case of Bernward, who became Bishop of Hildesheim in 993 and who wrote a work on mathematics which was devoted chefly to the Boethian theory of numbers. A manuscript of this work, possibly the original, is still extant at Hildesheim." [D.E. Smith, p.189] Perhaps the greatest scholar in Christian Europe was Gerbert, eventually elevated to Pope Sylvester II. Among other things, he introduced the Abacus and Hindu-Arabic Numerals to Europe. His major book on Arithmetic was published circa 1000.

Spain

Islamic expansion resulted in the burning of the Library of Alexandria [642], conquering the north coast of Africa, "entering Spain in 711, defeating the Visigothic king, and establishing themselves for a sojourn of eight humdred years. Bringing with them the Oriental faith in astrology, their primary interest in mathematics was related chiefly to astronomy, trigonometry, and conics; possessed of esoteric tastes, the mysteries of numbers and of gemetria [evaluating names by the numerical values of the letters] appealed to them; coming into constant relations with the Jews, the cabala doubtless impressed them; inspired by the intellectual brilliancy of Baghdad, the classics of the Greeks found place in their schools. By the time the intellectual supremecy of Baghdad was seriously threatened by the East, Cordova was becoming the intellectual center of Islam in the West. Alhakem II, who reigned from 961 to 976, established a considerable library there, and about the close of the 10th Century, al-Majriti, a native scholar, wrote on amicable numbers [pairs of numbers, each equal to the sum of the divisors of the other], astronomy, and geometry." [D.E. Smith, p.192] "Even in the 10th Century the activity in the field of mathematics was not great. The first writer of note was Muslim ibn Ahmed al-Leiti, Abu 'Obeida, also called Sahib al-Qible (died 907/8), a native of Cordova and a writer on astronomy and arithmetic. About the same time, Cordova produced Salhab ibn 'Abdessalam al-Faradi, Abu'l-Abbas (died 922/3), an arithmetician of some note." [D.E. Smith, p.192]

Egypt

"In the early part of the 10th Century the Fatimites, a branch of the Mohammedan ruling class, drove their rivals for power out of the city which they thereupon called al-Kahira, the Victrix,--the modern Cairo. Here they proceeded to establish a school which they ventured to hope would rival that of ancient Alexandria, and which indeed became a center of astronomical activity. With it were connected the names of Ibn Yunis and al-Haitam, but it was short-lived, the caliphate of Egypt being destroyed by Saladin in 1171." [D.E. Smith, p.191] "It is probable that the Jewish scholar Sa'adia ben Joseph studied at Cairo during this period. He wrote on the division of inheritances and on the calendar. He taught in Babylon, where he doubtless met with Isaac ben Salom, who wrote on the Hindu arithmetic and on astronomy." [D.E. Smith, p.192]
There were, in the 10th Century, these major scientific thinkers and writers:

Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical People of the Century:

  1. Abbo of Fleury
  2. see: Executive Summary above, 980
  3. Abu Ja'far al-Khazin
  4. see: 960
  5. Abu Kamil
  6. see: 900
  7. Abu'l-Faradsh
  8. see: 987
  9. Abu'l Wefa
  10. see: 940-949, 980
  11. Al-Battani (Albategnius)
  12. see: 880-909, 929
  13. Al-Biruni: Physicist, mathematician, traveler
  14. see: 973, 1000
  15. Al Farabi (Alfarabicus)
  16. see: 940, 950-959
  17. Al-Faradi
  18. see: Executive Summary above, 910, 922
  19. Al-Harrani
  20. see: 975
  21. Al-Hasan (al-Haitam)
  22. see: Executive Summary above , c.1000
  23. Hamid ibn al-Khidr
  24. see: c.1000
  25. Muslim ibn Ahmed al-Leiti, Abu 'Obeida
  26. see: Executive Summary above, 900, 907
  27. Al-Majriti
  28. see: Executive Summary above , c.1000
  29. Al-Masahi
  30. see: 993
  31. Al-Misri
  32. see: 900
  33. Al-Nairizi
  34. see: 910
  35. Al-Qass
  36. see: 900
  37. Albategnius (Al-Battani)
  38. see: 880-909, 920, 929
  39. Alfarabicus (Al Farabi)
  40. see: 950-959
  41. Mansur ibn 'Ali
  42. see: c.1000
  43. Ar-razi (Rhazes)
  44. see: 880-909, 930-939
  45. Avicenna (ibn Sina)
  46. see: 980, 1000-1009
  47. Al Biruni (Albiruni): Physicist, mathematician, traveler
  48. see: 973, 1000
  49. Bernward
  50. see: Executive Summary above, 993
  51. Bhakshali
  52. see: 950
  53. Byrhtferth
  54. see: c.1000
  55. Chang Ssu-Hsun
  56. see: 976
  57. Ch'iao Wei-Yo
  58. see: 984
  59. Odo of Cluny
  60. see: Executive Summary above, 920, 942
  61. Gerbert a.k.a. Pope Sylvester II
  62. see: 945, 960-969, 999, 1000
  63. Hasan
  64. see: 950
  65. Hrotsvitha, a nun,
  66. see: Executive Summary above, 970
  67. Ibn Yunis, astronomer
  68. see: Executive Summary above , c.1000
  69. Ishaq ibu Honein ibn Ishaq
  70. see: 900
  71. Sa'adia ben Joseph
  72. see: Executive Summary above
  73. Abu Kamil
  74. see: 900
  75. Qosta ibn Luqa
  76. see: 900
  77. Mansur ibn 'Ali
  78. see: c.1000
  79. Odo of Cluny
  80. see: 920, 942
  81. Thabit ibn Qurra
  82. see: 901
  83. Remigius of Auxerre
  84. see: Executive Summary above, 900
  85. Rhazes (Ar-razi)
  86. see: 880-909, 920, 930-939
  87. Isaac ben Salom
  88. see: Executive Summary above
  89. Chang Ssu-Hsun
  90. see: 976
  91. Gerbert a.k.a. Pope Sylvester II
  92. see: 945, 960-969, 999
  93. Abu'l Wefa
  94. see: 940-949, 980
  95. Ch'iao Wei-Yo
  96. see: 984
  97. Sa'id ibn Ya'qub
  98. see: 915
  99. Ibn Yunis, astronomer
  100. see: Executive Summary above , c.1000
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Major Books and Events of 900-910 AD

880-909 Al-Battani (Albategnius) calculates the length of the year and (more accurately than others before) determines the precession of the equinoxes. [Hellemans, p.70] 880-909 Alcohol is prepared by distillation of wine (various Arab physicians and chemists). [Hellemans, p.71] 880-909 Rhazes (Ar-razi) is the first to classify chemical substances into mineral, vegetable, animal, and derivative. He subclassifies minerals into metals, spirits, salts, and stones. He also gives formulas for making metallic antimony, and making Plaster of Paris. [Hellemans, p.71] 880-909 Printed Paper Money first used in Szechuan Province, China. [Hellemans, p.71] c.893-927 Reign of Khan Symeon of Bulgaria The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 896 Magyars arrive in Carpathian Basin The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 29 Oct 900 King Alfred the Great dies in Winchester, England [Hellemans, p.70] c.900 Abu Kamil writes important works of Geometry and Algebra. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Ishaq ibu Honein ibn Ishaq writes important work on Greek Mathematics. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Remigius of Auxerre writes on Capella. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Muslim ibn Ahmed al-Leiti writes on Arithmetic. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Al-Qass writes on Euclid. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Qosta ibn Luqa writes on Diophantus. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Al-Misri writes on Geometry. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 900 Leo marries Eudokia The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 901 Eudokia dies The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 901 Death of Patriarch Anthony Kauleas, election of Nicholas, previously imperial secretary, mystikos The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 18 Feb 901 Arab mathematician Thabit ibn Qurra dies in Baghdad, Iraq [Hellemans, p.71] 902 Leo installs his mistress Zoe in the imperial palace The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 902: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; death of the Saffarid ruler Amr. Islamic History of the 10th Century 902/3-32 Arethas, archbishop of Caesarea The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 903: Assassination of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Said; accession of Abu Tahir. Islamic History of the 10th Century 904 Arabs sack Thessalonike The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century c.904 Peace treaty with Bulgaria negotiated by Leo Choirosphaktes The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 905 Birth of Constantine, son of Leo and Zoe The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 905: Abdullah b Hamdan founds the Hamdanid rule in Mosul and Jazira. End of the Tulunid rule in Egypt. Islamic History of the 10th Century 906 Baptism of Constantine, Leo marries Zoe, proclaimed Augusta, empress; patriarchal synod condemns Leo for marrying a fourth time; Leo VI appeals to Rome and eastern Patriarchs The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 907 Rome and the eastern Patriarchs support Leo VI, who forces Patriarch Nicholas to abdicate and appoints Euthymios The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 907: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; accession of Muqtadir. Islamic History of the 10th Century 907-908 Death of Muslim ibn Ahmed al-Leiti, Abu 'Obeida, also called Sahib al-Qible, a native of Cordova and a writer on astronomy and arithmetic." [D.E. Smith, p.192] 908: End of the Saffarid rule, annexation of their territories by the Samanids. Islamic History of the 10th Century 909: Ubaidullah overthrows the Aghlablds and founds the Fatimid rule in North Africa. Islamic History of the 10th Century

Major Books and Events of 910-920 AD

c.910 Al-Nairizi writes important work of Geometry. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.910 Al-Faradi writes on Arithmetic. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 910 Founding of the Benedictine abbey at Cluny, the largest abbey of that order in Europe. [Hellemans, p.70] c.910-990 Life of poet/warrior Egill Skallagrimsson. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 912 Death of Leo VI, succeeded by brother Alexander and son Constantine VII aged 6 The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 912: Death of the Umayyad Amir Abdullah in Spain, accession of Abdur Rahman III. Islamic History of the 10th Century 912 Gongu-Hrolf and his men take lands in Normandy as vassals of the French king. Their descendants become the Normans. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 913 Death of Alexander, Council of Regency for Constantine headed by Patriarch Nicholas mystikos; 'Coronation' of Tsar (Khan) Symeon outside Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 913-4 Empress Zoe returns to palace to protect Constantine The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 913: Assassination of the Samanid ruler Ahmad II, accession of Nasr II. Islamic History of the 10th Century 914-9 Attacks by Arabs The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 915 Sa'id ibn Ya'qub writes on Greek Mathematics. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 917 Byzantine surprise attack on Symeon, major Bulgarian victory at Anchialos The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 918 Arabs capture Reggio in Calabria The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 919 Romanos Lekapenos, naval commander, takes control of palace; assumes title of Basileopater and marries his daughter Helen to Constantine; empress Zoe relegated to a monastery The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century

Major Books and Events of 920-930 AD

c.920 Rhazes (Ar-razi) writes important work of Geometry. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.920 Albategnius writes important work on Astronomy. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.920 Odo of Cluny [879-c.942] writes on the Abacus. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 920 "Tomos" of Union pronounced by Patriarch Nicholas; fourth marriage condemned The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century c.920 Ulfljotr the Norwegian brings the Gulathing Law to Iceland, where it is used as a model upon which Icelandic Law is based. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 920 Romanos named Caesar, then crowned emperor by Patriarch Nicholas The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 921 Romanos I crowns his son Christopher co-emperor. The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 922 Death of Salhab ibn 'Abdessalam al-Faradi, Abu'l-Abbas, of Cordova, Spain, an arithmetician of some note." [D.E. Smith, p.192] c.922 Ibn-Fadlan, an Arab ambassador to the Scandinavian Rus along the Volga, writes his account of their customs, including a full description of a ship/cremation funeral. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 922 Bulgar attack on Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 923 Bulgar invasion of Thrace The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 924 Symeon makes Arab alliance to attack Constantinople; threat resolved by Byzantine diplomacy and peace treaty The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 924 Romanos crowns his sons Constantine and Stephen Lekapenos as co-emperors The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 925 King Aethelstan of England begins his reign. Learning is fostered. [D.E.Smith, p.556] Aethelstan is also spelled Athelston, Ethelstan, Adelstan, Adelston, Edelstan, and other spellings. He was the grandson of Alfred, was born circa 895, and died in 941. Euclid was allegedly introduced into England during his reign, according to a poem written in the 14th Century. [D.E.Smith, p.187] 925 Symeon declares himself emperor of the Bulgars and the Romans The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 925 Death of Patriarch Nicholas The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 926 Arab Emir of Sicily subjects maritime cities of southern Italy to Muslim tribute The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 926 Symeon obtains recognition of his title from Rome The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 927 Death of Symeon, his son Peter makes peace with Byzantium, alliance secured his marriage to Maria, daughter of Romanos I The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 927-c.967 Reign of Khan (Tsar) Peter of Bulgaria The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 927-8 Serious Byzantine-Arab conflicts on the eastern borders The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 928: Mardawij b Ziyar founds the Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan. Islamic History of the 10th Century 929: Qarmatians sack Makkah and carry away the Black Stone from the Holy Kaaba. In Spain, Abdur Rahman III declares himself as the Caliph. [was this a misspelling of Abdul Rahman III with a "d"?] Islamic History of the 10th Century 929 Death in Samarra (Iraq) of Arab astronomer Albategnius (Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Jabir Al-Battani) [Hellemans, p.70]

Major Books and Events of 930-940 AD

930 First Althing held at Thingvellir in Iceland, establishment of the Icelandic Free State. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 930-939 Death in Rhages (Iran) of Arab scholar Rhazes [Hellemans, p.70] c.930-1011 Life of Njal of Berthorsknoll. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 931 Death of Christopher Lekapenos The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 931: Deposition and restoration of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir. Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Tahir; accession of Abu Mansur. Islamic History of the 10th Century 932: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir; accession of Al Qahir. Islamic History of the 10th Century 933 Election of Theophilatos, son of Romanos I, as patriarch The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 934: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qahir; accession of Ar Radi. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah ; accession of Al Qaim. Islamic History of the 10th Century 935: Assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardawij; accession of Washimgir. Death of Hamdanid ruler Abdullah b Hamdan; accession of Nasir ud Daula. Islamic History of the 10th Century c.935-950 Reign of King Gorm the Old of Denmark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 936: By coup Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir ul Umara. Islamic History of the 10th Century 938: By another coup, power at Baghdad is captured by Bajkam. Islamic History of the 10th Century 939-44 Further series of Byzantine-Arab conflicts; Byzantine capture of Edessa and transfer of Mandylion to Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century

Major Books and Events of 940-950 AD

940-949 In China, the Dunhuang star map is produced. It uses what we now call a Mercator projection (although Mercator does not make such a map himself until 1568). [Hellemans, p.70] 940-949 Birth of Abu'l Wefa, who will later introduce, in Arab mathematics, the Tangent ratio (opposite / adjacent sides of right triangle). He will also further the developmnent of spherical trigonometry (influenced more by Indian than Greek mathematics). [Hellemans, p.70] 940 Al-Farrabi writes on Euclid and Ptolemy. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 940: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Ar Radi, accession of Muttaqi. Islamic History of the 10th Century 941 Death of King Aethelstan of England. Learning in England was fostered during his reign, with the help of his enthusiasm. Aethelstan is also spelled Athelston, Ethelstan, Adelstan, Adelston, Edelstan, and other spellings. He was the grandson of King Alfred, was born circa 895, began his reign in 925, and died in 941. Euclid was allegedly introduced into England during his reign, according to a poem written in the 14th Century. [D.E.Smith, p.187] 941: Assassination of Bajkam, capture of power by Kurtakin. Islamic History of the 10th Century 941 Russian Prince Igor leads attack on Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 942: Ibn Raiq recaptures power. Islamic History of the 10th Century c.942 Death of Odo of Cluny [born 879], writer on the Abacus. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 943: Al Baeidi captures power. The Abbasid Caliph Muttaqi is forced to seek refuge with the Hamdanids. Sail ud Daula captures power at Baghdad and the Caliph returns to Baghdad. Power is captured by Tuzun and Sail ud Daula retires to Mosul. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr II, accession of Nuh. Islamic History of the 10th Century 944 Second Russian attack on Constantinople, avoided by diplomatic actions and commercial treaty The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 944 Constantine and Stephen Lekapenos revolt against their father; deport Romanos I into exile, where he becomes a monk; dies 948 The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 944: Muttaqi is blinded and deposed, accession of Mustakafi. Islamic History of the 10th Century 945 Birth in Aurillac, Auvergne, France of Gerbert who later becomes Pope Sylvester II. He is to introducd to Europe the Abacus and Hindu-Arab numerals. [Hellemans, p.71] 945: Death of Tuzun. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra. The Buwayhids capture power. Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Mustakafi. Islamic History of the 10th Century 945 Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos removes the Lekapenoi brothers from power and rules alone, 944-59 The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 945 Constantine VII's son Romanos crowned co-emperor The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 946: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Qaim. Accession of Mansur. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Muhammad b Tughj, accession of Abul' Qasim Ungur. Islamic History of the 10th Century 946 Reign of King Hakon the Good of Norway. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 947 Start of reign of King Olafr Tryggvasson of Norway, Norway adopts Christianity. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 947-9 Byzantine embassy to Muslim Spain The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 948 Liutprand, bishop of Cremona, sent by Count Berengar of Italy to Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 948-9 Further Byzantine conquests on Euphrates in East The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century

Major Books and Events of 950-960 AD

c. 950 Hasan writes on the Calendar (date very doubtful). [D.E.Smith, p.556] c. 950 Bhakshali manuscript on Algebra (date very doubtful). [D.E.Smith, p.556] 950-983 Reign of King Haraldr Bluetooth of Denmark, Denmark adopts Christianity. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 950-7 Arab counter-offensive in the East, checked by John Tzimiskes The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 950-959 Death in Damascus (Syria) of Alfarabicus (Al Farabi). [Hellemans, p.70] 951: The Qarnaatiana restore the Black Stone to the Holy Kaaba. Islamic History of the 10th Century c.954 Completion of the treatise known as De Administrando Imperio The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 954: Death of the Sasanid ruler Nuh, accession of Abdul Malik. Islamic History of the 10th Century 954 In China, the largest single piece of cast iron is made for Emperor Shih Tsung, commemorating his military campaign against the Tartars. This "Great Lion of Tsang-chou" weighs roughly 40 tons. [Hellemans, p.71] 956-8 Byzantine campaign in southern Italy, truce with Arab Sicily The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 957 Visit of Olga of Russia, widow of Prince Igor, to Constantinople; discussion about Christian missions to Russia The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 958 Appearance of Magyars (Hungarians) in Thrace The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 959 Death of Constantine VII, succeeded by his son Romanos II The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century

Major Books and Events of 960-970 AD

960 Romanos crowns his son Basil co-emperor The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 960 Reconquest of Crete by general Nikephoros Phokas, triumphal return to Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 960 Abu Ja'far al-Khazin writes on Geometry. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 960-969 Introduction to Europe of the Abacus and Hindu-Arab numerals, by Gerbert [born c.945, Aurillac, Auvergne, France]. Gerbert later becomes Pope Sylvester II. The numerals do not become popular yet, nor did Gerbert include the zero. [Hellemans, p.71] 961: Death of the Samanid ruler Abdul Malik, accession of Manauf. Alptgin founds the rule of the Ghazanavids. Death of the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Rahman III in Spain; accession of Hakam. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Ungur; accession of Abul Hasan Ali. Islamic History of the 10th Century 962 Nikephoros Phokas leads reconquest of Anazarbos, the Euphrates frontier and captures Aleppo in Syria The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 962 The first Holy Roman Emperor is crowned: Otto. [Hellemans, p.70] 963 Death of Romanos II; his widow Theophano claims the regency for her sons Basil and Constantine (four months) The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 963 Nikephoros Phokas acclaimed emperor by troops in Cappadocia, marches on Constantinople, crowned emperor by patriarch The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 963 Nikephoros II marries Theophano and reigns with Basil and Constantine, co-emperors The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 963 John Tzimiskes takes refuge with the Emir of Tarsos The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 964-5 Nikephoros II campaigns in the East, captures Adana and Tarsos; celebrates triumph in Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 965: Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Mansur; accession of Hasan Azam. Assassination of the Ikhshid ruler Abul Hasan Ali; power captured by Malik Kafur. Islamic History of the 10th Century 966-7 Nikephoros II's second campaign to Syria and Mesopotamia The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 967 Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, allies with Lombards in southern Italy and threatens Byzantine territory in Calabria The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 967 Nikephoros II makes peace treaty with Emir of Sicily The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 967: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula, accession of Bakhtiar. Death of the Hamdanid ruler Sail ud Daula. Islamic History of the 10th Century 967-9 Liutprand's second embassy to Constantinople, sent by Otto I to find a Byzantine bride for Otto's son The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 967-8 Nikephoros II allies with Russian Prince Sviatoslav, Olga's son, campaigns against the Bulgars The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 968: Byzantines occupy Aleppo. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Malik Kafur; accession of Abul Fawaris. Islamic History of the 10th Century 968-9 Third campaign against Syria, celebrated in triumph The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 969 Sviatoslav conquers large parts of Bulgaria and captures Boris II; Nikephoros allies with Bulgars against Russians The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 969: The Fatimids conquer Egypt. Islamic History of the 10th Century 969 Nikephoros II assassinated by John Tzimiskes, proclaimed emperor and crowned by patriarch, with Basil and Constantine co-emperors The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century

Major Books and Events of 970-980 AD

970 Hrotsvitha, a nun, writes on Number Theory. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 970 Sviatoslav prepares attack on Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 970 John I Tzimiskes confirms alliance with Otto I, sends his niece Theophano to marry Otto's son The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 971 John I campaigns against Sviatoslav, besieges him at Dristra, and forces a peace settlement; Sviatoslav murdered by Pechenegs en route to Kiev The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 972 John I Tzimiskes reconquers Nisibis and Martyropolis in East The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 972 Marriage of Theophano and Otto II celebrated in Rome The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 972: Buluggin b Ziri founds the rule of the Zirids [in] Algeria. Islamic History of the 10th Century 973: Shia Sunni disturbances in Baghdad; power captured in Baghdad by the Turkish General Subuktgin. Islamic History of the 10th Century 973 Birth of physicist, mathematician, traveler Al-Biruni. later, his book History of India will be the best-selling treatise which introduces Hindu numerals to the Arab world. [Hellemans, p.73] 974 Second major campaign in the East, conquests celebrated by a triumph in Constantinople (975) The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 974: Abdication of the Abbasid Caliph Al Muttih; accession of At Taii. Islamic History of the 10th Century 975 Al-Harrani writes on Euclid. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 975 Third victorious eastern campaign of John I, who dies of malaria The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 975 Basil II and Constantine VIII acclaimed emperors under the guidance of Basil the parakoimomenos, illegitimate son of Romanos I Lekapenos The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 975: Death of the Turk General Subuktgin. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Muizz. Islamic History of the 10th Century 976 In China, invention by Chang Ssu-Hsun of the chain drive for a mechanical clock. [Hellemans, p.73] 976-9 Revolt of Bardas Skleros against Basil II The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 976: The Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula recaptures power with the help of his cousin Azud ud Daula. Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur, accession of Nuh II. In Spain, death of the Umayyad Caliph Hakam, accession of Hisham II. Islamic History of the 10th Century 977 In Baghdad, a hospital is founded which employes 24 physicians, and includes a surgery and a department for eye disorders. [Hellemans, p.72] 978: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula, power captured by Azud ud Daula. The Hamdanids overthrown by the Buwayhids. Islamic History of the 10th Century 979: Subkutgin becomes the Amir of Ghazni. Islamic History of the 10th Century

Major Books and Events of 980-990 AD

980 birth near Bukhara of Avicenna, who later (1000-1009) writes The Canon of Medicine, in five volumes. It treats Greek and Arab medicine so thoroughly as to dominate medical eduction in Europe until the 17th Century. [Hellemans, p.72] 980 Abu'l Wefa writes important work on Trigonometry. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 980 Abbo of Fleury writes a Computus. [D.E.Smith, p.556] 981: End of the Qarmatian rule at Bahrain. Islamic History of the 10th Century 982: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula; accession of Samsara ud Daula. Islamic History of the 10th Century 982 Eirikr inn Rauda (Eric the Red) discovers Greenland. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 982 Eric the Red leads Vikings to first encampment on Greenland, which expands into a colony (settlement) by c.985. [Hellemans, p.72] 981-3 Otto II invades Byzantine Apulia, in southern Italy, but retires to Rome and dies there (983) The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 983 Start of reign of King Svein Forkbeard of Denmark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 984: Death of the Zirid ruler Buluggin, accession of Mansur. Islamic History of the 10th Century 984 In China, Ch'iao Wei-Yo invents the canal lock. He did so because of the rising incidence of theft when boats were hauled over spillways, sometimes breaking apart, during which theives would wade to the wreckage and pilfer cargo. [Hellemans, p.72] 985 Basil II removes Basil Lekapenos, parakoimomenos, Basil II and Constantine VIII reign alone The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 986 First campaign of Basil II against Samuel [of Bulgaria], who has secured control of much of northeastern Balkans (centered on Prespa in modern Republic of Macedonia) The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 986: The Buwyhid Sultan Samsara ud Daula overthrown by Sharaf ud Daula. Islamic History of the 10th Century c.986 Settlement of Greenland. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 986-9 Revolt of Bardas Skleros against Basil II, who makes alliance with Vladimir of Kiev The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 987 Hugh Capet succeeds to the throne of France. [Hellemans, p.72] 987 Abu'l-Faradsh writes an important book: The Fihrist. [D.E. Smith, p.556] 989 Basil marries his sister Anna to Vladimir of Kiev, the conversion of the Russians begins The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 989: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf ud Daula, accession of Baha ud Daula. Islamic History of the 10th Century

Major Books and Events of 990-1000 AD

991: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph At Taii, accession of Al Qadir. Islamic History of the 10th Century 991: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph At Taii, accession of Al Qadir. Islamic History of the 10th Century 991-4 Second Bulgarian campaign, Basil II reconquers Berroia The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 992 Commercial treaty with Venice The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 993 Bernward writes on the Theory of Numbers. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 993 Al-Masahi writes on Ptolemy. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 995 Basil II campaigns in the East The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 995-8 Samuel of Bulgaria invades Greece The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 996: Death of the Zirid ruler Mansur, accession of Nasir ud Daula Badis. Islamic History of the 10th Century 996 Theophano, regent for Otto III, sends embassy to Byzantium for a marriage alliance The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century c.997 Samuel proclaimed Tsar of Bulgaria The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 997: Death of the Samanid ruler Nuh II, accession of Mansur II. Islamic History of the 10th Century 998: Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur II, accession of Abdul Malik II. Mahmud becomes the Amir of Ghazni. Islamic History of the 10th Century 999 Basil II conquers Homs in Syria, winters in Tarsos The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 999: End of the Samanids. Islamic History of the 10th Century 999 Scholar and mathematician Gerbert [born 945] becomes Pope Sylvester II. [Hellemans, p.72] c.1000 Death of Saint Athanasios, founder of the Great Lavra on Mount Athos (first monastery on the Holy Mountain) The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 1000 Iceland officially converts to Christianity, although heathen practice is still permitted in private. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 1000 Death of King Olafr Tryggvasson of Norway. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 1000-1 Basil II campaigns against Armenia and Georgia The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 1000-1009 A 360-day year calendar, divided into 12 months of 27 or 28 days, is introduced in India. Since this falls 5.2425 days short of an actual year, the Indians add an extra month at regular intervals; it is also possible that they use months of 30 days, still falling short of the actual length of the year. [Hellemans, p.72] 1000-1009 In China, coal is burned for fuel. [Hellemans, p.72] 1000-1009 The 7-day week is introduced to China by Persians (or perhaps by merchants from Central Asia). Prior to this, the most common week in China was 10-days. [Hellemans, p.72] 1000-1009 The Arabs introduce the lemon plant to Sicily and Spain. [Hellemans, p.72] 1000-1009 The Vikings, led by Leif Ericson (Leif, son of Eric the Red), reach North America [Hellemans, p.72] c.1000 Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II) writes a major book on Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1000-1009 Avicenna (ibn Sina, born near Bukhara, 980) writes The Canon of Medicine, in five volumes. It treats Greek and Arab medicine so thoroughly as to dominate medical eduction in Europe until the 17th Century. [Hellemans, p.72] c.1000 Avicenna writes major book on Geometry; and another book on arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Al-Majriti writes on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Hamid ibn al-Khidr writes on Algebra, and on the Astrolabe. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Al-Majriti writes on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Al-Hasan (al-Haitam) of Basra writes on Geometry; and again on algebra. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Mansur ibn 'Ali writes on Trigonometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Byrhtferth writes on the Calendar. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Ibn Yunis writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Alberuni writes a major work on Hindu mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.557]
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Other Key Dates and Stories of this 10th Century

{to be done}

Major Writers Born this 10th Century

ca.910: Poet/Warrior Egill Skallagrimsson. c.930: Njal of Berthorsknoll (died 1011). ca.935: Hrotsvitha (ca.935-ca.1000) 940-949: Birth of Abu'l Wefa, who will later introduce, in Arab mathematics, the Tangent ratio (opposite / adjacent sides of right triangle). He will also further the developmnent of spherical trigonometry (influenced more by Indian than Greek mathematics). 945: Birth in Aurillac, Auvergne, France of Gerbert who later becomes Pope Sylvester II. He is to introducd to Europe the Abacus and Hindu-Arab numerals. 973: Birth of physicist, mathematician, traveler Al-Biruni. Later, his book History of India will be the best-selling treatise which introduces Hindu numerals to the Arab world. 980: Birth near Bukhara of Avicenna (ibn Sina), who later (1000-1009) writes The Canon of Medicine, in five volumes. It treats Greek and Arab medicine so thoroughly as to dominate medical eduction in Europe until the 17th Century. xxx: al-Majriti xxx: Sa'adia ben Joseph xxx: Isaac ben Salom xxx: Abu Ja'far al-Khazin (wrote on Geometry). xxx: Al-Harrani (wrote on Euclid). xxx: Abu'l-Faradsh (wrote an important book: The Fihrist). xxx: Bernward (wrote on the Theory of Numbers). xxx: Al-Masahi (wrote on Ptolemy).

Major Writers Died this 10th Century

29 Oct 900: King Alfred the Great dies in Winchester, England. 18 Feb 901: Arab mathematician Thabit ibn Qurra dies in Baghdad, Iraq. 907 or 908: Muslim ibn Ahmed al-Leiti, Abu 'Obeida, also called Sahib al-Qible, a native of Cordova and a writer on astronomy and arithmetic. 922 or 923: Arithmetician of Cordova Salhab ibn 'Abdessalam al-Faradi, Abu'l-Abbas 929: Death in Samarra (Iraq) of Arab astronomer Albategnius (Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Jabir Al-Battani) (wrote important work on Astronomy). 930-939: Death in Rhages (Iran) of Arab scholar Rhazes (Ar-razi) (wrote important work of Geometry). ca.942: Odo of Cluny [879-ca.942], writer on the Abacus. 950-959: Death in Damascus (Syria) of Alfarabicus (Al Farabi). (wrote on Arithmetic). 990: Poet/Warrior Egill Skallagrimsson. ca.1000: Hrotsvitha (ca.935-ca.1000). 12 May 1003: Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II), French scholar, dies in Rome (he was born near Aurillac, in Auvergne, c.950) xxx: Remigius of Auxerre xxx: al-Majriti xxx: Sa'adia ben Joseph xxx: Isaac ben Salom xxx: Al-Nairizi (wrote important work of Geometry). xxx: Abu Ja'far al-Khazin (wrote on Geometry). xxx: Al-Harrani (wrote on Euclid). xxx: Sa'id ibn Ya'qub (wrote on Greek Mathematics). xxx: Abu'l Wefa (wrotes important work on Trigonometry). xxx: Abbo of Fleury (wrote a Computus). xxx: Abu'l-Faradsh (wrote an important book: The Fihrist).

Decade by Decade 10th Century Science Background

The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site break these apart (science/math versus political/military history). Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about Christian saints, and poetry of equivalent function.

Decade by Decade 10th Century Mundane Background

See the political/military history in the main body of text, and the index of Politico-Military People of the Century, below.

Later Carolingian Empire

Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious, kept his imperial inheritance intact. What Charlemagne created was maintained for two generations. Louis the Pious had three sons, hence he divided the empire between them. Those sons battled against each other, with a purportedly final agreement in 843. Afterwards, their heirs still disputed the settlement. From the 870s until many decades later, the fragments of the Carolingian Empire became further fragmented, in what one might call "Fractal Balkanization." The essential triple division continued, to some extent. (1) The Kingdom of the West Franks corresponded approximately with France, though southern France broke loose fairly early. (2) In the East, an assortment of German kings ruled until Otto I (936-973) re-united most of the Eastern lands, as well as Italy, and therefore claimed the title "Emperor." This was why the Holy Roman Empire came to be based in Germany. (3) The Middle Kingdom lay between the Kingdom of the West Franks and the the Eastern lands plus Italy. It also fragmented quickly. This area included: (a) the Rhineland, (b) Flanders, and (c) Burgundy. This pattern left traces even until present Europe: France is West, Germany is East, while in between these lie the Low Countries and Switzerland. Ninth and Tenth Century Europe lacked internal political stability. The main reason was that this era was also this was the age of the Vikings, who attacked the northern and western flanks of Europe, more or less simultaneously with two other cultures were attacking Europe: Muslims (the Islamic Empire) to the South, and Magyars from the East. Significant Viking incursions in western Europe lasted from the early 800s until the end of the 11th Century. Viking culture evolved into Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, integrated into the nascent community of Europe. Vikings, over that period, converted from polytheism (paganism) into Christianity, in a bewildering mix.

Magyars

{to be done}

Politico-Military People of the Century:

  1. Umayyad Amir Abdullah in Spain
  2. see: 912
  3. Abdul Malik
  4. see: 954, 961
  5. Abdur Rahman III
  6. see: 912
  7. Abul Hasan Ali
  8. see: 961
  9. Abu Mansur
  10. see: 931
  11. Abu Said, the Qarmatian ruler
  12. see: 903
  13. Qarmatian ruler Abu Tahir
  14. see: 931
  15. Abul Fawaris
  16. see: 968
  17. King Aethelstan of England
  18. see: 925
  19. Samanid ruler Ahmad II
  20. see: 913
  21. Al Baeidi
  22. see: 943
  23. Alexander
  24. see: 912
  25. King Alfred the Great of England
  26. see: 900
  27. Alhakem II
  28. see: Executive Summary
  29. Fatimid Caliph Al Muizz
  30. see: 975
  31. Abbasid Caliph Al Muttih
  32. see: 975
  33. Alptgin founder of the Ghazanavids
  34. see: 961
  35. Abbasid Caliph Al Qahir
  36. see: 932, 934
  37. Al Qadir
  38. see: 991
  39. Al Qaim
  40. see: 934, 946
  41. Ikhshid ruler Abul Hasan Ali
  42. see: 961, 965
  43. Saffarid ruler Amr
  44. Anna
  45. see: 989
  46. Ar Radi
  47. see: 934, 940
  48. Arethas, archbishop of Caesarea
  49. see: 902/3
  50. Abbasid Caliph At Taii
  51. see: 975, 991
  52. Saint Athanasios
  53. see: c.1000
  54. Augusta (a.k.a. Zoe)
  55. see: 905
  56. Hasan Azam
  57. see: 965
  58. Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula
  59. see: 976, 978, 982
  60. Nasir ud Daula Badis
  61. see: 996
  62. Buwayhid Sultan Baha ud Daula
  63. see: 989
  64. Bajkam
  65. see: 938, 941
  66. Bakhtiar
  67. see: 967
  68. Bardas Skleros
  69. see: 976-9, 986-9
  70. co-emperor Basil
  71. see: 960
  72. Emperor Basil II
  73. see: 975, 976-9, 985, 986, 991-4, 995, 999, 1000-1
  74. Basil the parakoimomenos
  75. see: 975, 985
  76. Count Berengar of Italy
  77. see: 948
  78. Qarmatian rule at Bahrain
  79. see: 981
  80. King Haraldr Bluetooth of Denmark
  81. see: 950-983
  82. Zirid ruler Buluggin b Ziri
  83. see: 972, 984
  84. Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula
  85. see: 976
  86. Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula
  87. see: 967
  88. Buwayhids
  89. see: 978
  90. Hugh Capet, King of France
  91. see: 987
  92. Christopher
  93. see: 921
  94. Constantine
  95. see: 905
  96. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
  97. see: 912, 945, 959
  98. Emperor Constantine VIII
  99. see: 975, 985
  100. Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula
  101. see: 976, 978, 982
  102. Nasir ud Daula Badis
  103. see: 996
  104. Buwayhid Sultan Baha ud Daula
  105. see: 989
  106. Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula
  107. see: 976, 978
  108. Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula
  109. see: 967
  110. Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf ud Daula
  111. see: 986, 989
  112. Samsara ud Daula
  113. see: 982, 986
  114. Eirikr inn Rauda (Eric the Red)
  115. see: 982
  116. Eric the Red (Eirikr inn Rauda)
  117. see: 982
  118. Eudokia
  119. see: 900
  120. Patriarch Euthymios
  121. see: 907
  122. The Fatimids
  123. see: 969
  124. Abul Fawaris
  125. see: 968
  126. King Svein Forkbeard of Denmark
  127. see: 983
  128. Gerbert a.k.a. Pope Sylvester II
  129. see: 945
  130. Alptgin founder of the Ghazanavids
  131. see: 961
  132. Mahmud becomes the Amir of Ghazni
  133. see: 998
  134. Subkutgin becomes the Amir of Ghazni
  135. see: 979
  136. Gongu-Hrolf
  137. see: 912
  138. King Gorm the Old of Denmark
  139. see: c.935-950
  140. Hakam
  141. see: 961
  142. Umayyad Caliph Hakam
  143. see: 976
  144. King Hakon the Good of Norway
  145. see: 946
  146. Hamdanid ruler Abdullah b Hamdan
  147. see: 905, 935
  148. Hasan Azam
  149. see: 965
  150. Hisham II
  151. see: 976
  152. Hugh Capet, King of France
  153. see: 987
  154. Ibn-Fadlan
  155. see: c.922
  156. Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir ul Umara
  157. see: 936, 942
  158. Russian Prince Igor
  159. see: 941
  160. Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula
  161. see: 976, 978
  162. John I Tzimiskes
  163. see: 950-7, 969, 970, 971, 972, 975
  164. Malik Kafur
  165. see: 965, 968
  166. Patriarch Anthony Kauleas
  167. see: 901
  168. Khan Symeon of Bulgaria
  169. see: c.893-927
  170. Vladimir of Kiev
  171. see: 986-9, 989
  172. Kurtakin
  173. see: 941
  174. Christopher Lekapenos
  175. see: 931
  176. Romanos Lekapenos
  177. see: 919
  178. Leo
  179. see: 900
  180. Leo Choirosphaktes
  181. see: 904
  182. Leo VI
  183. see: 907
  184. Liutprand, bishop of Cremona
  185. see: 948, 967-9
  186. Mahmud, Amir of Ghazni
  187. see: 998
  188. Abdul Malik
  189. see: 954, 961
  190. Malik Kafur
  191. see: 965, 968
  192. Manauf
  193. see: 961
  194. Qarmatian rulerMansur
  195. see: 946, 965
  196. Samanid ruler Mansur
  197. see: 976
  198. Mansur
  199. see: 984, 996
  200. Samanid ruler Mansur II
  201. see: 997, 998
  202. Ziyarid ruler Mardawij
  203. see: 935
  204. Maria
  205. see: 927, Peter
  206. Fatimid Caliph Al Muizz
  207. see: 975
  208. Abbasid Caliph Muktafi
  209. see: 902
  210. Caliph Muqtadir
  211. see: 907, 931, 932
  212. Abbasid Caliph Mustakafi
  213. see: 945
  214. Muttaqi
  215. see: 940, 943
  216. Abbasid Caliph Al Muttih
  217. see: 975
  218. Nasir ud Daula
  219. see: 935
  220. Nasir ud Daula Badis
  221. see: 996
  222. Nasr II
  223. see: 913, 943
  224. Patriarch Nicholas
  225. Nikephoros II (Nikephoros Phokas)
  226. see: 962, 963, 966-7, 967-8, 969
  227. Njal of Berthorsknoll
  228. see: c.930-1011
  229. Nuh
  230. see: 943, 954
  231. Samanid rulerNuh II
  232. see: 976, 997
  233. Olga of Russia
  234. see: 957, 967-8
  235. Otto I, first Holy Roman Emperor
  236. see: 962, 967, 970, 972
  237. Otto II
  238. see: 981-3
  239. Otto III
  240. see: 996
  241. Peter
  242. see: 927, Maria
  243. Khan (Tsar) Peter of Bulgaria
  244. see: 927-c.967
  245. Nikephoros Phokas (Nikephoros II)
  246. see: 962, 963, 966-7, 967-8, 969
  247. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
  248. see: 945, 959
  249. Al Qadir
  250. see: 991
  251. Qarmatian rule at Bahrain
  252. see: 981
  253. Umayyad Caliph Abdul Rahman III in Spain
  254. see: 929, 961
  255. Eirikr inn Rauda (Eric the Red)
  256. see: 982
  257. Eric the Red (Eirikr inn Rauda)
  258. see: 982
  259. co-emperor Romanos I Lekapenos
  260. see: 945, 975
  261. Romanos II
  262. see: 959, 963
  263. Hamdanid rulerSail ud Daula
  264. see: 943, 967
  265. Saint Athanasios
  266. see: c.1000
  267. Samanid ruler Mansur
  268. see: 976
  269. Samanid ruler Mansur II
  270. see: 998
  271. Samanid ruler Nuh II
  272. see: 976, 997
  273. Samanids, end of
  274. see: 999
  275. Samsara ud Daula
  276. see: 982, 986
  277. Samuel of Bulgaria
  278. see: 986, 995-8, c.997
  279. Sharaf ud Daula, Buwayhid Sultan
  280. see: 986, 989
  281. Chinese Emperor Shih Tsung
  282. see: 954
  283. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra
  284. see: 945
  285. poet/warrior Egill Skallagrimsson
  286. see: 910
  287. Bardas Skleros
  288. see: 976-9, 986-9
  289. co-emperor Stephen Lekapenos
  290. see: 924
  291. Turkish General Subuktgin
  292. see: 973, 975
  293. Subkutgin becomes the Amir of Ghazni
  294. see: 979
  295. King Svein Forkbeard of Denmark
  296. see: 983
  297. Russian Prince Sviatoslav
  298. see: 967-8, 970, 971
  299. Gerbert a.k.a. Pope Sylvester II
  300. see: 945
  301. Tsar (Khan) Symeon
  302. see: 913
  303. Abbasid Caliph At Taii
  304. see: 975, 991
  305. Theophano
  306. see: 963, 972, 996
  307. Patriarch Theophilatos
  308. see: 933
  309. King Olafr Tryggvasson of Norway
  310. see: 947, 1000
  311. Chinese Emperor Shih Tsung
  312. see: 954
  313. Ikhshid ruler Muhammad b Tughj
  314. see: 946
  315. Tuzun
  316. see: 943, 945
  317. John Tzimiskes, John I
  318. see: 950-7, 969, 970, 971, 972, 975
  319. Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah
  320. see: 909, 934
  321. Ulfljotr the Norwegian
  322. see: c.920
  323. Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir ul Umara
  324. see: 936
  325. Umayyad Caliph Hakam
  326. see: 976
  327. Umayyads
  328. see: 978
  329. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra
  330. see: 945
  331. Ikhshid ruler Abul' Qasim Ungur
  332. see: 946, 961
  333. Vladimir of Kiev
  334. see: 986-9, 989
  335. Washimgir
  336. see: 935
  337. Buluggin b Ziri
  338. see: 972, 984
  339. Zirid ruler Buluggin
  340. see: 984
  341. Zirid ruler Mansur
  342. see: 996
  343. Mardawij b Ziyar
  344. see: 928
  345. Zoe (a.k.a. Augusta)
  346. see: 902, 913

Where to Go for More

: Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch. [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. D.E. Smith "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Larissa Bonfante's (translator) "The Plays of Hrotswitha of Gandersheim" [Oak Park: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1986]. Palmer Bovie (editor, translator) "Terence: The Comedies" [Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974]. Peter Dronke "Women Writers of the Middle Ages" [Cambridge: University Press, 1984]. Eleanor Duckett "Death and Life in the Tenth Century" [Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1967]. Heinrich Fichtenau "Living in the Tenth Century" Translated by Patrick J. Geary. [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991]. Anne Lyon Haight (editor). "Hrowsitha of Gandersheim" [New York: Hroswitha Club, 1965]. A. Barrett Jones "Early tenth century Java from the inscriptions" 214 pages [Dordrecht 1984] VKI 107 ISBN 90 6765 062 5 14.15 Euros. Herbert Musurillo (translator) "The Acts of the Christian Martyrs" [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972]. Bernhard Pick "Apocryphal Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew and Thomas" [Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company, 1909]. Timothy Reuter's (editor) "The New Cambridge Medieval History" [Cambridge: University Press, 1999]. Suzanne Wemple "Women from the 5th to the 10th Century," in "A History of Women in the West" Edited by Christiane Klapisch-Zuber [Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1992]. Katherina Wilson "Hrotsvit of Gandersheim" [Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1998]. Michael D.C. Drout's (editor): "Anglo-Saxon Poetry in its Tenth-Century Context: Essays in Literature, Culture and History", Chosen from papers given in several sessions organized at the International Medieval Congresses in Kalamazoo and Leeds, the essays in Anglo-Saxon Poetry in its Tenth-Century Context: Essays in Literature, Culture and History examine many of the most important Anglo-Saxon poems in the cultural and historical context of the tenth century, when the poems were either written or copied. Essays in the collection examine major icons of Old English poetry: * Beowulf * the Seafarer * the Battle of Maldon as well as the less frequently studied: * Ruthwell Cross Poem * Guthlac * The Seasons for Fasting * Solomon and Saturn II * the Exeter Book riddles * 'wisdom poems' The essays cover all major poetic genres, making the collection useful as a text in an introductory undergraduate or graduate course in Anglo-Saxon as well as a resource for more advanced scholarship. The approaches range from the theoretical to the exegetical to the almost purely literary-historical, but all are substantially informed by detailed historical and cultural analysis of the period. Although most of the essays focus on the cultural events of the Benedictine Reform at mid-century, several discuss both early and late tenth-century history and culture. Each essay is at its heart a 'close reading' of one or more Old English texts (and often their Latin sources) that are explicated in terms of the historical and cultural context of the tenth century. The essays are theoretically aware, but not jargon-ridden or superficial. The arguments are clear and logical and the writing lucid. Thanks to the recent efflorescence of historical and philological scholarship on the tenth century, including the work of Michael Lapidge and Simon Keynes in Anglo-Latin as well that of the "Munich School" of Helmut Gneuss, Mechthild Gretsch and others, we now know more details about the specific cultural, historical and political developments of the tenth century than of any other period in Anglo-Saxon history. "Anglo-Saxon Poetry in its Tenth Century Context" makes use of this remarkable scholarship to analyze more closely than has been previously possible the way vernacular literature fits into this cultural context. The collection will be a significant addition to Old English scholarship and will be a useful and popular resource for students, teachers and scholars of Old English. others: {to be done} WEB References: The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Tenth Century www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/angsax/ang10.htm
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