TIMELINE 11th CENTURY


Return to Timeline Table of Contents
Return to Ultimate SF Table of Contents

TIMELINE 11th CENTURY

Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.
We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 8 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 25 April 2003 [from 65 to 81 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795; and the Wikipedia. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Executive Summary of the 11th Century Major Books of the Decade 1000-1010 Major Books of the Decade 1010-1020 Major Books of the Decade 1020-1030 Major Books of the Decade 1030-1040 Major Books of the Decade 1040-1050 Major Books of the Decade 1050-1060 Major Books of the Decade 1060-1070 Major Books of the Decade 1070-1080 Major Books of the Decade 1080-1090 Major Books of the Decade 1090-1100 Other Key Dates and Stories of this 11th Century Major Writers Born this 11th Century Major Writers Died this 11th Century Decade by Decade Science Background Decade by Decade Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Executive Summary of the 11th Century

This was a major century for the Vikings; the Great Schism (1054) between the Western (Roman Catholic) and Eastern Orthodox churches; the Norman Conquest (1066) of England; the Spanish leader El Cid conquering the city of Valencia from the Moors; the First Crusade capturing Jerusalem; the invention and use of military rockets in China; and the birth of a major literary form: Murasaki Shikibu's "The Tale of Genji" which is usually considered as the first novel. According to D.E. Smith, "Just how much influence the passing of the first Christian millennium had upon the common people it is difficult to say. Historians pay much less attention to the 'terreur de l'an Mil' [terror of the Year 1000] than was formerly the case. It is not probable that many educated persons took literally the biblical remark relating to the period of a thousand years, but it is certain that it was so taken by some. At any rate, the passing of this milestone saw the Christian world aroused to new interests." "Then, too, there were the Crusades (1095-c.1270), which have been called 'the first Renaissance,' and one which did for a civilization that had long been dormant one thing which the World War[s] did for the civilization of the 20th century,--it let one part of the race know more of what other parts were doing and thinking and hoping. It was war, but it was in genral beyond the boundaries of intellectual Europe." "There was also the potent influence in Europe of a foreign and highly developed civilization in her midst,-- the Saracen supremecy in Spain; and it was the Saracen scholars who made known to Latin scholars the best of the Greek and Oriental civilizations." "Moreover, Europe was seeing the folly of her private wars, the 'Truce of God' was beginning to make its power felt, and the blessings of peace were once more settling upon France and her neighbors, rendering intellectual pursuits possible." "To these influences there should be added that of the Norman Conquest, which, without prolonged warfare, awakened and united England, and showed her what the Continent had for her in the way of science and art." "As a result of such influences, Europe entered upon a new era, one in which cathedral building, church reform, renewed attention to the arts, political experiment, and scientific achievement played great parts." [D.E. Smith, p.194] The three great Scientists or Scholars of the Century, were: * the Arab known as Alhazen [Abu 'Ali Al-Hasan ibn Al-Haytham], * the Persian poet/astronomer/mathematician Omar Khayyam, and * Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II). The Chinese invent moveable type, and gunpowder. Needless to say, both of these had growing influence in centuries to come.

Gerbert

The 11th Century was still dominated by the spirit of the earlier centuries of the Middle Ages, 'when faith overpowered intelligence' and 'authority became the enemy of investigation,' when 'scholar degenerated into schoolmen' and 'science lost itself in the morasses of alchemy or astrology and became anathema to the faithful.' [W.C. Abbott, The Expansion of Europe, I, chapter i, New York, 1918] "This is seen in the attitude of the learned world toward that remarkable churchman and scholar, Gerbert [born near Aurillac, in Auvergne, c.950; died at Rome, May 12, 1003. The name is pronounced zher-bar, who was] one of the greatest popes that ever added lustre to the Church and to the city of Rome. Elevated to the Papal throne, he reigned under the name of Sylvester II from 999 to 1003. He was born of humble parents ['obscuro loco natum'], but his natural brilliany led to his call to study under the monks at Aurillac, and particularly under such a worthy scholar as Abbo of Fleury, and his being sent to Spain (967) to perfect his education. About 970 he went to Italy, where he was presented to the Pope and by him to th Emperor, returning to France in 972. He held various offices in the Church, and in 999 was elected to the papacy. He was a man of great learning, was 'accused--our learning's fate--of wizardry,' combated error, aroused new interest in mathematics, acquired a knowledge of the Hindu-Arabic numerals, gave some attention to the study of astrology (a subject then looked upon as a worthy science), and wrote on arithmetic, geometry, and other mathematical subjects, particularly on the astrolabe." [D.E. Smith, pp.195-196] "Of the mathematical pupils of Gerbert, the most prominent was Bernelinus of Paris, who wrote an arithmetic (Liber Abaci) in which he further explained Gerbert's counters. A litle later (c.1028) Guido of Arezzo (Aretinus), a Benedictine monk from Pomposa, near Ferrara, wrote an arithmetic. About the same time (c.1066) Franco of Liege did the same and, what was not so common at this time, wrote on the quadrature of the circle. Among his contemporaries was Wilhelm, abbot of Hirschau (1026-1091), who taught mathematics and astronomy." "The most prominent of the successors of Gerbert in the 11th Century was Hermannus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad. His limbs having been painfully contracted from childhood, he is known in history as Hermannus Contractus. Educated in the monastic school at Reichenau, he afterwards joined the Benedictine order, became a lecturer on mathematics, and gathered about him a large number of pupils." [D.E. Smith, p.197] He wrote: * on the astrolabe * on the abacus * on the number game rithmomachia {more on this oddity to be done} Minor Church Writers: * Byrhtferth (or Bridferth), who wrote on the calendar (circa 1000) * St.Gall * Notker Labeo (c.950-1022)

Moors

"After the year 1000 numerous Moorish scholars appeared in Spain and contributed to the literature of arithmetic and astronomy, and occasionally to that of algebra." [D.E. Smith, p.205] These included: * Ibn al-Saffar, a native of Cordova, who wrote on astronomical tables and instruments * Ibn al-Zarqala, of Cordova, who wrote on astronomy and astrology, and prepared a set of tables * Abu'l-Salt, Spanish physician from Denia, who wrote in the late 11th century on geometry and astronomy * Jabir ibn Aflah (died between 1140 and 1150), commonly known as Geber, who flourished at Seville and wrote on astronomy, spherical trigonometry, and the transversal theorem of Menelaus. He is often confused with an alchemist of similar name.

Jews

"The most learned scholars in Spain at the close of the 11th Century... were not Mohammedans. The Jewish race... was generally accorded better treatment under Saracen than Christian rule, although it had flourished somewhat in Italy before this time. Through the encouragement received from the Moors, the Jews contributed in no small part to the advance of mathematics in Spain, and to them the Christians were indebted for their first knowledge of the Arabic works on the subject." [D.E. Smith, p.206] The foremost of these Jewish scholars: Abraham bar Chiia [Abraham Judaeus], commonly known as Savasorda [c.1070-c.1136]. He wrote: * works of Astronomy * an encyclopedia of arithmetic, geometry, and mathematical geography * Liber Embadorum, on geometry and number theory, which accuses French Jews of being ignorant of geometry, and thus of arithmetic (later translated from Hebrew to Latin by Plato of Tivoli).

Byzantine Mathematical Philosopher

In the 11th Century, there was only one significant mathematical scholar of Constantinople, Michael Constantine Psellus (1020-1110), "a Greek writer who studied at Athens, became a zealous Neoplatonist, and returned to Constantinople to teach philosophy. He lived during the reign of several rulers, consulted by the emperors and honored by them with the title of Prince of Philosophers. An introduction to the study of Nicomachus and Euclid is attributed to him, but the authorship is doubtful. Partly because of the fact that he was almost the last of the Greek writers on mathematics, partly because of his reputation for learning in general, he is one of the few scholars of his time whose contributions attracted any attention in the Renaissance period. His leading works on mathematics were published at least 13 times in the 16th Century. The fact that he takes [the square root of 8] as a value for [pi] shows how little he merited his reputation as a scientist." [D.E. Smith pp.197-198]

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Perhaps the most impressive web site on one geographic slice of the 11th century is "The Avalon Project" of the Yale School of Law. The following is the address of thier Modern English translation of the great Middle English Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" : Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Eleventh Century Century of the Sword "As the second millennium began on the Eurasian continent, vibrant civilizations were concentrated in China, India, and the Islamic World. The sword symbolizes the 11th century, not because the 11th was any more violent than other centuries of the millennium, but because it was riven by fundamental divisions within and between many cultures. Among these divisions were conflicts between China and her neighbors, conflicts connected with the expansion of Islam, and conflicts within the Christian world. "The sword also represents cleavage, separation, and insularity. Such was the case in Japan, where ties with outside cultures were diminishing or virtually non-existent. Yet despite violence and separation, the 11th century was marked by vibrancy, creativity, and a great deal of cultural transfer, especially in the Islamic World and in East Asia." "As the world began a new millennium in the 11th century, only within Christendom did the word 'Millennium' have much significance. Only there was chronology counted from Christ's birth. The rest of the world marked time in other ways, a fact which symbolizes the world's cultural and regional disconnectedness during this period: although cultures met, touched, interacted, and exchanged, for the most part they remained separated and separate. Looking at Eurasia, there were in the 11th century four great cultural constellations -- China, the Muslim World, India, and Christendom. China considered herself the center of the universe, dominant in the world of technology, and home to a vibrant internal market and culture. When outsiders attacked, China often survived by absorbing her enemies rather than beating them on the battlefield. Yet, China was set off from the rest of the world by barriers, some geographical like the Takla Makan Desert." "Meanwhile, Islam expanded, absorbed and preserved Greco-Roman science and arts, and then produced a brilliant synthesis of Islamic and neighboring cultures. Such a cultural fusion is richly reflected in the Spanish city of Cordoba. India, to the east, was also affected by Islamic travellers and conquerors who occupied northern India in 1000 AD. Eleventh century India, a relic of a former great civilization that had produced two world religious traditions was, at one time, at the forefront of the sciences. Nowhere, except perhaps Ireland, in the 11th century is isolation more evident than in Japan. After centuries of borrowing from China, Japan in the 11th century solidified her imperial tradition in splendid isolation. Separation occurred also within Christendom. In 1054, a split that had been brewing for centuries, finally forever divided Christendom between East and West, Orthodox and Catholic. The East became more vulnerable to Islam while the West entered the second millennium unencumbered, ready to begin the creation of a dynamic new society that formulated institutions and ways of thought that were destined to change the course of world history." [from the CNN Television miniseries "MillenniuM", © 1999 Turner Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Major Books of the Decade 1000-1010

A 360-day year calendar, divided into 12 months of 27 or 28 days, is introduced in India. Since this falls 5.2425 days short of an actual year, the Indians add an extra month at regular intervals; it is also possible that they use months of 30 days, still falling short of the actual length of the year. [Hellemans, p.72] In China, coal is burned for fuel. [Hellemans, p.72] The 7-day week is introduced to China by Persians (or perhaps by merchants from Central Asia). Prior to this, the most common week in China was 10-days. [Hellemans, p.72] The Arabs introduce the lemon plant to Sicily and Spain. [Hellemans, p.72] The Vikings, led by Leif Ericson (Leif, son of Eric the Red), reach North America [Hellemans, p.72] c.1000 Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II) writes a major book on Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557] Avicenna (ibn Sina, born near Bukhara, 980) writes The Canon of Medicine, in five volumes. It treats Greek and Arab medicine so thoroughly as to dominate medical eduction in Europe until the 17th Century. [Hellemans, p.72] c.1000 Avicenna writes major book on Geometry; and another book on arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Al-Majriti writes on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Hamid ibn al-Khidr writes on Algebra, and on the Astrolabe. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Al-Majriti writes on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Al-Hasan (al-Haitam) of Basra writes on Geometry; and again on algebra. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Mansur ibn 'Ali writes on Trigonometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Byrhtferth writes on the Calendar. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Ibn Yunis writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1000 Alberuni writes a major work on Hindu mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 985-1025 Personal rule of Basil II. The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1000 Iceland officially converts to Christianity, although heathen practice is still permitted in private. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage 1000 Olafr Tryggvasson dies. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage ca.1000-1005 Leifr Eiriksson makes his voyages to Vinland (America), attempts made to settle there are prevented by opposition from skraelings (Native Americans). The Viking Answer Lady Webpage 1001-5 Renewed campaign against Bulgars under Khan (now Tsar) Samuel The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1001: Mahmud Ghazanavi defeats the Hindu Shahis. Islamic History of the 11th Century 12 May 1003 Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II), French scholar, dies in Rome [Hellemans, p.72] Gerbert born near Aurillac, in Auvergne, c.950; died at Rome, May 12, 1003. [The name is pronounced zher-bar]. He was one of the greatest popes that ever added lustre to the Church and to the city of Rome. Elevated to the Papl throne, he reigned under the name of Sylvester II from 999 to 1003. D.E. Smith, p.195] 1004: Mahmud captures Bhatiya. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1005 Dar al-ilm, a science library in Cairo, Egypt, is founded. [Hellemans, p.72] 1005: Mahmud captures Multan and Ghur. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1005 Byzantine recovery of Durazzo (with aid of Chryselioi) The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1006 A supernova, or "guest star", is reported in China, Japan, Europe, and Arab lands; it remains visible for several years. [Hellemans, p.72] 1008 The large astronomical tables of al-Hakim by Ibn Yunus. These "Hakimitic tables", named after Caliph al-Hakim, honor the ruler who built an important observatory (completed in 1008) contain accurate astronomical and mathematical tables based on 200 years of (naked eye) observations. These tables are later used in Arab astronomy. [Hellemans, p.72] 1008: Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. Accession of Muhammad. Islamic History of the 11th Century

1010-1020 AD

The Arab scientist known as Alhazen, named Abu 'Ali Al-Hasan ibn Al-Haytham [born in Basra, now Iraq, ca.965] correctly explains how lenses work, and develops parabolic mirrors, similar to those used in today's reflecting telescopes. [Hellemans, p.72] 1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. Accession of Muhammad. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1011: In Spain Muhammad is overthrown by Sulaiman. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1012: In Spain power is captured by Bani Hamud. Death of the Buwayhid Baha ud Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1013 Birth of the most prominent of the successors of Gerbert in the 11th Century, Hermannus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad. His limbs having been painfully contracted from childhood, he is known in history as Hermannus Contractus. Educated in the monastic school at Reichenau, he afterwards joined the Benedictine order, became a lecturer on mathematics, and gathered about him a large number of pupils." [D.E. Smith, p.197] He wrote: * on the astrolabe * on the abacus * on the number game rithmomachia 1014-18 Further campaign against the Bulgars; Basil II advances to the capital Ohrid, wins major defeat, visits Athens to give thanks to Virgin and celebrates a triumph at Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1016: Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis; accession of Al Muizz. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1016 Ard-Righ Brian Boru defeats the Norse in Ireland at the battle of Clontarf, both Brian and Jarl Sigurdhr of Orkney are slain. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage 1018-ca. 1081 Michael Psellos The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1018: In Spain power is captured by Abdul Rahman IV. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1019: Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud Ghazanavi. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1020: The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is Overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula, Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hakim, accession of Al Zahir. Islamic History of the 11th Century

1020-1030 AD

c.1020 Al-Karkhi writes a major book on Algebra. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1020 Bernelinus writes on Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1020 Sridhara writes on Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557] c.1020 Death of Firdusi, Persian poet. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1021-22 Basil II campaigns in Armenia and Georgia The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1024: In Spain assassination of Abdul Rahman IV, accession of Mustafi. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1025: Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal ud Daula. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1025 Plans for the reconquest of Sicily from Arab control The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1025 Death of Basil II, his brother Constantine VIII rules alone The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1025 Al-Nasavi writes major book on Greek mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1025 Ibn al-Saffar writes Astronomical tables. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1025-36 Pecheneg incursions in northern Balkans The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1026 Birth of Gerbert's student Wilhelm, abbot of Hirschau (1026-1091), who taught mathematics and astronomy." [D.E. Smith, p.197] 1027-8 Western embassy negotiates Byzantine bride for Conrad II The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century c.1028 A student of Gerbert, Guido of Arezzo (Aretinus), a Benedictine monk from Pomposa, near Ferrara, wrote an arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.197] 1028 Constantine VIII's daughter Zoe marries Romanos Argyros The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1028 Two days later Constantine dies, Zoe and Romanos acclaimed as imperial rulers The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1029 Norman forces established at Aversa, southern Italy The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1029: In Spain death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1030 Romanos III suffers defeat by Emir of Aleppo The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1030: Death of Mahmud Ghazanavi. Islamic History of the 11th Century

1030-1040 AD

Al-Biruni writes History of India, giving a general account (based on various sources) of the history of India. [Hellemans, p.72] 1030 King Olaf the Saint is killed at Stiklestad. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage 1031: In Spain deposition of Hisharn III, and end of the Umayyad rule. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qadir, accession of Al Qaim. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1031-2 Byzantine forces under George Maniakes capture Edessa, force the Emir of Aleppo to become a vassal of the empire The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1034 Romanos murdered, Zoe marries Michael the Paphlagonian, brother of finance minister, John the Orphanotrophos The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1034-41 Reign of Michael IV The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1035 Truce between Byzantium and Arab Sicily The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1035 Death of Ibn al-Saffar, a native of Cordova, who wrote on astronomical tables and instruments. His full name was Ahmed ibn 'Abdallah ibn 'Omar al-Gafiqi, Abu'l-Qasim. 1035 A Chinese painting shows the use of a spinning wheel. [Hellemans, p.73] 1036: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Zahir, accession of Mustansir. Tughril Beg is crowned as the king of the Seljuks. Islamic History of the 11th Century June 1037 Death of the great Persian physician Avicenna in Hamadan (Iran) [Hellemans, p.73] 1037-40 Byzantine reconquest of Sicily under George Maniakes The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1037 Death of the great Arab physicist Alhazen in Cairo (Egypt) [Hellemans, p.73] ca.1040 Zoe "adopts" Michael, nephew of Michael IV, and proclaims him caesar, with right to inherit the throne The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century ca. 1040 Seljuk Turks threaten the Byzantino-Armenian border The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1040: Battle of Dandanqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of Masud the Ghazanavid Sultan, accession of Muhammad. Al Moravidscome to power in North Africa. Islamic History of the 11th Century

1040-1050 AD

1040-1049 In China, the obscure commoner Pi Sheng invents movable type (centuries before Gutenberg). [Hellemans, p.75] 1040-1 Revolt in Bulgaria led by Peter Delian, who lays siege to Thessalonike; defeated by Michael IV The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1041 Death of Michael IV, succeeded by his nephew Michael V The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1041: The Ghazanavid Sultan Muhammad is overthrown by Maudud. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1041-2 Byzantine revolt in southern Italy in Norman alliance The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1041-1048 In China Tseng Kung-Liang publishes the first instructions for the manufacture of three versions of gunpowder. [Hellemans, p.75] 1042 Edward the Confessor becomes King of England. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1042 Michael V exiles John the Orphanotrophos and confines Zoe to a nunnery; popular riots in Constantinople acclaim Zoe and her sister Theodora empresses; Michael V blinded and deposed The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1042 Zoe marries Constantine Monomachos (her fourth marriage, which provokes ecclesiastical protest) The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1042-55 Reign of Constantine IX The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1042-3 Revolt of George Maniakes, proclaimed emperor by his troops in southern Italy, killed in battle in Macedonia The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1043 Russian attack on Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1043-5 University of Constantinople reorganized under Michael Psellos (philosophy) and George Xiphilinos (law) The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1043-58 Patriarch Michael Keroularios (Cerularius) The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1043-6 Normans under Robert Guiscard plunder central Italy The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1044: Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu Kalijar. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1046: Basasiri captures power in Baghdad. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1047 Revolt of John Vatatzes and Leo Tornikes The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1047 First debates over use of unleavened bread (azymes) in communion The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1047: The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and transfer allegiance to-the Abbasids. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1048 Seljuk invasion in Armenia defeated The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1048-53 Pechenegs cross the Danube, devastate Thrace and take Preslav; Byzantium forced to bestow land, gifts and court titles to obtain peace; John Mauropous writes in praise of 'bloodless victories'. The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1048: Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik ur Rahim. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1048 Death of the great Physicist, mathematician, and traveler Al-Biruni [Hellemans, p.73] 1049-50 Emperor Henry III acknowledges Norman control in central Italy The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1050 Disgrace of prime minister Constantine Leichoudes and exile of Psellos and his teacher John Mauropous The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1050 Death of Zoe, Constantine IX reigns alone The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1050: Yusuf b Tashfin comes to power in the Maghrib. Islamic History of the 11th Century

1050-1060

1050-1059 The Arabs introduce the decimal system into Spain. [Hellemans, p.75] 1050-1059 In China, some books are printed with movable type. [Hellemans, p.75] 1050-1108 ca. Theophylaktos Hephaistos, later archbishop of Ohrid (from ca. 1090) The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1050 Hermannus Contractus writes major books on Arithmetic; on the Astrolabe. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1050 Chon Huo writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1050 Ibn al-Zarqala writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1050 Wilhelm of Hirschau is active as a teacher. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1054 Schism between churches of Rome and Constantinople over unleavened bread (azymes) and celibate clergy; Niketas Stethatos attacks the Roman use of Filioque clause ("and from the Son") in the creed The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 4 July 1054 The supernova that now forms the Crab Nebula is observed in Japan, China, and the Arab lands, and stays visible in the sky for 22 months. [Hellemans, p.74] 1054 Death of the most prominent of the successors of Gerbert in the 11th Century, Hermannus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad. His limbs having been painfully contracted from childhood, he is known in history as Hermannus Contractus. Educated in the monastic school at Reichenau, he afterwards joined the Benedictine order, became a lecturer on mathematics, and gathered about him a large number of pupils." [D.E. Smith, p.197] He wrote: * on the astrolabe * on the abacus * on the number game rithmomachia 1055 Death of Constantine IXMonomachos, Theodora reigns alone The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1055: Tughril Beg overthrows the Buwayhids. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1056 Theodora dies having adopted Michael Stratiotikes as her successor The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1056-7 Michael VI challenged by military leaders The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1057-9 Reign of Isaac I, member of military family of Komnenos The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1057 Robert Guiscard begins conquest of Calabria The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1057: Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al Qaim and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1058 Embassy of Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino to Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1058 Trial of Patriarch Keroularios, exiled The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1058-9 Seljuk leader Togrul elected Sultan and Emir of Baghdad, attacks Byzantium The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1059 Constitutions of Melfi: Pope Leo IX recognizes Norman authority in Italy The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1059: Tughril Beg recaptures power in Baghdad, al Qaim is restored as the Caliph. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1059-63 Patriarch Constantine Leichoudes The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1059 Abdication of Isaac I, who designates Constantine Doukas as his successor The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1059-67 Emperor Constantine X The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1060 Normans conquer Calabria and begin attacks on Sicily The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1060-1070

1060: Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni. Yusuf b Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and establish their capital at Bougie. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1062: Death of the Zirid ruler Al Muizz, accession of Tamin. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1063: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg; accession of Alp Arsalan. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1064 Magyars capture Belgrade The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1065-6 Sultan Alp-Arslan attacks Edessa, Caesarea, Cilicia The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1066 A large, bright comet is sighted; in England, it is associated with the invasion of William the Conquerer. Today, we call it Halley's Comet. [Hellemans, p.74] 1066 Haraldr Hardrada, king of Norway, is killed during an attempted invasion of England fighting against Harold Godwinsson, the English king. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage 1066 Harold Godwinsson is killed at Hastings by the forces of Duke William (the Bastard) of Normandy. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage Better known in Great Britain as William the Conquerer, the victor of the Battle of Hastings began the Norman domination of England. 1066 The Norman Conquest takes place. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage 1066 The practice of "going viking" ends. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage c.1066 Franco of Liege, a student of Gerbert, wrote an arithmetic and, what was not so common at this time, wrote on the quadrature of the circle. [D.E. Smith, p.197] 1067 On death of Constantine X (in May) his three sons succeed under the regency of mother Eudocia, with their uncle John Doukas and Michael Psellos The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1067 Marriage of Eudocia to Romanos Diogenes (December) The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1069-71 Long campaign of Romanos Diogenes against Seljuk Turks, successful at first but later disastrous The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1070-1080

ca.1070 birth of Jewish scholar in Spain, Abraham bar Chiia [Abraham Judaeus, commonly known as Savasorda [c.1070-c.1136]. He wrote: * works of Astronomy * an encyclopedia of arithmetic, geometry, and mathematical geography * Liber Embadorum, on geometry and number theory, which accuses French Jews of being ignorant of geomrtey, and thus of arithmetic (later translated from Hebrew to Latin by Plato of Tivoli). 1070-1089 Azrachel suggests that the orbits of the planets are ellipses, anticipating Kepler by centuries. [Hellemans, p.74] 1085 Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain, an important center of Arab learning, away from the Arabs. [Hellemans, p.74] 1071 Fall of Bari to Normans after three year siege; Battle of Mantzikert, Romanos taken prisoner, ransomed for large sum The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1071: Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor taken captive by the Seljuks. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1071 Senate deposes Romanos; Michael Doukas, son of Constantine X, proclaimed emperor The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1071-8 Reign of Michael VII "Parapinakes" The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1072 Fall of Palermo and Sicily to Robert Guiscard The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1072-5 Negotiations between Michael VII and Robert Guiscard for a marriage alliance. Simultaneous negotiations with Pope Gregory VII for military alliance. The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1072-5 Pecheneg incursions in Balkans, with connivance of natives in Paristrion The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1073: Death of Alp Arsalan, accession of Malik Shah. Islamic History of the 11th Century ca.1075 Adam of Bremen writes Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage 1075 Psellus writes on the Quadrivium. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1075 Franco of Liege writes on Arithmetic and Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1076 Turkish incursions in Asia Minor The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1077 Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1077: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qaim, accession of Al Muqtadi. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1077 Revolt of Nikephoros Bryennios, duke of Durazzo, proclaimed emperor at Adrianople The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1077 Benedictus Accolytus writes on the mathematical board-game Rithmomachia. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1078 Revolt of Nikephoros Botaniates, domestikos of the scholai in Asia Minor, proclaimed at Nicaea The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1078 Abdication of Michael VII in favour of his son Constantine, but Nikephoros Botaniates crowned emperor The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1078-81 Reign of Nikephoros III, challenged by Robert Guiscard, protector of Michael VII, excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1080 Revolt of Nikephoros Melissenos The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1080-1090

1080 ca. Seljuks under Suleiman create Sultanate of Rum in Asia Minor The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1081 Revolt of Alexios Komnenos, proclaimed emperor in Thrace, allies with Nikephoros Melissenos, enters Constantinople and is crowned The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1081-1118 Reign of Alexios I Komnenos Komnenos 1081 Durazzo falls to Robert Guiscard; Normans enter Greece The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1082: The Al Moravids conquer Algeria. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1082 Alexios I concedes commercial privileges to Venice The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1082-3 Guiscard's son Bohemond conquers Macedonia, Thessaly and besieges Larissa; retires to Kastoria and later to Italy The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1082 Trial and condemnation of John Italos for pagan philosophy The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1083 Alexios I's daughter Anna betrothed to Constantine Doukas, son of Michael VII The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1083 China prints Liu Hui's classic. Block book. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1084 Norman fleet defeats Byzantine and Venetian forces off Corfu The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1084 China prints Ch'and K'iu-kien's arithmetic book. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1084 In China, the Wu ching tsung yao (Compendium of important military techniques) by Tseng Kung-Liang describes a magnetized "iron fish" that floats in water and can be used for finding south; about this time the Chinese begin to use the compass for navigation, most likely using this invention of the "iron fish." [Hellemans, p.75] 1085 Robert Guiscard dies; brother Roger Guiscard occupies Cephalonia The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1086 The Domesday Book lists 5,624 waterwheel-driven mills in England south of Trent, or one mill for each 400 persons. [Hellemans, p.75] 1086: Battle of Zallakha. The Al Moravids defeat the Christians in Spain. Death of the Rum Sejuk Sultan Sulaiman, accession of Kilij Arsalan. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1086 The Dream Pool Essays by Shen Kua in China outlines the principles of erosion, uplift, and sedimentation that are the foundations of geology. It also has the first known reference to the use of a magnetic compass for navigation. [Hellemans, pp.74-75] 1086-8 Pechenegs and Cumans invade Thrace, defeat Alexios I and advance to Constantinople.  Alexios imposes truce The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1088-9 Negotiations to re-establish union between the churches; patriarchal synod restores mention of popes in diptychs The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1090-1100

c.1090 Gerland, prior of St.Paul, wrote a computus and a brief work on the abacus [D.E. Smith, p.205] 1090 Fortolfus writes on the mathematical board-game Rithmomachia. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1090-1 Seljuk attacks on Bithynia; Tzachas leads piracy in Aegean; Cumans and Pechenegs ally with Seljuk Turks The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1091: The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule. Islamic History of the 11th Century This ends roughly 200 years of Arabic rule of Sicily 1091 Alexios defeats Pechenegs at decisive battle of Lebounion (Levunium) The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1091 Death of Gerbert's student Wilhelm, abbot of Hirschau (1026-1091), who taught mathematics and astronomy." [D.E. Smith, p.197] 1092 The finest mechanical achievement of the century, perhaps, is the giant water clock and mechanical armillary sphere built in China by Su Sung. [Hellemans, p.75] 1092 Alexios I names his son John caesar in place of Constantine Doukas  The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1092: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, accession of Mahmud. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1092-4 Combined Turkish and Cuman raids, Diogenes revolt The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1092 Pope Urban II appeals for a crusade at Clermont The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1094: Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Muqtadi, accession ofMustahzir. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1095 Alexios I sends embassy to Council of Piacenza for military alliance against the Turks The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1095: The First Crusade. Islamic History of the 11th Century The First Crusade is led by Pope Urban II, Peter the Hermit, and Walter the Penniless; the goal is to capture Jerusalem from the Arabs. [Hellemans, p.74] 1096-7 The First Crusade arrives at Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1097 Alexios I marries daughter Anna to Nikephoros Bryennios The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1097 Crusaders capture Nicaea (Iznik) The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1098 After long siege Antioch falls to crusaders, Bohemond proclaims himself prince of Antioch The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem. Islamic History of the 11th Century 1099 Jerusalem captured by crusaders, Godfrey of Bouillon becomes Defender of the Holy Sepulchre, founds Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century 1100: King Henry I is crowned in England. [Helleman, p.74] He reigns from 1100 to 1135, obtains control of Normandy, and incurs endless difficulties in trying (and failing) to be succeeded by his daughter Matilda (who is technically to inherit the throne, but the nobles prevent her from taking power). 1100 Savasorda writes important book on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1100 Omar Khayyam, the poet, writes important books on Arithmetic and on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1100 Abu'l-Salt writes on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557] 1100 Walcherus writes on Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

Other Key Dates and Stories of this 11th Century

{to be done}

Major Writers Born this 11th Century

1013: Hermannus Contractus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad, protegee of Gerbert 1020: Michael Constantine Psellus (1020-1110), mathematical scholar of Constantinople 1026: Wilhelm (1026-1091), abbot of Hirschau, who taught mathematics and astronomy 1070: Jewish scholar Abraham bar Chiia [Abraham Judaeus], commonly known as Savasorda [c.1070-c.1136]

Major Writers Died this 11th Century

12 May 1003: Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II), French scholar, dies in Rome (he was born near Aurillac, in Auvergne, c.950) June 1037: Death of the great Persian physician Avicenna in Hamadan, Iran. [also known as ibn Sina, born near Bukhara, 980] 1037: great Arab physicist Alhazen dies in Cairo, Egypt. [Abu 'Ali Al-Hasan ibn Al-Haytham] between 1140 and 1150: Jabir ibn Aflah, Moorish scholar, commonly known as Geber 1048: Death of the great Physicist, mathematician, and traveler Al-Biruni 1054: Hermannus Contractus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad, protegee of Gerbert 1091: Wilhelm (1026-1091), abbot of Hirschau, who taught mathematics and astronomy

Decade by Decade 11th Century Science Background

The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site break these apart (science/math versus political/military history). Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about Christian saints, and Japan's "The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon" and "The Tale of Genji."

Decade by Decade 11th Century Mundane Background

11th Century CHINA - Summary In China, northern barbarians descend and seize significant Chinese wealth. During this invasion, the busy, worldy city at the heart of China-Kaifeng-was sacked. Scholars loyal to Confucius stayed positive that that China's culture would survive. In fact, they were approcimately correct: China was a global center of innovation and would not be distracted for long. China had invented: * print block (printing press with movable type) * paper money * magnetic compass * seismograph * accurate water clock * acupuncture * medical sciences * gunpowder * the invention and use of military rockets. Hence invaders, instead of wiping out such innovations, were instead enamored of such sophistication. They adopted Chinese culture, and were absorbed. [PARAPHRASED from the CNN Television miniseries "MillenniuM", © 1999 Turner Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.] To learn more, check out: BOOKS: * Thomas Allen's "The Silk Road: Lost World." National Geographic [March 1996] * Ancient China: Great Ages of Man Series, Vol. 17. Time-Life Books * Dennis Bloodsworth's "The China Looking Glass. (Chinese history and customs) * John Fairbank's "China: A New History" * Joseph Needham's "Science and Technology in China" (an astounding many-volume illustrated encyclopedia) * Robert Temple's "The Genius of China, 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery and Inventions" WEB: Chinese history links English translations of the writings of Confucius Lesson Plans from China: A Teaching Workbook 11th Century JAPAN - Summary Dangerous seas cut off the Japanese from much of the globe. In the center of the Japanese archipelago was a royal court where manners had evolved to be highly sophisticated. Female courtiers had to be skilled in a remarkable variety of endeavors. Writing skills (fiction, nonfiction, and poetry) were prized. Sei Shonagon was one such courtier/author. Her portrait of life at royal court survives, as vivid now as it would have been in the 11th century. Since her world was constrained within palace walls, she viewed her world in their smallest details: "the raindrops on a spider's web, the wind created by a mosquito's wings, the play of light on water as it is poured into a vessel." She also wrote down situation comedic scenes, such as when a man lay awake at night talking to his lover, only to have the lover stay a sleep. Sei Shonagon's nights vibrated with intrigue. Lovers tiptoed through the palace complex for secret hours with her and other court ladies. Court culture was only a slice of Japanese culture, yet exemplifies this inward-looking and parochial society, which would show no major signs of break-through for several more centuries. [PARAPHRASED from the CNN Television miniseries "MillenniuM", © 1999 Turner Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.] To learn more, check out: BOOKS: * Helen C. McCullough's "Classical Japanese Prose, An Anthology" [1990] * Ivan I. Morris's "The World of the Shining Prince: Court Life in Ancient Japan" [1979] * Sei Shonagon's "The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon" translated by Ivan I. Morris [1971] * the birth of a major literary form: Murasaki Shikibu's "The Tale of Genji" which is usually considered as the first novel. WEB: History of Japan in Heian Period Heian Art 11th Century INDIA - Summary For hundreds of ywars, Indian authors gave most of Asia various sacred scriptures and scientific writings. In this 11th century, the Islamic scholar Alberuni came to India to find Indian wisdom. He meandered there for 15 years, studying Sanskrit and exploring temples and . He was amazed by the energy Indian ethicities he met, yet was baffled by India's religious leaders. Many Indian priests were homeless and near-naked. The vast wisdom of the previous centuries was hard to find. Alberuni saw a society that had become insular, and staring at itself in a mirror. [PARAPHRASED from the CNN Television miniseries "MillenniuM", © 1999 Turner Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.] To learn more, check out: BOOKS: * Georg Feuerstein's "In Search of the Cradle of Civilization: New Light on Ancient India" * Viswanathan, editor: "Am I A Hindu?/The Hinduism Primer: WEB: Background notes on India: http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/india_998_bgn.html Background notes on Pakistan: http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/pakistan_971100_bgn.html Background on Hinduism: http://www.muslimsonline.com/babri/hinduism1.htm#hindu India/Pakistan War of 1971: http://freeindia.org/1971war/ 11th Century SPAIN - Summary The Muslim World was a youthful, energetic society in the 11th century. During four centuries, Islamic warriors had conquered huge territories. When converted by traders, the nomads of the Sahara and of central Asia became even more Islamic than the previous followers of Islam. In this 11th century, Turks deposed Arab rulers in Asia and Egypt, while genuine military expansion penetrated sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Afghanistan and Spain. Islamic traders expanded and consolidated Muslim cultural influence, from the African continent to the Middle East, Asia, and Christendom. In the center of the Western Muslim universe was Cordoba, Spain. Similar to other Islamic cities, it was a paradise of gardens, shops, baths, and centers of learning. [PARAPHRASED from the CNN Television miniseries "MillenniuM", © 1999 Turner Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.] To learn more, check out: BOOKS: * "Arabian Nights: The Thousand and One Nights" * John Exposito's "Islam: The Straight Truth" * Matthew Gordon's "Islam" * Francis Robinson's "The Islamic World, Cambridge Illustrated History" WEB: Background on Islam: http://www.religioustolerance.org/islam.htm Significance of Cordoba: http://multimedia.ecn.purdue.edu/~kaldirog/islam/articles/cordoba.html 11th Century JERUSALEM - Summary Christendom was bordered other great civilizations. In this 11th century, the Christian world was split forever into two separate ideological and geographic sub-cultures. The West was contemptuous of the wealthy Eastern Church. The more sophisticated Eastern Church held the Christians of the West to be barbarians, and far from God. In the year 1054, years of political argument reached a climax. The Pope (in Rome) published a document which officially excommunicating the Eastern Church. This split create divided Europe for centuries to come. 11th Century, it seemed that this slice of the globe had an uncertain future, at best. Yet clearing the forests and evangelising Christian faith throughout the continent turned out to be essential to the revival of Western civilization later in the millennium. Rapid growth proceeded in all directions. The trigger of Western dynamism had been pulled, and the explosion was inevitable. [PARAPHRASED from the CNN Television miniseries "MillenniuM", © 1999 Turner Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.] To learn more, check out: Karen Armstrong's "Holy War: The Crusades and Their Impact on Today's World" [book] The Crusades Brief History of Jerusalem Creeds of Christendom

Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology

|Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |Cosmic History:13 Billion BC to 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: 6000-5000 B.C. |5th Millennium BC: 5000-4000 B.C. |4th Millennium BC: 4000-3000 B.C. |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: 1000 BC-1 BC |1st Century: 1 AD-100 AD |2nd Century: 100 AD-200 AD |3rd Century: 200 AD-300 AD |4th Century: 300-400 |5th Century: 400-500 |6th Century: 500-600 |7th Century: 600-700 |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Khayyam, Gerbert, Alhazen [you are HERE] |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Final Flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners
A Few Paid Links to decrease my losses on this Web Domain:

Where to Go for More

: 51 Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: ALDISS: "Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction", Brian W. Aldiss (New York: Doubleday, 1973; Schocken Paperback, 1974) ALLEN: "Science Fiction Reader's Guide", L. David Allen (Centennial Press, 1974) AMIS: "New Maps of Hell", Kingsley Amis (London: Gollancz, 1960; New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960) ASH1: "Who's Who in Science Fiction", by Brian Ash (Taplinger, 1976) ASH2: "The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction", edited by Brian Ash (Harmony Books, 1977) ASHLEY: "The History of the Science Fiction Magazine" [3 volumes] (London: New English Library, 1974) ASIMOV "Asimov on Science Fiction" (New York: Avon, 1981) ATHELING: "The Issue at Hand", "William Atheling, Jr." [James Blish] (Chicago: Advent, 1964) BARRON: "Anatomy of Wonder", edited by Neil Barron (Bowker, 1976) BAXTER: "Science Fiction in the Cinema", John Baxter (London: A. Zwemmer, 1970; New York: A. S. Barnes, 1970) BERGONZI: "The Early H.G. Wells", Bernard Bergonzi (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1961) BLEILER: "The Checklist of Fantastic Literature" Everett F. Bleiler (Chicago: Shasta, 1948) BRETNOR1: "Modern Science Fiction: Its Meaning and Future", edited by Reginald Bretnor (New York: Coward-McCann, 1953) BRETNOR2: "The Craft of Science Fiction", Reginald Bretnor (New York: Harper & Row, 1977) BRINEY: "SF Bibliographies", Robert E. Briney & Edward Wood (Chicago: Advent, 1972) CLARESON1: "SF: The Other Side of Realism", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Gregg Press, 1978) CLARESON2: "Extrapolation, 1959-1969", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Bowling Green, Ohio: University Popular Press, 1971) CLARKE: "The Tale of the Future", I. F. Clarke (London: The Library Association, 1961, 1972) CONTENTO: "Index to the Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections", William Contento G.K. Hall, 1978) DAY: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazine: 1926-50", Donald B. Day (Portland, Oregon: Perri Press, 1952) DeCAMP: "Science Fiction Handbook", L. Sprague DeCamp (New York: Hermitage House, 1953) ELLIK: "The Universes of E. E. Smith", Ron Ellik & Bill Evans (Chicago: Advent, 1966) EVANS: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines", Bill Evans with Jack Speer (Denver: Robert Peterson, 1946?) FRANKLIN: "Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century", H. Bruce Franklin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966) FREWIN: "One Hundred Years of Science Fiction Illustration", Anthony Frewin (London: Jupiter Books, 1974) GOODSTONE: "The Pulps", Tony Goodstone (New York: Chelsea House, 1970) GUNN: "Alternate Worlds", James Gunn (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) HARRISON: "John W. Campbell: Collected Editorials from Analog", Harry Harrison (Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1966) HOLMBERG: "Science Fiction History", John-Henri Holmberg (Vanersborg, Sweden: Askild & Karnekull, 1974) KNIGHT: "In Search of Wonder", Damon Knight (Chicago: Advent, 1956; enlarged 1967) KYLE: "A Pictorial History of Science Fiction", David Kyle (London: Hamlyn House, 1976) LOCKE: "Worlds Apart", edited by George Locke (London: Cornmarket Reprints, 1972) LUNDWALL: "Science Fiction: What It's All About", Sam J. Lundwall (New York: Ace Books, 1971) METCALF: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines, 1951-1965", Norm Metcalf (J. Ben Stark, 1968) MILLIES: "Science Fiction Primer for Teachers", Suzanne Millies (Dayton OH: Pflaum, 1975) MOSKOWITZ#1: "The Immortal Storm", Sam Moskowitz (AFSO Press, 1954; Hyperion Press, 19??) MOSKOWITZ#2: "Explorers of the Infinite: Shapers of Science Fiction", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) MOSKOWITZ#3: "Seekers of Tomorrow", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) NESFA: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazines", New England Science Fiction Association (Cambridge MA: NESFA, 1971) PERRY: "The Penguin Book of Comics", George Perry & Alan Aldridge (London: Penguin, 1971) ROGERS: "A Requiem for Astounding", Alva Rogers (Chicago: Advent, 1964) ROTTSTEINER: "The Science Fiction Book", Franz Rottsteiner (London: Thames & Hudson, 1975) SADOUL: "Hier, L'An 2000 [Illustrations from the Golden Age of Science Fiction]", Jaxques Sadoul (Paris: Editions Denoel, 1973) STRAUSS: "The MIT Science Fiction Society's Index to the SF Magazines: 1951-64" Erwin S. Strauss (Cambridge MA: MIT Science Fiction Society, 1966) TUCK: "The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, 2nd Edition", Donald H. Tuck (Hobart, Tasmania: Donald H. Tuck, 1959) VERSINS: "Encyclopedie des l'utopie, des voyages extraordinaires et de la science fiction", (Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme, 1972) WAGGONER: "The Hills of Faraway", Diana Waggoner (Athenaeum, 1978) WARNER: "All Our Yesterdays", Harry Warner, Jr. (Chicago: Advent, 1969) WELLS: "Fictional Accounts of Trips to the Moon", Lester G. Wells (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Library, 1962) WILLIAMSON: "H.G. Wells: Critic of Progress", Jack Williamson (Baltimore: Mirage Press, 1973) WOLLHEIM: "The Universe Makers", Donald A. Wollheim (New York: Harper & Row, 1971)
Return to Ultimate SF Table of Contents



Compiled by Magic Dragon Multimedia

Go to Ultimate Mystery/Detective Web Guide


Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.