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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
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15th Century

Executive Summary of the Century Major Books of the Decade 1400-1410 Major Books of the Decade 1410-1420 Major Books of the Decade 1420-1430 Major Books of the Decade 1430-1440 Major Books of the Decade 1440-1450 Major Books of the Decade 1450-1460 Major Books of the Decade 1460-1470 Major Books of the Decade 1470-1480 Major Books of the Decade 1480-1490 Major Books of the Decade 1490-1500 Other Key Dates and Stories of this Century Major Writers Born this Century {to be done} Major Writers Died this Century Decade by Decade Science Background Decade by Decade Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Executive Summary of the Century

The Renaissance begins halfway through this century. To pick a specific date, see 1453. Classical Greek and more recent Arabic books of Science and Literature explode into Europe, clambering back onto its feet from the previous Century's Black Death. The Scientific Revolution is poised to be born, and Science Fiction will be born with it, as a mutant twin. Magic, Alchemy, and Astrology began to be slowly displaced by Science, Chemistry, and Astronomy. By the 20th Century, the world of Science had almost completely triumphed, with the possible exception of Astrology colums being syndicated to so many newspapers. In fiction, this conceptual split eventually became codified as the difference between the fiction genres of Science Fiction, on the one hand, and Fantasy, on the other. PRINTING, LANGUAGE, ART, AND BOOKS The English Language evolved from Middle English. Johann Gutenberg and others refine the technology of printing books with movable type presses (1440), and also sheet music and porn. It became possible to print with multiple colors. Books began to be dated (they were previously only known by author and title). A paradigmatic celebrity of this century was Leonardo da Vinci, inventor, painter, sculptor, and top-paid consultant to the Military-Industrial Complex of his time. Another notable artist was Filippo Brunelleschi, who invented one-point perspective in drawing and paining, and also spurred the revolution in Italian Architecture. RELIGION AND POLITICS Niccolo Machiavelli writes "The Prince", which is a conceptual textbook for how to create and operate a Nation State. Later, Queen Isabella of Spain and Queen Elizabeth I of England prove that his ideas work well. England actively suppresses Lollardy, which began in 1378 and led to three competing Popes simultaneously, burning its adherents at the stake for Heresy. And, speaking of Heresy, the Spanish Inquisition begins. The Great Schism of the Catholic Church is healed in 1417. Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc) leads the French to victory against the English in a 1429 battle of the Hundred Years' War. The Ottoman Empire captures Constantinople from the Holy Roman Emperor on 29 May 1453. In a sense, the Renaissance began with this military triumph by the Turks, because many talented scholars who could read and speak Greek escaped to Europe. They brought classical manuscripts with them, and started to translate them into Latin, which was the standard language for scholarship in Europe. After almost 800 years of thriving multiculturalism, Jews and Muslims are expelled from Southern Spain in 1492, where they had been under Muslim rule. King Henry VII of England founds the Tudor dynasty. EXPLORATION AND NON-EUROPEAN CULTURES The era of Exploration and Expansion from Europe begins. Key figures include: * Prince Henry the Navigator (see 1415, 1460) * Christopher Columbus reaches the islands of the Caribbean in 1492, and South America in 1498. * Vasco da Gama returns 1498 from his successful sea voyage to India, by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope. The Native American civilization we call the Anasazi mysteriously disappears, probably for reasons of climate change. Arabic Mathematics was adopted in Europe, where it contributed to the rise of Science and Engineering.

Major Books of the Decade 1400-1410

Oil-based paints are first used; eventually underlying part of the explosive gains in the Art of Painting. In Ethiopia, coffee is first brewed from the seeds of wild evergreen plants, (Coffea arabica). The beverage spreads to Arabia, and thence to Egypt and Turkey. By the mid-17th Century it was known in mnost of Europe, and became significant in North America after the Boston Tea Party. First documented mention of the Dulcimer. This stringed instrument, a wooden box, has its strings struck with mallets (as opposed to being plucked). It was invented in the Orient, and had finally spread to Europe. Johann Fust born. He becomes a Moneylender/Printer, the first in Europe to print works with more than single colored ink, promulgates the use of Greek characters in type, lends money to Gutenberg, and reposseses Gutenberg's press when the debt cannot be repaid. He also prints the first dated book (1457). 1401: Nicholas Krebs, later known as Nicholas of Cusa, is born in Kues, Germany. Churchman, Mystic, and Humanist, he tried to reform monasteries throughout the Holy Roman Empire (1451-1452). A true Renaissance Man, he often wrote about the Classics. He first exposed ther False Decretals. See 1440-1450, 1448, 1450-52, 1464. 1403: Vast 22,937-volume encyclopedia published in CHINA in a very limited edition: 3 copies. It is called the Yung Lo Ta Tien. Chinese scientific understanding is far beyond that of Europe in many respects. They know that the Solar Year is roughly 365.25 days long before the Western calendar is reformed. 1403: The scholar of Greek literature John Bessarion is born 2 January 1403 in Trebizond, Turkey. He accumulates important works of ancient Greece, and publishes famous translations of Aristotle into Latin. He influences the rise of Platonism in the Italian Renaissance. Byzantine humanist in Renaissance Italy, he is made a Cardinal (1439), and Patriarch of Constantinople (1463). 1404: Artist/Theorist Leone Battista Alberti born 18 Feb 1404, in Genoa, Italy. See 1434. He later wrote the first printed book on Architecture, which helped promulgate respect for the classical Roman style. 1405: Bellifortis, by Konrad Kyeser, is an important book on the technology of warfare. 1408: first known use in Holland of a Windmill to pump inland water out to sea. 1409: In Edinburgh, Scotland, the founding of St.Andrews University. 1409: In Leipzig, Germany, the founding of Leipzig University by faculty and staff from Prague.

Major Books of the Decade 1410-1420

Although Aristotle had said that ours was the only World, Hasdai ben Abraham Cresca refutes him in Or Adonai ("The Light of the Lord"), which correctly argues that there are many worlds. Essential concept for Science and Science Fiction alike. 440 medicinally useful plants are illustrated and described in Liber de Simplicibus by Benedetto Rinio. Drift Nets are used for the first time by fishermen of Holland. 1415: In Paris, the first documented instances of Influenza. This respiratory virus, during World War I, may have killed more people than did the Bubonic Plagues of the 14th Century. 1415: The era of Exploration and Expansion from Europe begins. Prince Henry the Navigator (born 4 March 1394 in Oporto, Portugal) leads the capture of Ceuta (across the waves from Gibralter) and establishes it as a base of operations for probing deeper into Africa. see: 1460.

Major Books of the Decade 1420-1430

Mongol Astronomer Muhammad Taragay (born in Soltaniyeh, Iran, 22 March 1394) builds the great Observatory in Samarkand, and becomes known by the pseudonym Ulugh Beg. See: 1430-1440, 1449. Peter Schoeffer is born, later to work with Johann Fust. see: 1400-1410. 1422: Printer William Caxton (ca.1422-1491) is born, later famous for the first book ever printed in English. See: 1474 or 1475, 1477, 1481, 1483, 1485. 1423: Astronomer/Mathematician Georg von Peurbach is born in Peurbach, near Vienna, on 30 May 1423. He later writes commentary on Ptolemy's Almagest, and creates trigonometric Sine Tables using Arabic numerals. 1426: In Belgium, the founding of Louvain University. 1428: Joan of Arc (Jeanne D'Arc) gathers armies and attacks the English, in a step towards the unification and expansion of France.

Major Books of the Decade 1430-1440

Ulugh Beg's Star Maps and tables of star positions, based on observations from his observatory in Samarkand, are published. These are more accurate and more complete than those of Ptolemy and Hipparchos. See: 1420-1430. A Drive Belt (turning a grindstone) is illustrated for the first time. 1431: Joan of Arc burned at the stake in Rouen, France. 1434: Leone Battista Alberti publishes a book of Drawing, that for the first time documents the Laws of Perspective. See 1404. 1435: Engineer/Sculptor/painter Andrea del Verrocchio born in Italy. This Florentine artist studied under Donatello, and later was a teacher to Leonardo da Vinci. His equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni was one of the famous sights of Venice. 1436: Astronomer/Mathematician Johann Muller is born 6 June 1436, in Konigsberg, Germany. He is later to be better known as Regiomontanus. He improved scientific instruments, methods of obervation, and methods of calculation. See: 1464, 1471, 1472, 1474, 1476 1438: The Inca Empire is founded by Pachacutec. This pre-Columbian empire, centered at Cuzco, Peru, reached its greatest power under Huayna Capac (1493-1527), and (before Pizarro conquered the empire in 1553) covered up to 650,000 square miles and a population of some 6,000,000. They were skilled in technologies of Agriculture, Bridges, Ceramics, Drainage, Fertilizers, Irrigation, Metallurgy, and Textiles. 1439: John Bessarion (see 1403) is made a Cardinal (1439).

Major Books of the Decade 1440-1450

The technology of Block Printing on Paper, developed in China, has diffused to Europe, although the Chinese keep the secret of Movable Type for a long time. Johann Gutenberg (born in Mainz, Germany, circa 1398) and Lauren Janszoon Koster invent, independently of China, Printing with Movable Type. The age of the mass-produced book begins. Bibles come first, and (shortly afterwards) pornography. De Docta Ignoranti ("On Educated Ignorance") by Nicholas of Cusa contains three concepts essential to Science and Science Fiction: * The Universe is infinite * All heavenly bodies are similar in properties and behavior * the Earth revolves around the Sun. See 1401, 1450-52 ca. 1445: Mathematician Luca Pacioli is born in Italy. See: 1494 1448: Nicholas of Cusa is made a Cardinal. (see 1401). 1449: Mongol Astronomer Muhammad Taragay (born 22 March 1394), builder of the great Observatory in Samarkand, now known by the pseudonym Ulugh Beg, is murdered by his son. See: 1420-1430, 1430-1440.

Major Books of the Decade 1450-1460

Nicholas of Cusa (see 1401, 1440-1450) creates the first known Spectacles of polished lenses for nearsighted persons. Putting two lenses in one tube made a telescope (Jan Lippershey, 1608), rediscovered by Galileo (1609). 1451: Christopher Columbus is born in Genoa, Italy. See 1492, 1493. 1452: Leonardo da Vinci is born 15 April 1452 in Italy. Consummate Artist/Scientist, and the ultimate Renaissance genius, he later becomes a character in numerous Science Fiction stories and novels. See: 1480, 1482, 1490, 1494, 1496, 1500. ca. 1452: Physician Hieronymus Brunschwygk is born. See 1497. 1452: New regulations at the University of Paris require, as a prerequisite for a Master's Degree, that a student read Books 1-6 of Euclid. 1452: In Regensburg, Germany, the founding of the first professional society of Midwives. 1452: birth of Girolamo Savonarola. Religious reformer of Italy, a Dominican, he was sent from Florence, already a popular preacher. With the exile of the Medici (1494) he became de facto ruler of Florence. He then imposed a hyper-strict Puritan regime. Sickened by rampant immorality at the copurt of Pope Alexander VI, he guided Florence into alliance with Alexander's enemy, Charles VIII of France. Alexander excommunicated him (1497). When Florence rioted, Savonarola confessed to being a false prophet. The City Fathers tortured and hung him. 29 May 1453: The Turks capture the city of Constantinople; many scholars speaking Greek and bearing books escape to the West, many beginning to translate those books into Latin and trigger the Renaissance. 1454: Americus Vespucius, also known as Amerigo Vespucci, Navigator, is born; later to become one of the first people to realize that North America and South America (whose shores he sailed along) are two distinct continents. The continents will be named after him. He also developed a system for computing almost exact Longitude. See: 1499. 1454: Johann Gutenberg (born 1398) prints the 42-line Mainz Bible, beginning the era of Movable Type. 1457: Johann Fust prints the first dated book.

Major Books of the Decade 1460-1470

1460: Juan Sebastian del Cano is born in Guetaria, Spain, later to lead the completion of Magellan's circumnavigation of the Earth, after Magellan is killed. 1460: Prince Henry the Navigator dies 13 November. See: 1415 1460: Thomas Linacre (or Lynaker)is born, later to be a leading Humanist/Physician who translated Galen and Aristotle into Latin; wrote a Latin Grammar (ca.1523); founded, in London, the Royal College of Physicians; and started readerships in Medicine at both Cambridge and Oxford. Among his many students were Erasmus, and Sir Thomas More. 1460: The first book on Surgery published in Germany: Bundt-Ertzney, by Heinrich von Pfolspeundt 1461: Astronomer/Mathematician Georg von Peurbach dies 8 April. See 1423. 1463: John Bessarion (see 1403) becomes Patriarch of Constantinople (1463). 1464: Nicholas of Cusa dies 11 Aug in Lodi, Italy. See 1401, 1440-1450, 1450-52. 1464: Regiomontanus writes De Triangulus Omnimodis ("On All Kinds of Triangles"). Although not published until 1533, it is the first major exposition of Trigonometry, including what we call the Law of Sines. See: 1436, 1471, 1472, 1474, 1476 1466: Travelling through Persia, Afanassi Nikitin visits India, then returns home in 1472, and publishes The Voyages of Afanassi Nikitin Over Three Seas. 1466: Ottaviano dei Petrucci printer of Venice, born. See: 1498 1466: German printer Johann Fust dies. 1468: Johann Gutenberg (born 1398) dies 3 Feb in Mainz. 1469: Spain is united with the royal marriage of Ferdinand V (Ferdinand the Catholic), King of Castile; and Isabella I, Queen of Seville. Ferdinand also became (as Ferdinand II) King of Aragon (1479-1516); King of Sicily (1468-1516); anf King of Naples (1504-1516). ferdinand and Isabella (called The Catholic Kings) took Granada from the Moors (1492); expelled the Jews from Spain (1492); instituted the Spanish Inquisition; financed Christopher Columbus; and, in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided the world with Portugal.

Major Books of the Decade 1470-1480

1470: Alum (previously known in the Middle East) is discovered in Europe for the first time, specifically Tuscany. It was first found between 1300 and 1310 in Rocca (Syria). The mineral Alum is the double sulphate of aluminum and potassium, AlK(SO4)2 + 12 H2O, is a common compound of Aluminum, which was not isolated until 1825 by Hans Christian Oersted (although anticipated and named in 1807 by Sir Humphrey Davy). Alum comes to be used for dyeing, leathermaking, medicine, paper sizing, and fireproofing. 1470: John Bessarion dies 18 November in Ravenna, Italy. See 1403. 1471: Regiomontanus establishes a printing press and an astronomical obervatory in Nuremberg, Germany. See: 1436, 1464, 1472, 1474, 1476 1472: Regiomontanus from his astronomical obervatory in Nuremberg, Germany, makes the first scientific observations ever made of a comet. That particular comet will later be best known as Halley's Comet. See: 1436, 1464, 1471, 1474, 1476 1472: Astronomer/Mathematician Georg von Peurbach has his book Theoricae Novae Planetarum ("New Theory of the Planets") posthumously published. It is really an alternative version of the Almagest, by Ptolemy. See 1423, 1461. (printed circa 1472, compiled circa 1350): The "Gesta Romanorum" was as widely read for several centuries as the "Arabian Nights", or the "Morte d'Arthur." It has been a treasury of entertainment and moral education for all kinds of readers. Its full title, "Gesta Romanorum moralizata" indicates its compiler's didactic purpose. The work has been an inexhaustible source that furnished the raw material for great literature from Boccaccio and Chaucer to Schiller and Rossetti. It was fathered by the monks. The tales were largely derived from Roman history, but are in truth merely legends. At a later stage the moral aspect became secondary; the collection was prized chiefly as a book of entertainment. Oriental allegoric infleunces are clearly indicated, as for instance the fables of Bidpai and the "Arabian Nights." The authorities cited for classical allusions are the minor luminaries of Roman antiquity: Valerius Maximus, Macrobius, Aulus Gellius, Pliny, Seneca, Boethius, and occasionally Ovid. 1472: Geometrician/Artist Leone Alberti, of Italy, dies in Rome 25 April 1472. 1473: Astronomer Nicolas Copernicus is born 19 February 1473 in Torun, Poland. See 1497. 1473: The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel is, famously, painted by Michelangelo. In the late 20th Century Professor Jenijoy LaBelle argues that major poems by William Blake are based on this painting. 1473: Canon of Medicine, by Avicenna, is printed in its entirety for the first time, in Milan, Italy. 1474: Regiomontanus has the first edition of his book Ephemerides Astronomicae published, based on his astronomical obervatory in Nuremberg, Germany. Later editions will add his Tables of Solar Declination, making the book much more valuable to navigators. "Ephemeris" is roughly synonymous with "Almanac", in the sense of a table of astronomical data. "Almanac" derives from Arabic "al manakh" ("the calendar" or "the weather"). See: 1436, 1464, 1471, 1472, 1476 1474 or 1475: The first book ever printed in English is published by William Caxton (ca.1422-1491). Caxton, a translator and printer, had moved to Bruges, developed his reputation as a textile dealer, which trade he practiced until 1470, even serving (1465-1469) as Governor of the English Association of Merchant Advernturers in the Low Countries. He'd translated (1469-1471) a Trojan War romance from French. It was immediately in great demand, so he began to learn the new art of Printing (probably from Colarde Mansion in Bruges). He published his translation as Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, the first book ever printed in English. He then publishes the second English book, also a French translation, The Game and Playe of Chess [1475]. He moved back to England, in 1476, and set up a Press in Westminster. There he printed almost 80 books, including: * Mirrour of the World [1481] * The Golden Legend [1483] * Morte d'Arthur, by Mallory [1485] See: The Ultimate King Arthur Web Page * the works of Boethius * the works of Geoffrey Chaucer * the works of John Gower Many of these were his own translations from the French, especially the Arthurian and Carolingian romances. He became (through what the 20th century calls "First Mover Advantage" and "Barriers to Entry") the printer/publisher of what most of the readers of English consumed. After his death, his assistant Wynkyn de Worde continued the business, much of which was reprints. The nature of Fantasy publication in the English language was crystallized for all time. 1475: Vasco Nunez de Balboa is born in Badajoz, Spain. He will become a famous Explorer, and the first European to discover the Pacific Ocean. 1476: 1436: Astronomer/Mathematician Johann Muller (born 6 June 1436, in Konigsberg, Germany) dies. He is far better known as Regiomontanus. See: 1464, 1471, 1472, 1474. 1477: William Caxton prints the first dated book in English: Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres. 1477: Mathematician/Geographer Johannes Schoner is born in Karlstadt, Germany, 16 January 1477. In 1515 he becomes the first person to make a globe which shows the two continents of America. 1478: The first popular printed Mathematics textbook is published: Treviso Arithmetic. It has rules (algorithms) for doing ordinary calculations.

Major Books of the Decade 1480-1490

1480: Leonardo da Vinci draws, describes, and possibly tests the first workable parachute. 1481: William Caxton prints Mirrour of the World. See: "1474 or 1475" 1481: Pietro Domenico and Dionysius Domenico build the first European lock on a canal, although the Chinese have had these for centuries. 1482: Leonardo da Vinci (see 1452) moved to Milan, and became court artist to Lodovico Sforza. While residing in Milan, he wrote Trattato della Pittura, began keeping his notebooks (in which he handwrote mirror-wise) which dealt with Anatomy, Botany, Geology, Hydraulics, and Mechanics. 1482: Paolo Toscanelli (1397-1482), mapmaker/physician of ITALY, dies. He'd earlier published his map which falsely showed Asia as only 3,000 miles (4,830 kilometers) West of Europe. This excited Christopher Columbus to prepare for and undertake the voyage that "discovered" America. The most useful wrong map in history? 1482: The first significant printed book of Mathematics: Euclid's Elements, as translated by Johannes Campanus. 1483: The Alfonsine Tables are printed in Toledo, Spain. This is the best set of astronomical tables since the circa 1250 edition of the Ptolemaic Tables, and until Kepler's editing of Tycho Brahe's astronomical observations. 1483: William Caxton prints The Golden Legend. See: "1474 or 1475" 1484: Triparty en la Sciences des Nombres, by Nicolas Chuquet, is published. This is the first algebra book to use negative exponents, yet Nicolas Chuquet considers this merely a useful convention, and does not believe that negative numbers are actual numbers (i.e. solutions to equations). 1485: The first Tudor King or Queen of England: Henry VII is crowned. 1485: William Caxton prints Morte d'Arthur, by Mallory [1485] See: The Ultimate King Arthur Web Page See: "1474 or 1475" 1488: Andrea del Verrocchio, Inventor/Artist, dies. 1489: The first printed work to use the plus sign (+) and the minus sign (-) is published: Behend un Hupsch Rechnung uff allen Kauffmanschafften by Johann Widmann. However, he uses them to mean a deficit (-) or surplus (+), instead of the precise modern usage.

Major Books of the Decade 1490-1500

1490: Leonardo da Vinci writes about his discovery of capillary action: small-diameter tubes dipped into liquid cause the liquid to creep up the inside of the tubes. 1490: a Long Division algorithm is included in an arithmetic book by Filippo Calandri. 1491: William Caxton (ca.1422-1491) dies, famous for the first book ever printed in English. See: 1474 or 1475 1492: Columbus reaches America. In the process, he notices that the direction taht his magnetic compass points changes slightly with longitude. See 1451, 1482. 1492: Moors driven out of Spain, ending a wonderful lengthy experiment in multiculturalism. 1492: Pedro Nunes is born in Portugal. He'll become a Cartographer/Mathematician, and invent the first device to measure angles. 1492: Anticipating the decimal point, author Francisco Pellos publishes the commercial arithmetic book Compendio de lo Abaco, which uses the dot (.) to signify division by 10. 1492: About this year in England, graphite is used for pencils. It is incorrectly called "lead", a misnomer that persists through the 20th Century. Graphite is one of the allotropic forms of carbon, along with coal, diamond, buckyballs, and buckytubes. 1492: the first Globe (map of the Earth on an actual sphere), is made by Martin Behaim, but he does not show North or South America, nor the Pacific Ocean (all soon to be discovered). 1493: Columbus notes that Native Americans (whom he calls "Indians") use Tobacco for medicinal purposes. See: 1497 1494: The first Paper Mill, in England. 1494: Leonardo da Vinci draws a pendulum clock. 1494: the most influential Mathematics book of its era is published: Summa de Arithmetica Geometria Proportioni et Proportionalita, by Luca Pacioli. This is the first Algebra book to be printed. Even though it mostly repackages Liber Abaci by Fibonacci, over 3 Centuries after the fact, it is popular because it is the first book to describe Double-Entry Bookkeeping, which revolutionizes business. 1495: Syphilis, probably brought to Spain by Columbus' sailors, has spread to camp followers the Spanish who are defending Charles VIII's French army. The army, on returning to France, spreads the disease through Italy and northern Europe. 1496: Leonardo da Vinci designs a Rolling Mill, and invents Roller Bearings. 1497: Nicolas Copernicus sees and writes down his observation that the Moon occults a star. 1497: Physician Hieronymus Brunschwygk (born ca. 1452) publishes the first book on surgical treatment of gunshot wounds. 1497: Columbus' co-traveller Romano Pane, a monk, publishes his account of Tobacco and how "Indians" smoke it. See: 1493. 1498: Vasco de Gama sails around the Cape of Good Hope, and reaches India. 1498: Torture and execution of Girolamo Savonarola. See 1452. 1498: Aristotle's translation into Latin is completed by Aldus Manutius. 1498: Ottaviano dei Petrucci (1466-?), printer of Venice, invents the method of printing music with movable type. 1499: Jan Stefan van Calcar, Artist of Italy, is born. See: Vesalius, 15xx. 1499: Americus Vespucius (see 1454) explored the mouths of the Amazon. 1500: Leonardo da Vinci (see 1452) returns to Florence. 1500: Leonardo da Vinci designs the first helicopter; and Chinese philospher Wan Hu straps 47 rockets and some kites to a chair, climbs in, and is blown to bits -- the first potential astronaut martyred.

Major Writers Born this Century

{to be done} 1452: Leonardo da Vinci born 15 Apr 1452 in Anchiano, Tuscany; died 2 May 1519 1464: Galileo born 15 Feb 1464, Pisa; died 8 Jan 1542. 1474: Ludovico Ariosto, Italian author, born in Reggio, Emilia, 8 Sep 1474; died 6 July 1533 in Ferrar. 1475: Michaelangelo Buonarotti, painter, sculptor, and poet; born in Caprese, near Arezzo, Italy 1475; died 1564. 1478: Sir Thomas More, English statesman and author, whose Utopian novel established the genre [born 7 Feb 1478, London; died 6 July 1535 by beheading for treason, Tower of London, his last words on the scaffold: "The King's good servant, but God's first." Beatified 1886, canonized as a saint by Pope Pius XI 1935] 1483: Martin Luther, religious reformer and inventor of the modern Christian hymn; born born 10 Nov 1483 in Eisleben, Germany; died 14 Feb 1546 in Eisleben, Germany. 1483: Francois Rabelais, French author, born Chinon, Touraine c.1483; died 9 Apr 1553 in Paris.

Major Writers Died this Century

Decade by Decade Science Background

In the main text of this web page, scientific advances are mixed into the same chronology as important books, political events, and the like. To summarize: {to be done}

Decade by Decade Mundane Background

In the main text of this web page,"mundane" background (that is, historical facts not specifically related to science or books) are mixed into the same chronology as important books, scientific advances, and the like. To summarize: {to be done} Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |4th Millennium BC: {name to be done} |3rd Millennium BC: Cheops, Gilgamesh, Sargon |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: {name to be added here} |1st Century: {name to be added here} |2nd Century: {name to be added here} |3rd Century: {name to be added here} |4th Century: {name to be added here} |5th Century: {name to be added here} |6th Century: {name to be added here} |7th Century: name to be added here |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Final Flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution [you are HERE] |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |2000-2010: This Decade |2010-2020: Next Decade |Cosmic Future: Billions, Trllions, Googols

Where to Go for More

: 51 Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: ALDISS: "Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction", Brian W. Aldiss (New York: Doubleday, 1973; Schocken Paperback, 1974) ALLEN: "Science Fiction Reader's Guide", L. David Allen (Centennial Press, 1974) AMIS: "New Maps of Hell", Kingsley Amis (London: Gollancz, 1960; New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960) ASH1: "Who's Who in Science Fiction", by Brian Ash (Taplinger, 1976) ASH2: "The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction", edited by Brian Ash (Harmony Books, 1977) ASHLEY: "The History of the Science Fiction Magazine" [3 volumes] (London: New English Library, 1974) ASIMOV "Asimov on Science Fiction" (New York: Avon, 1981) ATHELING: "The Issue at Hand", "William Atheling, Jr." [James Blish] (Chicago: Advent, 1964) BARRON: "Anatomy of Wonder", edited by Neil Barron (Bowker, 1976) BAXTER: "Science Fiction in the Cinema", John Baxter (London: A. Zwemmer, 1970; New York: A. S. Barnes, 1970) BERGONZI: "The Early H.G. Wells", Bernard Bergonzi (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1961) BLEILER: "The Checklist of Fantastic Literature" Everett F. Bleiler (Chicago: Shasta, 1948) BRETNOR1: "Modern Science Fiction: Its Meaning and Future", edited by Reginald Bretnor (New York: Coward-McCann, 1953) BRETNOR2: "The Craft of Science Fiction", Reginald Bretnor (New York: Harper & Row, 1977) BRINEY: "SF Bibliographies", Robert E. Briney & Edward Wood (Chicago: Advent, 1972) CLARESON1: "SF: The Other Side of Realism", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Gregg Press, 1978) CLARESON2: "Extrapolation, 1959-1969", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Bowling Green, Ohio: University Popular Press, 1971) CLARKE: "The Tale of the Future", I. F. Clarke (London: The Library Association, 1961, 1972) CONTENTO: "Index to the Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections", William Contento G.K. Hall, 1978) DAY: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazine: 1926-50", Donald B. Day (Portland, Oregon: Perri Press, 1952) DeCAMP: "Science Fiction Handbook", L. Sprague DeCamp (New York: Hermitage House, 1953) ELLIK: "The Universes of E. E. Smith", Ron Ellik & Bill Evans (Chicago: Advent, 1966) EVANS: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines", Bill Evans with Jack Speer (Denver: Robert Peterson, 1946?) FRANKLIN: "Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century", H. Bruce Franklin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966) FREWIN: "One Hundred Years of Science Fiction Illustration", Anthony Frewin (London: Jupiter Books, 1974) GOODSTONE: "The Pulps", Tony Goodstone (New York: Chelsea House, 1970) GUNN: "Alternate Worlds", James Gunn (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) HARRISON: "John W. Campbell: Collected Editorials from Analog", Harry Harrison (Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1966) HOLMBERG: "Science Fiction History", John-Henri Holmberg (Vanersborg, Sweden: Askild & Karnekull, 1974) KNIGHT: "In Search of Wonder", Damon Knight (Chicago: Advent, 1956; enlarged 1967) KYLE: "A Pictorial History of Science Fiction", David Kyle (London: Hamlyn House, 1976) LOCKE: "Worlds Apart", edited by George Locke (London: Cornmarket Reprints, 1972) LUNDWALL: "Science Fiction: What It's All About", Sam J. Lundwall (New York: Ace Books, 1971) METCALF: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines, 1951-1965", Norm Metcalf (J. Ben Stark, 1968) MILLIES: "Science Fiction Primer for Teachers", Suzanne Millies (Dayton OH: Pflaum, 1975) MOSKOWITZ#1: "The Immortal Storm", Sam Moskowitz (AFSO Press, 1954; Hyperion Press, 19??) MOSKOWITZ#2: "Explorers of the Infinite: Shapers of Science Fiction", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) MOSKOWITZ#3: "Seekers of Tomorrow", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) NESFA: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazines", New England Science Fiction Association (Cambridge MA: NESFA, 1971) PERRY: "The Penguin Book of Comics", George Perry & Alan Aldridge (London: Penguin, 1971) ROGERS: "A Requiem for Astounding", Alva Rogers (Chicago: Advent, 1964) ROTTSTEINER: "The Science Fiction Book", Franz Rottsteiner (London: Thames & Hudson, 1975) SADOUL: "Hier, L'An 2000 [Illustrations from the Golden Age of Science Fiction]", Jaxques Sadoul (Paris: Editions Denoel, 1973) STRAUSS: "The MIT Science Fiction Society's Index to the SF Magazines: 1951-64" Erwin S. Strauss (Cambridge MA: MIT Science Fiction Society, 1966) TUCK: "The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, 2nd Edition", Donald H. Tuck (Hobart, Tasmania: Donald H. Tuck, 1959) VERSINS: "Encyclopedie des l'utopie, des voyages extraordinaires et de la science fiction", (Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme, 1972) WAGGONER: "The Hills of Faraway", Diana Waggoner (Athenaeum, 1978) WARNER: "All Our Yesterdays", Harry Warner, Jr. (Chicago: Advent, 1969) WELLS: "Fictional Accounts of Trips to the Moon", Lester G. Wells (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Library, 1962) WILLIAMSON: "H.G. Wells: Critic of Progress", Jack Williamson (Baltimore: Mirage Press, 1973) WOLLHEIM: "The Universe Makers", Donald A. Wollheim (New York: Harper & Row, 1971)
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