TIMELINE 1920-1930




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TIMELINE 1920-1930

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What happened in the world of Science Fiction and Fantasy between 1920 and 1930? There are 13 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond.
Executive Summary of the Decade Major Books of the Decade Major Films of this Decade Other Key Dates and Stories of this Decade Major Writers Born this Decade {to be done} Major Writers Died this Decade Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books
Executive Summary of the Decade What happened in the world of Science Fiction and Fantasy between 1920 and 1930? It was a strange decade, with much of a literate 20-volume fantasy magnum opus by James Branch Cabell and the poetic sophistication of Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett (Lord Dunsany) at one end of a spectrum and the anti-literary raw stories of pulp magazines at the other. Readers were thrown for the first time into interstellar conflict by E. E. "Doc" Smith, plunged to sub-sub-atomic size for romance by Ray Cummings, flung billions of years into the future by Philosphy professor Olaf Stapledon, and introduced to the two most influential science fiction editors in history: Hugo Gernsback ("Amazing Stories") and John W. Campbell (later of "Astounding"). There was the youth culture called "The Lost Generation", with bobbed-hair flappers dancing the Charleston, and the Jazz Age in full flower. Musical superstars included George Gershwin, Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, All Jolson, Jelly Roll Morton, Cole Porter, Bessie Smith, and Paul Whiteman. Broadcast Radio rose to power as a mass entertainment medium. There was the rise of Surrealism and of Art Deco, two artistic movements, the first of which influenced Science Fiction much later (the "New Wave" of the 1960s). Hitler published "Mein Kampf", Mussolini goose-stepped into power in Italy, and turned it into a weird aggressive dystopia for 22 years (1922-1944) while Stalin seized the reins of Russian power, and Mahatma Gandhi stayed in jail (1922-1928). Southern Ireland broke loose from the United Kingdom (1922). Germany experienced disruptive hyperinflation (starting in 1923) and the United States of America had the ultimate Wall Street Crash (24 October 1929) followed by the Great Depression. In 1920 the world population was 1,811,000,000 and the U.S. population was 117,823,165 (U.S. Census). Some inventions and innovations of the 1920s that shaped the culture: 1920: First American radio broadcast station opened by Westinghouse, in Pittsburgh 1920: Autogyro invented by de la Cierva (Spain) 1921: Nitrocellulose lacquer invented by Flaherty (USA) 1921: Oil-filled power cable invented by Emanueli (Italy) 1921: First radio broadcast of a baseball game, from Polo Grounds, New York 1922: Gasoline (Lead Ethyl) invented by Midgley (USA) 1922: Insulin discovered by Banting, Best & Macleod (Scotland) 1922: Vitamin D discovered by McCollum (USA) 1922: Gas discharge tube invented by Hull (USA) 1922: Self-winding wristwatch invented by John Harwood (patented 1924) 1923: Electric razor patented by Colonel Jacb Schick (USA) 1923: Television mechanical scanner invented by John Logie Baird (Scotland) 1923: Television Iconoscope invented by Zworykin (USA) 1923: First birth control clinic opens in New York 1924: Mah-Jong craze spreads worldwide 1924: Frozen food invented by Birdseye (USA) 1924: Frosted incandescent lightbulb invented by Pipkin (USA) 1924: Dynamic loudspeaker invented by Rice & Kellog (USA) 1924: Atomic hydrogen welding invented by Langmuir & Palmer (USA) 1924: Bromine from seawater discovered by Edgar Kramer (USA) 1925: John Logie Baird transmits recognizable human faces by television 1925: The Charleston dance leaps to popularity 1925: Circuit breaker invented by Hilliard (USA) 1925: Phototelegraphy invented at Bell Labs (USA) 1925: Carbon oxides discovered by Fischer (Germany) 1925: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, leads to synthetic oil 1926: First liquid-fueled rocket fired, by inventor Robert Goddard (USA) 1926: Cushioned cork-center baseball enters professional use 1926: Aerosol spray invented by Rotheim (Norway) 1926: Book-of-the-Month Club founded (USA) 1926: First 16-mm movie film (Kodak) 1927: Charles A. Lindbergh flies airplane nonstop New York to Paris 1927: Airplanes first "dust" crops with insecticide (Canadian forest trees) 1927: Talking movie, invented at Warner Bros (USA) 1927: Electronic television invented by Philo Farnsworth (USA) 1927: ACTH discovered by Evans & Long (USA) 1927: Slow fox trot the popular dance 1928: Penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming 1928: Color Television demonstrated by John Logie Baird (Scotland) 1928: First scheduled television broadcasts, WGY, Schenectady, New York 1928: Iron lung invented by P. Drinker & L. A. Shaw (USA) 1928: Radio beacon invented by Donovan (USA) 1928: Hardwater soap invented by Bertsch (Germany) 1928: Teletype invented by Morkrum & Kleinschmidt (Germany) 1928: Vitamin C discovered by Szent-Gyorgyi & King (USA) 1929: Coaxial cable system invented by Affel & Espensched (USA) 1929: Electroencephalograph invented by Berger (Germany) 1929: Practical use of Penicillin perfected by Florey & Chain (England) 1930: Planet discovered: Pluto, by Clyde W. Tombaugh at Lowell Observatory 1930: Photoflash bulb 1930: Freon invented by Midgley et al. 1930: Artificial fabric polymerized from acetylene (J. Walter Reppe, Germany) 1930: High-octane gasoline invented by Ipatief (Russia) People at the Top of the News: 1927: Charles Lindbergh, Time Magazine's Person of the Year [the solo aeronaut was turned into solo rocket pilot in many stories] 1928: Walter P. Chrysler, Time Magazine's Person of the Year [Son of a Kansas locomotive engineer, Chrysler learned auto mechanics by disassembling and reassembling cars. By late 1928 his car company manufactured Chrysler, Plymouth, Dodge, and DeSoto models, making him one of America's top indistrialists. In 1928 he also announced his plans to build the 77-story Chrysler Building, still a landmark skyscraper in New York. Science Fiction equivalent: Tom Swift] 1929: Owen D. Young, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1930: Mahatma Ghandi, Time Magazine's Person of the Year That crazy Buck Rogers stuff, and Flash Gordon too, was interwoven with B.E.M.'s (Bug-Eyed Monsters) who especially loved to grab scantily-clad ladies. But how crazy was it? In 1926, the American rocket genius Robert Goddard began a series of successful launches of liquid-fueled rockets to higher and higher altitudes, and by 1929 the Graf Zeppelin was circling completely around the Earth. Ramsay MacDonald formed the first Labour Government in the United Kingdom. America tried "Prohibition" -- the legal oulawing of alcohol consumption. President Calvin Coolidge was President, then Warren G. Harding , and then the Civil Engineer Herbert Hoover. Communism accelerated under Lenin, and Fascism under benito Mussolini. Mundane movies starred Charlie Chaplin and Rudy Vallee, but Science Fiction was thriving on the silver screens of Europe, with masterpieces such as "Metropolis" (1926) and "Frau im Mond" (1929), as part of a film era which included non-SF works of genius such as Sergei Eisenstein's "Battleship Potemkin", and Hollywood began to get more involved as well. Kodak begins to sell 16mm film stock (1925) and John Logie Baird made a working television in Scotland (1925). Critics did not bother to distinguish between what we would today consider distinct genres of Science Fiction, Science Fantasy, High Fantasy, and media Sci-Fi. Let's take a closer look... Return to Top of Timeline 1920s Page

Important Books Published in this Decade

1920 David Lindsay: "A Voyage to Arcturus" (London: Methuen) Nothing like this novel before or since, a relentlessly bizarre encounter between mind, spirit, and perception on the planet Tormance where living beings must metamorphosize into different shapes; life, death, and rebirth of Maskull, the tormented Earthling 1920 James Branch Cabell: "The Cords of Vanity: A Comedy of Shirking" (New York: McBride) revised edition of 1909 novel (New York: Doubleday, Page) on fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1921 J. D. Beresford: "Evolution" 1921 James Branch Cabell: "Figures of Earth: A Comedy of Appearances" (New York: McBride) fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1921 James Branch Cabell: "Chivalry" (New York: McBride) revised edition of novel originally published 1909 (New York: Harper) fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1921 James Branch Cabell: "The Line of Love" (New York: McBride) revised edition of novel originally published 1905 (New York: Harper) fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1921 Karel Capek: "RUR" launches the word "robot" into literature 1921 Austin Hall and Homer Eon Flint: "The Blind Spot" 1921 George Bernard Shaw: "Back to Methuselah" Play in 5 parts treating creative evolution. Part I has Lilith tear herself in two: Adam and Eve. Part II has the biologist Conrad Barnabas explain why people should live 300 years. Part III has England governed by Chinese and African women in 2170 A.D., and communicate by visual switchboard. Part IV in in 3000 A.D., with people classified as primaries, secondaries, or tertiaries according to how many centuries they've lived. Part V is set in 32,920 A.D., and in an epilogue, Adam, Eve, Cain and Lilith judge this future. 1922 James Branch Cabell: "Gallentry: An Eighteenth Century Dizain in Ten Comedies with an Afterpiece" (New York: McBride) originally published in 1907 (New York: Harper) now revized under the title "Gallantry: Dizain des Fetes Galantes" fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1922 James Branch Cabell: "The Lineage of Lichfield An Essay in Eugenics" (New York: McBride) fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1922 Edgar Rice Burroughs: "At The Earth's Core" 1922 Edgar Rice Burroughs: "The Chessmen of Mars" 1922 James Branch Cabell: "Straws and Prayerbooks: Dizain des Diversions" (New York: McBride) fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1922 E. R. [Eric Rucker] Eddison: "The Worm Ouroboros: A Romance" [fantasy] (London: Jonathan Cape) endless struggle between Witchland and Demonland on an imagistic planet Mercury 1922 Frigyes Karinthy: "Capillaria" 1922 Karel Capek: "The Absolute at Large" 1922 Alexei Tolstoi: "Aelita" 1922 Edgar Rice Burroughs: "Pellucidar" 1923 James Branch Cabell: "The High Place: A Comedy of Disenchantment" (New York: McBride) fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1923 James Branch Cabell: "The Rivet in Grandfather's Neck: A Comedy of Limitations" (New York: McBride) fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1923 James Branch Cabell: "The Eagle's Shadow" (New York: McBride) revised from 1904 edition (New York: Doubleday, Page) fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1923 Ray Cummings: "The Girl in the Golden Atom" 1923 J. J. Connington: "Nordenholt's Millions" 1923 P. Anderson Graham: "The Collapse of Homo Sapiens" 1923 Aldous Huxley: "Antic Hay" according to my parents, "a rotation in the orbit of an aimless and deteriorating society seen primarily through the eyes of the young idler Theodore Gumbril. It is peopled by a Huxleyesque galaxy of characters, fascinating in themselves, ranging from the absent-minded scientist Shearwater and the degenerate Coleman... to the grotesque Casimir Lypiatt with his unfounded genius complex." 1923 Edgar Rice Burroughs: "The Land that Time Forgot" 1923 Edgar Rice Burroughs: "Tarzan and the Ant Men" 1923 Ronald Knox: "Memories of the Future" 1923 E. V. Odle: "The Clockwork Man" 1923 H. G. Wells: "Men Like Gods" 1924 Ralph Milne Farley: "The Radio Man" 1924 Eric Temple Bell: "The Purple Sapphire" is the first novel published pseudonymously as by "John Taine" 1924 James Branch Cabell: "From the Hidden Way: Being Seventy-Five Adaptations" (New York: McBride) revised from 1916 edition by same publisher, fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1924 Alfred Doblin: "Mountains, Seas, and Giants" 1924 Lord Dunsany: "The King of Elfland's Daughter" (London: G. P. Putnam's Sons) Back and forth between lands of human and fairy, in poetic prose that set modern fantasy in motion through its influence on the H. P. Lovecraft circle 1924 Yevgeny Zamiatin: "We" 1925 Edgar Rice Burroughs: "The Eternal Lover" (later retitled The Eternal Savage") 1925 Edgar Rice Burroughs: "The Cave Girl" 1925 Hugo Gernsback: "Ralph 124C41+" 1925 Adolf Hitler: "Mein Kampf" -- not science fiction, but it shaped the modern world in twisted and horrible ways 1925 S. Fowler Wright: "The Amphibians" (privately printed) 1925 Karel Capek: "Krakatit" {film hotlink to be done} 1925 Karel Capek: "The Makropoulos Secret" immortality, later adapted to Opera 1925 Arthur Conan Doyle: "The Land of Mist" 1925 Franz Kafka: "The Trial" published posthumously, and against Kafka's wishes 1926 Edgar Rice Burroughs: "The Moon Maid" (later retirled "The Moon Man") 1926 James Branch Cabell: "The Silver Stallion: A Comedy of Redemption" fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1926 Robert M. Coates: "The Eater of Darkness" 1926 Reginald Glossop: "The Orphan of Space" -- I haven't seen this book, but John Clute claims that it combines alchemy with atomic physics 1926 Charlotte Haldane: "Man's World" (feminist) 1926 Abraham Merritt: "The Ship of Ishtar" (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons) Some adore this fantasy novel, others despise it. A modern man is drawn into a model ship which is really like "The Flying Dutchman", upon whose chess-board deck a battle between good and evil is raging 1926 Edgar Wallace: "The Day of the Uniting" Comet nearly wrecks Earth 1926 A. Hyatt Verrill: "Beyond the Pole" 1926 Guy Dent: "Emperor of the If" 1926 Thea von Harbou: "Metropolis" 1927 Eric Temple Bell: "Quayle's Invention" (as John Taine) 1927 Eric Temple Bell: "The Gold Tooth" (as John Taine) 1927 E. R. Burroughs: "The Master Mind of Mars" 1927 James Branch Cabell: "Something About Eve: A Comedy of Fig-Leaves" (New York: McBride) fantasy world Poictesme, famous from 1919 novel "Jurgen" 1927 Karel Capek: "The Absolute at Large" (New York: Macmillan), satire about atomic engine which reveals God "in a chemically pure form" 1927 Donald Corley: "The House of Lost Identity" (New York: McBride) [fantasy] Magic and whimsey in this single-author collection 1927 Abraham Merritt: "Seven Footprints to Satan" (New York: Boni Liveright) Made into film, paranoid intrigue with super-villain 1927 H. G. Wells: "The Short Stories of H. G. Wells" 1927 S. Fowler Wright: "Deluge: A Romance" 1928 Alexander Belayev: "The Amphibian" 1928 Otto Willi Gail: "By Rocket to the Moon" 1928 Edmond Hamilton: "Crashing Suns" 1928 Philip Francis Nowlan: "Armageddon 2419 A.D." 1928 Eimar O'Duffy: "The Spacious Adventures of the Man in the Street" 1928 Edward E. Smith, Ph.D.: "The Skylark of Space" 1928 Virginia Woolf: "Orlando" 1928 Sydney Fowler Wright: "The Island of Captain Sparrow" 1929 Sydney Fowler Wright: "The World Below" (London: Collins) Rescue attempt on two men lost in the future when Earth is settled by Amphibians and underground Dwellers 1929 Kay Burdekin: "The Rebel Passion" (she later uses pseudonym Murray Constantine) 1929 Arthur Conan Doyle: "The Marcot Deep and Other Stories" (Garden City NY: Doubleday) Atlantis is found -- and is not yet dead 1929 Floyd Phillips Gibbons: "The Red Napoleon" (New York: Cape and Smith) world war launched by Stalin's successor 1929 Edmond Hamilton: "Cities in ther Air" 1929 Edmond Hamilton: "Outside the Universe" 1929 David H. Keller: "The Human Termites" 1929 Otis Adelbert Kline: "The Planet of Peril" (Chicago: McClurg) pulp Venus 1929 Edgar Wallace: "Plantoid 127" planet closer to the Sun than Mercury 1929 Jack Williamson: "The Girl from Mars" 1929 S. Fowler Wright: "The World Below" 1930 Miles J. Breuer: "Paradise and Iron" 1930 John W. Campbell: "The Black Star Passes" 1930 Ray Cummings: "Brigands of the Moon" 1930 Edmond Hamilton: "The Universe Wreckers" 1930 Murray Leinster: "Murder Madness" 1930 Olaf Stapledon: "Last and First Men" (London: Methuen) the philosophy professor author makes an "attempt to see the human race in its cosmic setting, and to mould our hearts to entertain new values" a brilliant multi-billion-year vision of the future 1930 John Taine (Eric Temple Bell): "The White Lily" 1930 John Taine (Eric Temple Bell): "The Iron Star" (New York: E.P. Dutton) Meteorite in the Congo changes men to animals 1930 Jack Williamson: "The Green Girl" 1930 Philip Gordon Wylie: "Gladiator" (New York: Knopf) unhappy life as a superman growing up, perhaps the origin of "Superman" comics Mundane Literature: 1920: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Knut Hamsun (Norway) 1921: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Anatole France (France) 1922: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Jacinto Benavente (Spain) 1923: Nobel Prize for Literature won by William Butler Yeats (Ireland) 1924: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Wladyslaw S. Reymont (Poland) 1925: Nobel Prize for Literature won by George Bernard Shaw (Ireland/Britain) 1926: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Grazia Deledda(Italy) 1927: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Henri Bergson (France) 1928: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Sigrid Undset (Norway) 1929: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Thomas Mann (Germany) 1930: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Sinclair Lewis (USA), citing "Babbitt" Return to Top of Timeline 1920s Page

Important Films of this Decade

1922 Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler [Germany] Directed by Fritz Lang, from the Norbert Jacques novel Dr. Mabuse der Spieler (1922) 1922 Nosferatu [Germany] directed by W. Friedrich Munau from Bram Stoker's "Dracula" as adapted for the screen by Henrik Galeen, and starring Max Schreck, probably the highpoint of expressionist science fiction cinema Nosferatu (1922) 1923 The Hunchback of Notre Dame Universal Studios Starring Lon Chaney, Sr., "The Man of a Thousand Faces" 1924 Paris Qui Dort (also known as Paris Asleep, also known as The Crazy Ray) [France] Paris Qui Dort (1924) 1924 Aelita directed by Yakov Protazanov, from the Alexei Tolstoy novel about ideological contrast between 1920's Russia and capitalist Mars Aelita (1924) 1925 The Lost World [USA] with nice dinosuar animation with Wallace Beery as Professor Challenger, this was Marion Fairfax's screen adaptation of the Arthur Conan Doyle novel The Lost World (1925) 1925 The Death Ray [USSR] Lev Kuleshev directed, Sergei Komarov stars, and Vsevolod Pudokin both wrote and co-art-directed Luch smerti (The Death Ray) (1925) 1925 The Hands of Orloc [Austria] The Hands of Orloc (1925) 1925 The Phantom of the Opera Universal Studios, Rupert Julian Starring Lon Chaney, Sr., "The Man of a Thousand Faces" 1926 Metropolis [Germany] Classic directed by Fritz Lang, starring Brigitte Helm, from Thea von Harbou novel, now available in digitally restored 1995 version Metropolis (1926) 1928 High Treason [British] directed by Maurice Elvey, starring Raymond Massey High Treason (1928) 1929 Frau im Mond (The Woman in the Moon) [Germany] directed by Fritz Lang, co-written by Thea von Harbou, technical advisor Willy Ley, the film that invesnted the countdown for rcoket launches (art influencing reality) Frau im Mond (1929) 1929 The Mysterious Island, starring Lionel Barrymore and Jane Daly, the first important science fiction film to use sound and color. Directed by screenwriter Lucien Hubbard (and uncredited co-directors Benjamin Christiansen & Maurice Tourneur) from the Jules Verne novel of islandic techno-utopia, submarines, and undersea dragons, giant squids, and quasi-humans. John Varley has penned a remake screenplay for Disney. The Mysterious Island (1929) 1930 Just Imagine Amazingly silly notion of a 1980 as imagined in 1930, with a ludicrous Mars mission to a planet of dancing girls ruled by a fat man who never leaves his throne. People have numbers rather than names, an idea long since handled better in the Russian novel "We" by Yevgeny Zamyatin. Stars Maureen O'Sullivan, poor woman. Just Imagine (1930) Return to Top of Timeline 1920s Page

Other Key Dates

1920 Harvard beats Oregon 7-6 on New Year's Day at Rose Bowl, establishing a tradition that continued uninterrupted to 1942 1922 Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon open the tomb of King Tut-Ankh-Amon. Carnarvon dies not long after, giving rise to the legend of the curse of King Tut. 1923 The first issue of "Weird Tales" magazine published 1923 Radio Station WEAF, in New York, sponmsored by a battery company, is one of the first broadcasters 1923 Abraham Merritt's "The Face in the Abyss" story published in "Argosy"; along with its 1931 sequel, it became his masterpiece novel, also under the title "The Face in the Abyss" 1924 Abraham Merritt's "The Ship of Ishtar" story published in "Argosy" July 1925 Ray Cumming's serial "Tarrano the Conquerer" begins in Gernsback's "Science and Inventions", with a well-conceived 25th century interplanetary war and psychologically interesting dictator. 1925 First stage performance of "Dracula", written by and starring Hamilton Deane April 1926 First issue of AMAZING STORIES magazine, arguably the first Science Fiction magazine as such. This changed the face of the entire field. 1926 H. F. Arnold's short story "The Night Wire" 1926 Edmond Hamilton's short story "Across Space" 1926 Edmond Hamilton's short story "The Monster-God of Mamurth" in "Weird Tales" 1926 Clare Winger Harris' short story "A Runaway World" 1926 G. Peyton Wertenbaker's short story "The Coming of the Ice" 1926 Donald E. Keyhoe's "Through the Vortex" in "Weird Tales", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then (and if Worldcons had started before 1939). Jan 1927 the first Letter Column in Amazing Stories, "Discussions", which was the true start of science fiction fandom. 1927 Bela Lugosi, former cavalry officer, stars in John Baldeston's staging of "Dracula", the first in America 1927 Amazing Stories acquires its 100,000th reader, and starts publishing Abraham Merritt, H. P. Lovecraft, A. Hyatt Verril, Miles J. Breuer, as well as continuing to run H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, George Allan England, Garrett P. Serviss, and Murray Leinster. It was obviously the center of the science fiction world. 1927 Ray Cumming's short story "Around the Universe" 1927 Francis Flagg's short story "The Machine Man of Ardathia" 1927 Edmond Hamilton's short story "The Moon Menace" 1927 Julian Huxley's short story "The Tissue Culture Kings" 1927 H. P. Lovecraft writes the short story "The Call of Chthulhu" 1927 H. P. Lovecraft's short story "The Color out of Space" published 1927 Donald Wandrei's short story "The Red Brain" 1927 Edmond Hamilton's "Evolution Island" in "Weird Tales", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then (and if Worldcons had started before 1939). 1928 Hugo Gernsback launches "Quarterlies" of 144 pages for 50 cents each 1928 Thomas Lanier Williams, 16 years old, makes his first sale ($35). The magazine is "Weird Tales." The boy is later known by his psuedonym: Tennessee Williams, the great playwright! Aug 1928 Start of E. E. "Doc" Smith's serial "The Skylark of Space" in "Amazing Stories", and thus the birth of the "space opera" subgenre, of interstellar conflict Aug 1928 In the same issue, start of Philip Nowlan's serial "Armageddon 2419 A.D." in "Amazing Stories", which becomes the comic strip "Buck Rogers in the 25th Century" 1928 Earl Bell's short story "The Moon of Doom" 1928 Clare Winger Harris' short story "The Miracle of the Lily" (Amazing Stories) Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then (and if Worldcons had started before 1939). 1928 David H. Keller's short story "A Biological Experiment" 1928 David H. Keller's short story "The Revolt of the Pedestrians" 1928 John Martin Leahy's short story "In Amundsen's Tent" 1928 G. G. Pendarves' short story "The Eight Green Men" 1928 R. F. Starzl's short story "Out of the Sub-Universe" 1928 Victor Gollancz launches his publishing company, which is immdiately a major force in British science fiction Feb 1929 Three of Hugo Gernsback's creditors file to have him declared bankrupt in New York State court. Gernsback was solvent, but the law forced him, probably at the instigation of Bernarr McFadden (for whom your humble webmaster's father once worked) who lived in the same apartment building and was angry that Hugo Gernsback would not sell him "Amazing Stories." May 1929 Hugo Gernsback forced to sell "Amazing Stories", chooses to sell it to Teck Publications, who promoted ex-scientist T. O'Connor Sloane to editor (he had been de facto assistant editor under Hugo Gernsback). Teck loses illustrator Frank R. Paul. Arthur Lynch is interim editor before T. O'Connor Sloane gets up to full speed. 1929 "When the World Screamed" by Arthur Conan Doyle, one of several popular Professor Challenger tales -- a deep hole is drilled, and disturbs the giant creature whose shell is our planetary crust. 1929 Hugo Gernsback's short story "The Killing Flash" 1929 Murray Leinster's short story "The Darkness on Fifth Avenue" 1929 Philip Francis Nowlan's short story "The Airlords of Mars" 1929 D. D. Sharp's short story "The Eternal Man" 1929 Harl Vincent's short story "Barton's Island" 1929 Wallace West's short story "The Last Man" Spring 1929 Stanton A. Coblentz' novel "After 12,000 years" begins in "Amazing Stories Quarterly" starts his transition from poet to leading science fiction satirist Sep 1929 Teck Publications claims 100,000 circulation for "Amazing", unfairly taking credit for Hugo Gernsback's success 1929 H. P. Lovecraft's "The Dunwich Horror" in "Weird Tales", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then (and if Worldcons had started before 1939). Jan 1930 Hugo Gernsback launches "Scientific Detective Stories" magazine Jan 1930 Hugo Gernsback merges "Air Wonder" and "Science Wonder" to create "Wonder Stories" magazine Jan 1930 John W. Campbell's first story (novelette), "When the Atoms Failed", in "Amazing Stories" Apr 1930 John W. Campbell's "The Metal Horde" in "Amazing Stories" Spring 1930 John W. Campbell's serial, "Islands of Space", begins in "Amazing Stories" May 1930 Edmond Hamilton's serial "The Universe Wreckers" begins in "Amazing Stories" Jun 1930 John W. Campbell's "Piracy Preferred" in "Amazing Stories", launching the popular Arcot, Wade, and Morey stories Jun 1930 Ray Palmer's "The Time Ray of Jandra" in "Wonder" July 1930 P. Schuyler Miller's "The Red Plague" in "Wonder" Aug 1930 E. E. Smith's sequel novel "Skylark Three" begins in "Amazing Stories" Nov 1930 Hugo Gernsback shrinks "Wonder" to smaller 7" x 10" size Nov 1930 John W. Campbell's "Solarite" in "Amazing Stories", continuing the popular Arcot, Wade, and Morey stories Jan 1930 Harry Bates persuades pulp magnate William Clayton to launch "Astounding" magazine, the key to the next decade. Clayon installs Bates as editor, Douglas M. Ddd as consulting editor, Desmond W. Hall as Bates' assistant, "Wesso" (Hans Waldemar Wessolowski) as cover artist, and the rest is history. Fall 1930 John W. Campbell's "The Black Star Passes" in "Amazing Stories Quarterly" 1930 Charles Willard Diffin's short story "The Power and the Glory" 1930 Edmond Hamilton's short story "The Man Who Saw the Future" 1930 David H. Keller's short story "The Ivy War" 1930 D. D. Sharp's short story "The Day of the Beast" 1930 Frank Belknap Long's "A Visitor from Egypt" in "Weird Tales", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then (and if Worldcons had started before 1939). 1930 Philadelphia beats St.Louis 4-2 to win the World Series 1930 Pittsburgh beats California 47-14 to win Rose Bowl 1930 Uruguay beats Argentina, at Uruguay, to win soccer World Cup 1930: Nobel Prize for Physics won by Sir Chandrasekhara V. Raman (India) for light diffusion 1930: Nobel Prize in Chemistry won by Hans Fischer (Germany) for study of Chlorophyll and synthesis of hemin 1930: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology won by Karl Landsteiner (USA) for determining human blood groups 1930: Nobel Peace Prize won by Lutheran Archbishop Nathan Soderblom (Sweden) Return to Top of Timeline 1920s Page
Major Writers Born this Decade 1920 Richard Adams 1920 William C. Anderson 1920 Isaac Asimov 1920 Everett F. Bleiler 1920 Sydney J. Bounds 1920 Ray Bradbury (22 Aug 1920) 1920 Charles E. Fritch 1920 Frank Herbert 1920 P. D. James 1920 Joan North 1920 Peter Phillips 1920 Walter Popp 1920 William Sambrot 1920 Jack Speer (9 Aug 1920) 1920 Roy Squires (11 Sep 1920) 1920 William Tenn 1920 Theodore L. Thomas 1920 H. R. Van Dongen 1920 Richard Wilson (23 Sep 1920) 1921 James Blish 1921 Kenneth Bulmer 1921 F. M. Busby 1921 Alfred Coppel 1921 Carol Emshwiller 1921 William Lawrence Hamling 1921 Stanislaw Lem 1921 Desmond Leslie 1921 Charles Eric Maine 1921 Brian Moore 1921 Gene Roddenberry (21 Aug 1921) 1921 Mordecai Roshwald 1921 Jean Shepherd 1922 Kinglsey Amis 1922 Christopher Anvil 1922 Hans Bemmenn 1922 John Frederick Burke 1922 John Christopher 1922 Hal Clement (pseudonym of Harry Stubbs) 1922 Frank O. Dodge 1922 Kelly Freas (27 Aug 1922) Artist, full name: Frank Kelly Freas 1922 Damon Knight (19 Sep 1922) 1922 Walter M. Miller, Jr. 1922 Andre Ruellan 1922 Hank Searles 1922 Harry Stubbs (writes as Hal Clement) 1922 Donald H. Tuck 1922 Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. 1922 Stefan Wul 1923 Italo Calvino 1923 Sybil Claiborne 1923 Avram Davidson 1923 Gordon R. Dickson 1923 Nicholas Fisk 1923 James E. Gunn 1923 Lindsay Gutteridge 1923 Alan Hunter 1923 Cyril M. Kornbluth 1923 Melvin Korshak 1923 John W. MacVey 1923 James McKimmey, Jr. 1923 Patrick Moore (Astronomer/author) 1923 Lan Wright 1924 Robert Abernathy 1924 Joan Aiken 1924 Lloyd Alexander 1924 Phil Bronson (31 Aug 1924) 1924 Peggy Crawford (22 Sep 1924) 1924 Gerry de la Ree (7 Sep 1924) 1924 Sonya Dorman 1924 E. P. Thompson 1925 Brian Aldiss (18 Aug 1925) 1925 Herbert J. Campbell 1925 Harry Harrison 1925 Russell Hoban 1925 Monica Hughes 1925 J. T. McIntosh 1925 Katherine MacLean 1925 Dan Morgan 1925 Arkady Strugatski 1925 Toy Arthur Swanson 1925 Gore Vidal 1926 Poul Anderson 1926 Janet Asimov, full name: Janet Jepson Asimov 1926 John Dalmas 1926 Chan Davis 1926 J. P. Donleavy 1926 Phyllis Gotlieb 1926 Jimmy Guieu 1926 Joe L. Hensley 1926 Evan Hunter 1926 Richard Matheson 1926 Anne McCaffrey 1926 Joseph Nesvadba 1926 Frank M. Robinson 1926 Thomas Scortia (29 Aug 1926) 1926 Hilbert Schenck 1926 Robert Sheckley (or 1928?) 1926 Edward Valigursky 1926 William Walling 1927 Paul Ableman 1927 Donald Benson 1927 Moyra Caldecott 1927 Peter Dickenson 1927 Daniel Farson 1927 Herbert Franke 1927 R. C. Goldston 1927 Mel Hunter 1927 Daniel Keyes (9 Aug 1927) 1927 Sterling E. Lanier 1927 Janet Leigh 1927 A. R. Lloyd 1927 Stephen Minot 1927 Gerard Quinn 1927 Evelyn E. Smith 1927 Arthur Thompson (21 Aug 1927) 1928 Chingiz Aitmatov 1928 J. G. Arnaud 1928 Pauline Ashwell 1928 J. Brian Clarke 1928 Robert Coulson 1928 Philip K. Dick 1928 Frank Frazetta 1928 Anrew M. Greeley 1928 Zack Hughes 1928 Colin Kapp 1928 Robert Leeson 1928 Milton Lesser (7 Aug 1928) 1928 Rod Martin 1928 William Mayne 1928 Raylyn Moore 1928 William F. Nolan 1928 Alan Nourse (11 Aug 1928) 1928 Doris Piserchia 1928 Robert Sheckley (or 1926?) 1928 Patrick Tilley 1928 James White 1928 Kate Wilhelm 1928 Robin Wilson 1929 Neal Barrett, Jr. 1929 Ernest Callenbach 1929 Phillipe Curval 1929 Parke Godwin 1929 Felix C. Gotschalk 1929 Donald Kingsbury 1929 David Lake 1929 Ursula K. Le Guin 1929 Ira Levin 1929 Rex Miller 1929 George H. Scithers 1929 Sheri S. Tepper 1930 J. G. Ballard 1930 Marion Zimmer Bradley 1930 Walter Breen (5 Sep 1930) 1930 Don Callander 1930 D. G. Compton (19 Aug 1930) 1930 Stephen Fabian 1930 Jack Gaughan (24 Sep 1930) Artist 1930 Edward D. Hoch 1930 Harvey Jacobs 1930 Ardath Mayhar 1930 Donald E. McQuinn 1930 John Morressy 1930 Fred Saberhagen 1930 Cherry Wilder (3 Sep 1930) 1930 Gahan Wilson For more on individual writers: AUTHORS: annotated list of 3,274 links, last updated 23 Sep 2000; also some brief notes on 6,107 authors and pseudonyms NOT on the Internet, last updated 4 May 2000, for a total of 9,381 authors' hotlinks or names or pseudonyms or notes. Return to Top of Timeline 1920s Page
Major Writers Died this Decade 1920 Richard Dehmel (1863-1920) German poet 1920 Ludwig Ganghofer (1855-1920) popular German novelist 1920 William Dean Howells (1837-1920) American novelist 1921 Emilia Pardo Bazan (1851-1921) Spanish novelist 1921 J. G. Huneker (1860-1921) American author/critic 1921 V. G. Korolenko (1853-1921) Russian novelist 1921 Edgar Saltus (1855-1921) American author 1921 Harriet E. Spofford (1835-1921) American poet/novelist 1922 Henri Bataille (1872-1922) French playwright 1922 Wilfred Scawen Blunt (1840) English poet 1922 Mori Ogai (1860-1922) pioneer of modern Japanese fiction 1922 Marcel Proust (1871-1922) French novelist 1923 Maurice Barres (1862-1923) French politician/author 1923 Louis Couperus (1863-1923) Dutch novelist 1923 Iwan Gilkin (1858-1923) Belgian poet 1923 Charles Hawes (1889-1923) American author 1923 Maurice Hewlett (1861-1923) English author 1923 Emerson Hough (1857-1923) American author 1923 Pierre Loti (1850-1923) French novelist 1923 Katherine Mansfield (1888-1923) English novelist 1923 Raymond Radiguet (1903-1923) Fench poet 1923 Morris Rosenfeld (1862-1923) Russian-American poet 1924 Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) Polish-English novelist 1924 Marie Corelli (1855-1924) English novelist 1924 Anatole France (1844-1924) French novelist/poet 1924 Edith Nesbit (xxxx) Fantasy author 1925 James Lane Allen (1849-1925) American novelist 1925 George W. cable (1844) American novelist 1925 H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925) English novelist, Lost Lands science fiction 1925 Amy Lowell (1874-1925) American poet/critic 1925 Teuvo Pakaala (1862-1925) Finnish novelist 1925 Edith M. Thomas (1854-1925) American novelist 1926 Ronald Firbank (1886-1926) English author 1926 W. L. George (xxxx-1926) English novelist 1926 Jean Richepin (1849-1926) French author 1926 Ranier Maria Rilke (1875-1926) German poet 1926 George Sterling (1869-1926) American poet 1926 Israel Zangwill (1864-1926) English novelist 1927 Mikhail Artzybashev (1878-1927) Russian author 1927 Jerome K. Jerome (1859-1927) English novelist/playwright 1927 William LeQueux (1864-1927) English author of Mysteries see: Ultimate Mystery/Detective Web Guide 1927 Matilda Serao (1856-1927) Italian psychological novelist 1928 Vicente Blasco-Ibanez (1867-1928) Spanish novelist 1928 Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) English novelist/poet 1928 Avery Hopwood (1882-1928) American playwright 1928 Klabund (1890-1928) German poet 1928 C. E. Montague (1867-1928) English drama critic/journalist 1928 Hermann Sudermann (1857-1928) German playwright 1929 Katherine Lee Bates (1859) American author "America the Beautiful" 1929 Bliss Carman (1861-1929) Canadian poet 1929 Edward Carpenter (1844-1929) English author 1929 Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929) Austrian poet 1929 Henry Arthur Jones (1851-1929) English playwright 1929 Flora Annie Steel (1847) English novelist 1930 Edward W. Bok (1863-1930) American journalist/author 1930 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) 1930 D. H. Lawrence (1885-1930) English novelist 1930 V. V. Majakovski (1893-1930) Russian poet 1930 Melville D. Post (1871-1930) American author of Detective fiction see: Ultimate Mystery/Detective Web Guide Other major figures who died this decade: 1920 {to be done} 1921 James Cardinal Gibbons (1834) American religious figure 1921 H. M. Hyndman (1842-1921) English socialist politician 1921 Philander C. Knox (1853-1921) American politician 1921 King Peter I of Serbia (1844-1921) 1921 Nicolai E. Zhukovski (1847-1921) mathematical aerodynamics of circulation 1922 Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) American inventor/physicist 1922 former Emperor Charles of Austria (1887-1922) 1922 John Moresby (1830-1922) English explorer of Australia 1923 Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923) French actress 1923 Charles P. Steinmetz (1965-1924) American eletrical engineer 1924 Sir William Bayliss (1860-1924) English physiologist 1924 Eleanora Duse (1859-1924) Italian actress 1924 Sir Archibald Geikie (1835-1924) Scottish geologist 1924 Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) American labor leader, AFL president 1924 Granville S. Hall (1844-1924) American psychologist 1924 Clifford Holland (1883-1924) American engineer (Holland Tunnel, New York) 1924 Jacob Loeb (1859-1924) German-American physiologist 1924 Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) English economist 1924 George H. Quincke (1834) German physicist 1924 Wilhelm Roux (1850-1924) German anatomist 1924 Eugen Warming (1841-1924) Dutch botanist 1925 x 1926 William Bateson (1861-1926) English biologist 1926 Gertrude Bell (1868-1926) English explorer/archaeologist 1926 Luther Burbank (1849-1926) American horticulturist 1926 Camillo Golgi (1844-1926) Italian physician, won 1906 Nobel Prize 1926 Harry Houdini (1874-1926) American "magician" 1926 Heinke Kamerlingh-Onnes (1853-1926) Dutch physicist, won 1913 Nobel Prize 1926 James F. Kemp (1859-1926) American geologist 1926 Sir William Tilden (1842-1926) English chemist 1927 Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) Swedish chemist 1927 Isadora Duncan (1878-1927) American dancer 1927 Sir Harry H. Johnston (1858-1927) English explorer (Mt.Kilimanjaro) 1927 Hudson Maxim (1853-1927) American inventor 1927 Sacco & Vanzetti executed 1927 Ernest H. Starling (1866-1927) English physiologist 1928 Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) Norwegian arctic exporer, trying to rescue Italian explorer Nobile whose airship had crashed in arctic 1928 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) Dutch physicist 1928 Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) German physicist 1929 x 1930 A. J. Balfour (1848-1930) British statesman 1930 Glenn Curtiss (1878-1930) American aviator/inventor 1930 Miguel Primo de Rivera (1870-1930) Spanish statesman 1930 Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) Norwegian explorer 1930 Elmer A. Sperry (1860-1930) American inventor/electrical engineer 1930 William H. Taft (1857-1930) American President then Chief Justice Return to Top of Timeline 1920s Page
Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Literary Precursors |Cosmic History:13 Billion BC to 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: When the Goddess Ruled |5th Millennium BC: Mesopotamia, Egypt |4th Millennium BC: Iceman of the Alps, Old Kingdom Egypt |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: Homer, Buddha, Confucius, Euclid |1st Century: Jesus, Cymbeline, Caligula, Pliny |2nd Century: Hero, Ptolemy, Nichomachus |3rd Century: 3 Kingdoms China, Legendary Japan |4th Century: Constantine, Hypatia, Ausonius |5th Century: Rome in Crisis, Dark Ages start |6th Century: Boethius, Taliesin, Mohammed |7th Century: Bede, Brahmagupta, Isidorus |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Khayyam, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Crusades, Kublai Khan, Universities |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age [you are HERE] |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: This Decade |2010-2020: Next Decade |Cosmic Future: Billions, Trllions, Googols Return to Top of Timeline 1920s Page

Where to Go for More

51 Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: ALDISS: "Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction", Brian W. Aldiss (New York: Doubleday, 1973; Schocken Paperback, 1974) ALLEN: "Science Fiction Reader's Guide", L. David Allen (Centennial Press, 1974) AMIS: "New Maps of Hell", Kingsley Amis (London: Gollancz, 1960; New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960) ASH1: "Who's Who in Science Fiction", by Brian Ash (Taplinger, 1976) ASH2: "The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction", edited by Brian Ash (Harmony Books, 1977) ASHLEY: "The History of the Science Fiction Magazine" [3 volumes] (London: New English Library, 1974) ASIMOV "Asimov on Science Fiction" (New York: Avon, 1981) ATHELING: "The Issue at Hand", "William Atheling, Jr." [James Blish] (Chicago: Advent, 1964) BARRON: "Anatomy of Wonder", edited by Neil Barron (Bowker, 1976) BAXTER: "Science Fiction in the Cinema", John Baxter (London: A. Zwemmer, 1970; New York: A. S. Barnes, 1970) BERGONZI: "The Early H.G. Wells", Bernard Bergonzi (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1961) BLEILER: "The Checklist of Fantastic Literature" Everett F. Bleiler (Chicago: Shasta, 1948) BRETNOR1: "Modern Science Fiction: Its Meaning and Future", edited by Reginald Bretnor (New York: Coward-McCann, 1953) BRETNOR2: "The Craft of Science Fiction", Reginald Bretnor (New York: Harper & Row, 1977) BRINEY: "SF Bibliographies", Robert E. Briney & Edward Wood (Chicago: Advent, 1972) CLARESON1: "SF: The Other Side of Realism", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Gregg Press, 1978) CLARESON2: "Extrapolation, 1959-1969", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Bowling Green, Ohio: University Popular Press, 1971) CLARKE: "The Tale of the Future", I. F. Clarke (London: The Library Association, 1961, 1972) CONTENTO: "Index to the Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections", William Contento G.K. Hall, 1978) DAY: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazine: 1926-50", Donald B. Day (Portland, Oregon: Perri Press, 1952) DeCAMP: "Science Fiction Handbook", L. Sprague DeCamp (New York: Hermitage House, 1953) ELLIK: "The Universes of E. E. Smith", Ron Ellik & Bill Evans (Chicago: Advent, 1966) EVANS: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines", Bill Evans with Jack Speer (Denver: Robert Peterson, 1946?) FRANKLIN: "Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century", H. Bruce Franklin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966) FREWIN: "One Hundred Years of Science Fiction Illustration", Anthony Frewin (London: Jupiter Books, 1974) GOODSTONE: "The Pulps", Tony Goodstone (New York: Chelsea House, 1970) GUNN: "Alternate Worlds", James Gunn (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) HARRISON: "John W. Campbell: Collected Editorials from Analog", Harry Harrison (Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1966) HOLMBERG: "Science Fiction History", John-Henri Holmberg (Vanersborg, Sweden: Askild & Karnekull, 1974) KNIGHT: "In Search of Wonder", Damon Knight (Chicago: Advent, 1956; enlarged 1967) KYLE: "A Pictorial History of Science Fiction", David Kyle (London: Hamlyn House, 1976) LOCKE: "Worlds Apart", edited by George Locke (London: Cornmarket Reprints, 1972) LUNDWALL: "Science Fiction: What It's All About", Sam J. Lundwall (New York: Ace Books, 1971) METCALF: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines, 1951-1965", Norm Metcalf (J. Ben Stark, 1968) MILLIES: "Science Fiction Primer for Teachers", Suzanne Millies (Dayton OH: Pflaum, 1975) MOSKOWITZ#1: "The Immortal Storm", Sam Moskowitz (AFSO Press, 1954; Hyperion Press, 19??) MOSKOWITZ#2: "Explorers of the Infinite: Shapers of Science Fiction", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) MOSKOWITZ#3: "Seekers of Tomorrow", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) NESFA: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazines", New England Science Fiction Association (Cambridge MA: NESFA, 1971) PERRY: "The Penguin Book of Comics", George Perry & Alan Aldridge (London: Penguin, 1971) ROGERS: "A Requiem for Astounding", Alva Rogers (Chicago: Advent, 1964) ROTTSTEINER: "The Science Fiction Book", Franz Rottsteiner (London: Thames & Hudson, 1975) SADOUL: "Hier, L'An 2000 [Illustrations from the Golden Age of Science Fiction]", Jaxques Sadoul (Paris: Editions Denoel, 1973) STRAUSS: "The MIT Science Fiction Society's Index to the SF Magazines: 1951-64" Erwin S. Strauss (Cambridge MA: MIT Science Fiction Society, 1966) TUCK: "The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, 2nd Edition", Donald H. Tuck (Hobart, Tasmania: Donald H. Tuck, 1959) VERSINS: "Encyclopedie des l'utopie, des voyages extraordinaires et de la science fiction", (Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme, 1972) WAGGONER: "The Hills of Faraway", Diana Waggoner (Athenaeum, 1978) WARNER: "All Our Yesterdays", Harry Warner, Jr. (Chicago: Advent, 1969) WELLS: "Fictional Accounts of Trips to the Moon", Lester G. Wells (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Library, 1962) WILLIAMSON: "H.G. Wells: Critic of Progress", Jack Williamson (Baltimore: Mirage Press, 1973) WOLLHEIM: "The Universe Makers", Donald A. Wollheim (New York: Harper & Row, 1971) Return to Top of Timeline 1920s Page
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