TIMELINE 14th CENTURY




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TIMELINE 14th CENTURY

Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.
We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 0 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 24 December 2003 (to 36 Kilobytes).
The single most enjoyable book about the 14th Century is: A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century, by Barbara Wertheim Tuchman [New York: A.A. Knopf, Sep 1978, hardcover; Ballantine Books, July 1987, paperback reissue] which parallels this century (especially in France and Italy) with the 20th century. This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.

14th Century

Executive Summary of the Century Major Books of the Decade 1300-1310 Major Books of the Decade 1310-1320 Major Books of the Decade 1320-1330 Major Books of the Decade 1330-1340 Major Books of the Decade 1340-1350 Major Books of the Decade 1350-1360 Major Books of the Decade 1360-1370 Major Books of the Decade 1370-1380 Major Books of the Decade 1380-1390 Major Books of the Decade 1390-1400 Other Key Dates and Stories of this Century Major Writers Born this Century Major Writers Died this Century Decade by Decade Science Background Decade by Decade Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Executive Summary of the Century

This Century marks an accelerating growth of Art, Science, and Statecraft as if in preparation for the later Renaissance. By late in this Century, English begins to displace French and Latin as the dominant European language of Literature and the Law. That is why you are reading this web domain in English! On the down side, the Black Death was the worst epidemic in history (see 1346-7). England was in a period of growth between the Magna Carta (1215) and the War of the Roses (1455-1485), but depleted resources in The Hundred Years' War. France, also wracked by The Hundred Years' War, was strengthening and continued to do so for a couple of Centuries. Germany was a chaos of independent cities, church lands, and petty feudal states, which the Hapsburgs had begun to consolidate in 1276 (from Austria), but were a Century or more from being powerful enough to stop the expansion of France. Spain was a century from forming (when Castile and Aragon unified in 1479). China marked the establishment of its final dynasty, and its science and technology began to filter into Europe. Islam continued to grow, until 1500. Europe's great age of exploration did not begin until early the next Century.

Major Books of the Decade 1300-1310

In this decade, eyeglasses are manufactured and worn in great number, for the first time. In the early 21st century, this was seen as the birth of "wearable" computer/display devices. Eyeglasses have two lenses (from the Latin word for "lentil"), one per eye. Putting both lenses in one tube made a telescope (Jan Lippershey, 1608), rediscovered by Galileo (1609). In Rocca (Syria), the mineral Alum is discovered. Alum, the double sulphate of aluminum and potassium, AlK(SO4)2 + 12 H2O, is a common compound of Aluminum, which was not isolated until 1825 by Hans Christian Oersted (although anticipated and named in 1807 by Sir Humphrey Davy). Alum comes to be used for dyeing, leathermaking, medicine, paper sizing, and fireproofing. The alchemist known as "the False Geber" (born circa 1270) first publishes a description of what we call Sulphuric Acid: H2SO4 He takes his name from the alchemist Geber of roughly 500 years earlier. 1303: Chu Shih-Chieh of CHINA publishes the first known representation of what we call Pascal's Triangle. Arab mathematicans probably knew of this before 1100 A.D., and Chu Shih-Chieh is presumed to have found this out from Arabic sources, but this has not been proven. 1304: The master general of a Dominican order suggests to Theodoric of Freibourg (ca.1250-ca.1315) in GERMANY that he figure out the mechanism of the Rainbow. Theodoric experiments with spheres of water and gives the first correct (albeit incomplete) explanation of this meteorological/optical phenomenon in the book "De Iride" (On the Rainbow"). Isaac Newton discovered (1672) how a prism can separate all the colors of white light by refraction, into a spectrum (from the Latin word for Image" or "apparition"). 1305: The statute Acre of England is set at precisely 4,840 square yards 1307: Dante starts to write the "Divine Comedy". Dante, full name Dante Alighieri (1265-1321): major poet of ITALY. one could claim that Dante Alighieri was the greatest science fiction/fantasy poet of all time for his "Divine Comedy" (Divina Commedia), whose influence extends far beyond his country and his genre. This masterpiece was begun in 1307. 1308: The Philosopher/Theologian Johannes Duns Scotus, of SCOTLAND dies in Cologne, GERMANY. He was the founder of Scotism, as opposed to Thomism (the school of St. Thomas of Aquinus) in Roman Catholicism. Duns Scotus said that individuality could not arise from matter; and that all knowledge of finite truth comes from the Ultimate Truth, which is God. He argued that the possibility of the existence of God could be demonstrated from sense experience, and that this possible existence implied actual existence. He said that the consent of the people is where the State gets its sanction; and that natural law does not sanction private property. 1309: the first of the Popes at Avignon, in FRANCE. The See of Popes during the "Babylonian Captivity" lasted from 1309 to 1378. There were several Antipopes in Avignon during the Great Schism (1378-1408). Then Clement VI bought the city from the Countess of Provence, and it stayed papal property until France annexed it in 1791.

Major Books of the Decade 1310-1320

In this decade, triggered by the news that there are mechanical clocks in CHINA, the earliest European mechanical clocks. Although the Chinese clocks are driven by flowing water, but have mechanical escapements, the European clocks are powered by descending weights, with mechanical escapements. The clocks become more and more widespread over the coming decades, eventually altering the social perception of time and hastening the rise of the modern era. (see 1354) 1314: end of the reign (1285-1314) of Philip IV of FRANCE. He extended his country's influence in Germany and Italy, and consolidated the bureaucracy among allied commercial towns. The French monarchy was powerful, having grown while fighting nobility of Aquitaine, Burgundy, and Flanders. See 1338, 1346, 1356, 1431. 1315: Ramon Lully, Philosopher of Majorca (born in Palma, SPAIN, circa 1236) inventor of the first digital word-processing device (satirized in "Gulliver's Travels") , and discoverer of the gas Ammonia, preached against Islam in Bougie, Africa, and was stoned to death for heresy. The word "Ammonia" comes from "sal ammoniac", meaning "the Salt of Ammon" -- what was observed in North Africa from burning camel dung, when white crystals settled on the walls and ceiling of the Temple of Zeus-Ammon. The pungent gas Ammonia, NH3, was first purified by Joseph Priestley in 1774, though he called it "alkaline air." 1316: The first Occidental book on anatomy and dissection is written: Anatomia by Mondino de'Luzzi. The physician author dissected corpses; a theme that, half a millennium later, occurs most strikingly in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. 1317: Pope John XXII issues a prohibition against Alchemy. Within only four centuries, Alchemy is displaced by Chemistry. See: "Alchemy"

Major Books of the Decade 1320-1330

Chirurgia ("Surgery") by Henri de Mondeville recommends that wounds be cleaned and sutured. This is the first book to insist on both techniques, essential to modern surgery. Aztecs seek an omen, and find an eagle perched on a cactus, clutching a snake in its beak. They establish the city of Tenochtitlan on this site. Centuries later, the Spanish rebuild the city, call it Mexico, today known as Mexico City, a vast megalopolis and national capital. Aztec myth and history in Fantasy and Science Fiction includes: {to be done} 1321: The formulae for the number of Permutations of N objects, and the number of Combinations of N objects taken R at a time, are both derived by Levi ben Gerson, using the method of Mathematical Induction. 1321: Dante Alighieri dies. See 1307. 1324: Explorer born in ITALY. dies in Venice: Marco Polo 1326: Ibn Battuta, from Tangier, starts his career of exploration of India, Ceylon, China, and the Orient. By the time he returns home, he has become the greatest explorer of his era. 1326: death of Sultan Osman I (reigned ca.1290-1326). He and the next sultans united Anatolian Turkish warriors into a militaristic power that came to wage holy war against Byzantium and Christianity of the Balkans. 1326: Mondino de'Luzzi, author of Anatomia dies in Bologna. 1327: The Grand Canal of CHINA is finally complete. Work had begun in 70 A.D.! This masterpiece of the Hydraulic Empire was 1,100 miles (1,770 kilometers) in length, and allowed easy transport between Beijing and Northern China, and connects to the Yangtze. 1328: Tractatus de Proportionibus, by Thomas Brandwardine, outlines a theory of Proportions. He applies it to Aristotle's theory of Motion, overcoming defects in that theory, but still not quite right. Not until Galileo is Aristotle's theory of Motion replaced by something that really works.

Major Books of the Decade 1330-1340

Occam's Razor: named after William of Occam (?-1349), Doctor Singularis et Invincibilis, the famous philosopher of the Franciscans, born in Ockham, Surrey, whose principle of cutting away the superfluous to arrive at the truth is often paraphrased "entia non sunt multiplacanda praeter necessitatem" (entities ought not to be multiplied except when necessary). That is, when given two hypotheses, one should choose the one which requires fewer assumptions. This is expressed in the book Summa Totius Logicae. 1333: the first Botanical Garden in many centuries is started in Venice. The slow resurgence of such gardens is essential to the development of botany, and thus to Biology, including Genetics. 1333: In JAPAN, the first hereditary Shogunate at Kamakura (1185-1333) ended. See 1338. 1336: Requirements for graduation are beefed up in the University of Paris. Hereafter, all students must hear lectures on various books of Mathematics. 1336: The Turk Tamerlane (1336-1405) briefly reunited Western Mongols, who had been converted to Islam by 1295 and declined from the great land empire forged by Gengis Khan (ca.1162-1227), losing their distinctive nature. See 1367. 1337: Giotto (1276-1337), great artist of ITALY, dies. 1338: The Hundred Years' War begins between England and FRANCE. The devastation this causes is a crisis in Western civilization, eventually solved by the new paradigm of the Nation State, as devised by Machiavelli (1469-1527) and others. 1338: In JAPAN, the Ashikaga (1338-1573) Shogunate began. See 1333.

Major Books of the Decade 1340-1350

England begins to export Wool. In or near Liege, BELGIUM, the first Blast Furnace is built and operated. 1346: The Battle of Crecy begins to overthrow the English dynastic claims to FRANCE. See 1314, 1338, 1356, 1431. 1346-1347: Rats infested with Bubonic plague-carrying fleas are carried to Europe by ship. The Black Plague begins, possibly the worst epidemic in history. Through 1350, over 25,000,000 million people die of this disease, which comes and goes over the next 8 decades (at least once every 8 years). By the time it is done, 75% of the population of Europe has died. 1347: Earliest documented evidence of guns in Europe: a drawing of an arrow-shooting cannon. 1348: The Decameron is started by Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), major author of ITALY. 1349: William of Occam dies (see 1330-1340).

Major Books of the Decade 1350-1360

Jean Buriden, Philospher of FRANCE., modifies and extends the theories of Johannas Philoponus (6th Century), that a body in motion tends to remain in motion. Aristotle had thought otherwise. Thomas Aquinus (13th Century), following Aristotle, believed that the Moon and Stars keep moving only because God continued to move them; a dogma certified in 1277 by Papal Decree. Jean Buriden and William of Occam said that objects stay in motion because they possessed "Impetus." They avoided condemnation of the Church by ascribing Impetus to God, but they had begun to displace the Creator as the basis for Mechanics. Centuries later, Galileo found experimental evidence for Impetus, and then Isaac Newton improved the concept to the modern notion of Momentum. (compiled circa 1350, printed circa 1472): The "Gesta Romanorum" was as widely read for several centuries as the "Arabian Nights", or the "Morte d'Arthur." It has been a treaury of entertainment and moral education for all kinds of readers. Its full title, "Gesta Romanorum moralizata" indicates its compiler's didactic purpose. The work has been an inexhaustible source that furnished the raw material for great literature from Boccaccio and Chaucer to Schiller and Rossetti. It was fathered by the monks. The tales were largely derived from Roman history, but are in truth merely legends. At a later stage the moral aspect became secondary; the collection was prized chiefly as a book of entertainment. Oriental allegoric influences are clearly indicated, as for instance the fables of Bidpai and the "Arabian Nights." The authorities cited for classical allusions are the minor luminaries of Roman antiquity: Valerius Maximus, Macrobius, Aulus Gellius, Pliny, Seneca, Boethius, and occasionally Ovid. 1354: Strasbourg Cathedral's mechanical clock is constructed and installed. People begin to look to the cathedral tower rather than the heavens to know what time it is, and, by knowing more accurately, to schedule their days in a new way. See 1310-1320 1356: The Battle of Poitiers aids in overthrowing English dynastic claims to FRANCE. See 1314, 1338, 1346, 1356, 1431.

Major Books of the Decade 1360-1370

Tractatus de Figuratione Potentiarum et Ensurarum, by Nicolas Oresme is published. It's "Latitude of Forms" will later been see to have foreshadowed Analytic Geometry, Calculus, and the Fourth Dimension! About this same time, he writes about Rational and Irrational exponents. Rational numbers are those that can be written as a fraction, such as 1/2 or 113/355. The ancient Greeks had discovered that some numbers, such as the square root of 2, cannot be written exactly as any rational, and are thus "irrational." To raise a number to a rational or irrational power, as Oresme conceived, is very insightful. Chirurgia Magna ("Great Surgery") by Guy de Chauliac gives valid treatments for hernias and for fractures. 1367: Local forces expel the Mongols from CHINA, when the Mongols are defeated See 1336, 1368. 1368: The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) is founded in CHINA, when the Mongols are defeated and ousted. (circa 1370): "Gawain and the Green Knight" one of the best of the alliterative English verse romances, this opens in King Arthur's court on New Year's Day. A huge green knight rides a green horse into the hall and challenges any of Arthur's knights to give him a blow with the axe he bears, the Green Knight to return the blow a year later. Accepting the challenge, Gawain strikes off the knight's head. The knight picks it up and rides away. As the end of the ensuing year approaches, Gawain makes his perilous way to search for the Green Chapel. He stops at a splendid castle on Christmas Eve and is cordially received by the lord, whose wife tests Gawain's chastity each of the three days he is there. Having agreed to accept from the lord the trophies of the lord's daily hunt in return for whatever he, Gawain, has received, he gives the lord the three kisses he got from the lady, but not the magic girdle she gave him on the third day. Then he meets the Green Knight at the chapel nearby. Gawain flinches under the axe once; the knight feints once; then the blow is harmlessly delivered. The Green Knight, Bercilar de Hautdesert, is the lord of the castle in disguise; the whole affair was a test of the hero.

Major Books of the Decade 1370-1380

A terrible new weapon is introduced to warfare: the steel crossbow. 1370: Bruni (1370-1444) is born, later to promulgate the respect for Classic books, many brought East from Greek refugees. 1373: What has been used in CHINA for 4 Centuries is introduced to the Occident: the Canal Lock. 1374: Petrarch (1304-1374), the great poet of ITALY, dies. 1377: The Port of Ragusa (now Dubrovnik) hosts the first Quarantine Station. Travellers thought to have the Plague must stay in isolation for 40 days. This technique does help prevent new epidemics. An Arabic Philosopher who had devised theories of the motion of planets which were neither those of Ptolemy nor the later Copernicus, Ibn ash-Shatir, dies.

Major Books of the Decade 1380-1390

Europeans can easily purchase Cast Iron as a commodity. 1380: In the Battle of Chioggia between Genoa and Venice, Rockets are used for the first time in European warfare. CHINA had used military rockets for some 2 Centuries, primarily to scare the horses. Four Centuries later, the USA is born in "the rockets' red glare"; less than 600 years later, rockets carry men to the Moon. 1386: the oldest continuously operating university in GERMANY is founded: Heidelberg University 1387: Geoffrey Chaucer (1340?-1400): the all-time #2 author of the English language, preceding and somewhat eclipsed by Shakespeare, begins to write The Canterbury Tales.

Major Books of the Decade 1390-1400

1391: Geoffrey Chaucer (1340?-1400) publishes A Treatise on the Astrolabe. It shows how to build an astrolabe and use it to measure a star's position in the night sky. 1391: possibly the first Paper Mill in Europe is built in Nuremberg, GERMANY. This paves the way for Gutenberg (ca.1400-1468) in the next Century. 1397: the most useful wrong map in history. Paolo Toscanelli (1397-?), mapmaker/physician of ITALY, publishes his map which falsely showed Asia as only 3,000 miles (4,830 kilometers) West of Europe. This excited Christopher Columbus to prepare for and undertake the voyage that "discovered" America. 1400: Geoffrey Chaucer dies (1340?-1400)

Other Key Dates and Stories of this Century

{to be done}

Major Writers Born this Century

1304: Petrarch (1304-1374), the great poet 1340: Geoffrey Chaucer (1340?-1400) 1370: Bruni (1370-1444) is born, later to promulgate the respect for Classic books, many brought East from Greek refugees. More {to be done}

Major Writers Died this Century

1321: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) 1326: Mondino de'Luzzi, author of Anatomia dies in Bologna. 1349: William of Occam (?-1349) 1374: Petrarch (1304-1374), the great poet 1400: Geoffrey Chaucer (1340?-1400)

Decade by Decade Science Background

{to be done}

Decade by Decade Mundane Background

{to be done}

Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology

|Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Literary Precursors |Cosmic History:13 Billion BC to 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: 6000-5000 B.C. |5th Millennium BC: 5000-4000 B.C. |4th Millennium BC: 4000-3000 B.C. |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: 1000 BC-1 BC |1st Century: 1 AD-100 AD |2nd Century: 100 AD-200 AD |3rd Century: 200 AD-300 AD |4th Century: 300-400 |5th Century: 400-500 |6th Century: 500-600 |7th Century: 600-700 |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Khayyam, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Crusades, Kublai Khan, Universities |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks [you are HERE] |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: This Decade |2010-2020: Next Decade |Cosmic Future: Billions, Trllions, Googols
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Where to Go for More

: 51 Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: ALDISS: "Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction", Brian W. Aldiss (New York: Doubleday, 1973; Schocken Paperback, 1974) ALLEN: "Science Fiction Reader's Guide", L. David Allen (Centennial Press, 1974) AMIS: "New Maps of Hell", Kingsley Amis (London: Gollancz, 1960; New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960) ASH1: "Who's Who in Science Fiction", by Brian Ash (Taplinger, 1976) ASH2: "The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction", edited by Brian Ash (Harmony Books, 1977) ASHLEY: "The History of the Science Fiction Magazine" [3 volumes] (London: New English Library, 1974) ASIMOV "Asimov on Science Fiction" (New York: Avon, 1981) ATHELING: "The Issue at Hand", "William Atheling, Jr." [James Blish] (Chicago: Advent, 1964) BARRON: "Anatomy of Wonder", edited by Neil Barron (Bowker, 1976) BAXTER: "Science Fiction in the Cinema", John Baxter (London: A. Zwemmer, 1970; New York: A. S. Barnes, 1970) BERGONZI: "The Early H.G. Wells", Bernard Bergonzi (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1961) BLEILER: "The Checklist of Fantastic Literature" Everett F. Bleiler (Chicago: Shasta, 1948) BRETNOR1: "Modern Science Fiction: Its Meaning and Future", edited by Reginald Bretnor (New York: Coward-McCann, 1953) BRETNOR2: "The Craft of Science Fiction", Reginald Bretnor (New York: Harper & Row, 1977) BRINEY: "SF Bibliographies", Robert E. Briney & Edward Wood (Chicago: Advent, 1972) CLARESON1: "SF: The Other Side of Realism", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Gregg Press, 1978) CLARESON2: "Extrapolation, 1959-1969", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Bowling Green, Ohio: University Popular Press, 1971) CLARKE: "The Tale of the Future", I. F. Clarke (London: The Library Association, 1961, 1972) CONTENTO: "Index to the Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections", William Contento G.K. Hall, 1978) DAY: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazine: 1926-50", Donald B. Day (Portland, Oregon: Perri Press, 1952) DeCAMP: "Science Fiction Handbook", L. Sprague DeCamp (New York: Hermitage House, 1953) ELLIK: "The Universes of E. E. Smith", Ron Ellik & Bill Evans (Chicago: Advent, 1966) EVANS: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines", Bill Evans with Jack Speer (Denver: Robert Peterson, 1946?) FRANKLIN: "Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century", H. Bruce Franklin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966) FREWIN: "One Hundred Years of Science Fiction Illustration", Anthony Frewin (London: Jupiter Books, 1974) GOODSTONE: "The Pulps", Tony Goodstone (New York: Chelsea House, 1970) GUNN: "Alternate Worlds", James Gunn (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) HARRISON: "John W. Campbell: Collected Editorials from Analog", Harry Harrison (Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1966) HOLMBERG: "Science Fiction History", John-Henri Holmberg (Vanersborg, Sweden: Askild & Karnekull, 1974) KNIGHT: "In Search of Wonder", Damon Knight (Chicago: Advent, 1956; enlarged 1967) KYLE: "A Pictorial History of Science Fiction", David Kyle (London: Hamlyn House, 1976) LOCKE: "Worlds Apart", edited by George Locke (London: Cornmarket Reprints, 1972) LUNDWALL: "Science Fiction: What It's All About", Sam J. Lundwall (New York: Ace Books, 1971) METCALF: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines, 1951-1965", Norm Metcalf (J. Ben Stark, 1968) MILLIES: "Science Fiction Primer for Teachers", Suzanne Millies (Dayton OH: Pflaum, 1975) MOSKOWITZ#1: "The Immortal Storm", Sam Moskowitz (AFSO Press, 1954; Hyperion Press, 19??) MOSKOWITZ#2: "Explorers of the Infinite: Shapers of Science Fiction", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) MOSKOWITZ#3: "Seekers of Tomorrow", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) NESFA: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazines", New England Science Fiction Association (Cambridge MA: NESFA, 1971) PERRY: "The Penguin Book of Comics", George Perry & Alan Aldridge (London: Penguin, 1971) ROGERS: "A Requiem for Astounding", Alva Rogers (Chicago: Advent, 1964) ROTTSTEINER: "The Science Fiction Book", Franz Rottsteiner (London: Thames & Hudson, 1975) SADOUL: "Hier, L'An 2000 [Illustrations from the Golden Age of Science Fiction]", Jaxques Sadoul (Paris: Editions Denoel, 1973) STRAUSS: "The MIT Science Fiction Society's Index to the SF Magazines: 1951-64" Erwin S. Strauss (Cambridge MA: MIT Science Fiction Society, 1966) TUCK: "The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, 2nd Edition", Donald H. Tuck (Hobart, Tasmania: Donald H. Tuck, 1959) VERSINS: "Encyclopedie des l'utopie, des voyages extraordinaires et de la science fiction", (Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme, 1972) WAGGONER: "The Hills of Faraway", Diana Waggoner (Athenaeum, 1978) WARNER: "All Our Yesterdays", Harry Warner, Jr. (Chicago: Advent, 1969) WELLS: "Fictional Accounts of Trips to the Moon", Lester G. Wells (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Library, 1962) WILLIAMSON: "H.G. Wells: Critic of Progress", Jack Williamson (Baltimore: Mirage Press, 1973) WOLLHEIM: "The Universe Makers", Donald A. Wollheim (New York: Harper & Row, 1971)
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Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.