TIMELINE 1940-1950




Return to Timeline Table of Contents
Return to Ultimate SF Table of Contents

TIMELINE 1940-1950

Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.
What happened in the world of Science Fiction between 1940 and 1950? There are 36 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond.
Most recently updated: 25 December 2003
Over 82 Kilobytes of text
Executive Summary of the Decade Major Books of the Decade Major Films of this Decade Other Key Dates and Stories of this Decade Major Writers Born this Decade Major Writers Died this Decade Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Executive Summary of the Decade

Pulp magazines reached their zenith in 1941, and then began to decline in number. 1941 was the maximum point in the chart of U.S. science fiction and fantasy magazine publication. Of the 20 magazine titles published in the 1938-1949 time span, in this single year of 1941 there were over 100 individual issues on the news stands, a veritable cornucopia for delighted (and overwhelmed) readers. "Flying Saucers" were first reported in 1947, feeding media frenzy over extraterrestrials. In this decade, of course, World War II was fought, and as parts of the vast global military effort, the real world was flung into the atomic age (1945), the computer age (BINAC, 1945; ENIAC 1946), and the age of intercontinental ballistic missiles (V-2 attacks in 1944). These new realities were calculated by the new mathematics of Cryptology and Game Theory. Adolf Hitler was opposed by Winston Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, three landscape painters who shaped the world. Charles De Gaulle rose from hero of the underground resistance to leader of a free nation. Japan bombed Pearl Harbor (1941), Nazi troops stormed the Warsaw ghetto, where embattled Jews held out heroically for a while (1943). Science fiction had given glimpses of each of these, but reality began to outrun fiction. There was the Arab-Israeli War (1949). Mao Tse Tung conquered China (1949) and the Cold War began, setting a paranoid tone for the science fiction of the next decade. Roosevelt died, and Harry S Truman became President, ushering in the National Security State. The US population was 132,164,569 in 1940, and rose to 151,325,798 by 1950. USA life expectancy had risen from 49 years in 1900 to 64 years in 1940. The USA's Gross Natioonal Product was 100.6 million in 1940. Some inventions and innovations of the 1940s that shaped the culture: 1940: First USA helicopter flight, Vought-Sikorsky Corporation 1940: Penicillin perfected by Howard Florey as useful antibiotic 1940: Cavity Magnetron developed (key to Radar) 1940: First transuranic element (Neptunium) discovered (Philip Abelson & Edwin McMillan) 1940: First electron microscope, RCA 1941: Manhattan Project begins 1941: Dacron invented by Dickson & Whinfield 1941: Plutonium discovered (Edwin McMillan & Glenn T. Seaborg) 1941: Grand Coulee Dam starts working in Washington State 1942: Atom split; first fission reactor (Enrico Fermi) 1942: USA's first electronic computer 1942: Magnetic recording tape invented 1942: First USA jetplane (Bell Aircraft) 1943: 1944: 1945: First A-bomb tested near Alamagordo, New Mexico 1945: Synthesis of Vitamin A 1946: Xerography invented by Chester Carlson (company later renamed Xerox) 1947: First supersonic airplane flight 1947: Transistor invented at Bell Labs 1948: Long-playing record invented by Peter Goldmark 1948: 135 million paperback books sold this year in USA 1949: Cortisone discovered 1949: Neomycin purified 1949: First A-bomb test by USSR 1950: Miltown, a meprobromate tranquillizer, widely used in USA 1950: Antihistamines become popular to treat allergies and colds 1950: Albert Einstein's General Field Theory Major novels were published by authors including: Isaac Asimov, James Blish, Ray Bradbury, Frederic Brown, John W. Campbell, Hal Clement, Stanton Coblentz, L. Sprague de Camp, Lester del Rey, Max Ehrlich, Robert Graves, Edmond Hamilton, Charles L. Harness, Robert A. Heinlein, Herman Hesse, L. Ron Hubbard, Aldous Huxley, Raymond F. Jones, Henry Kuttner, Fritz Leiber, C. S. Lewis, Thomas Calvert McClary, Judith Merrill, C. L. Moore, Ward Moore, Eric Frank Russell,Clifford Simak, Curt Siodmak, Clark Ashton Smith, E. E. "Doc" Smith, George O. Smith, Olaf Stapledon, Theodore Sturgeon, John Taine [Eric Temple Bell], A. E. Van Vogt, Stanley Weinbaum, Jack Williamson, and Austin Tappan Wright. Science fiction anthologies came into their own as a commercially viable way of reprinting the best short fiction available in book form. This was achieved almost simultaneously with the 1946 anthologies: "The Best of Science Fiction", Groff Conklin [editor], (New York: Crown); and Raymond John Healy & Jesse Francis McComas [Editors]: "Adventures in Time and Space" (New York: Random House). In 1948, Groff Conklin edited another blockbuster collection: "A Treasury of Science Fiction" (New York: Crown). The modern configuration of magazines, novels, and anthologies was now in place. Mundane Literature: 1940: Nobel Prize for Literature not awarded due to World War II 1941: Nobel Prize for Literature not awarded due to World War II 1942: Nobel Prize for Literature not awarded due to World War II 1943: Nobel Prize for Literature not awarded due to World War II 1944: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Johannes V. Jensen (Denmark) 1945: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957) Chilean poet 1946: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Herman Hesse (Switzerland) 1947: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Andre Gide (France) 1948: Nobel Prize for Literature won by T. S. Eliot (British, born American) 1949: Nobel Prize for Literature won by William Faulkner (USA) 1950: Nobel Prize for Literature won by Bertrand Russell (British) Movies... well, although I have hotlinks to 33 science fiction films from 1940 through 1950, I feel that (due in part to World War II) this was the worst decade ever for such movies. Except that the decade was redeemed with the 1950 masterpiece "Destination Moon", loosely based on Robert A. Heinlein's novel "Rocketship Galileo." Heinlein was heavily involved, as Technical Director, with this breakthrough, arguably the first science fiction film with realistic spaceflight portrayed, including the best moon walk we saw before Apollo 11! To be fair to the actors: James Arness, Lloyd Bridges, Gene Autry, John Barrymore, Robert Blake, John Carradine, Lon Chaney Jr., Buster Crabbe, Shemp Howard, Boris Karloff, Peter Lorre, Bela Lugosi, and Vincent Price acted their hearts out. Only twice were any of these stars working from a decent scripts (by Curt Siodmak in both cases). When the scrpt was based on an actual science fiction novel (Henry Kuttner, Karek Capek, or Robert Heinlein), there were no genuine stars. In Hollywood jargon, there were never the right elements in the package, again excepting "Destination Moon", which had good writing, good special effects, and good production. Mundanes and Science Fiction fans alike thrilled to Abbott and Costello, Ingrid Bergman, Humphrey Bogart, James Cagney, Bing Crosby, Bette Davis, Clark Gable, Cary Grant, Katherine Hepburn, Bob Hope, Jimmy Stewart, Spencer Tracy, and Orson Welles. But the best actors and actresses were mostly on the "A" list and Science Fiction mostly on the "B" list, with occasional exceptions (Jimmy Stewart in Frank Capra's "It's a Wonderful Life"). Television entered the science fiction arena, albeit in a juvenile form, with pioneerings shows such as Captain Video. "Captain Video and His Video Rangers", on the Dumont Network, first aired on 27 Jun 1949 (and lasted until 1 Apr 1955). This was an historically significant show, despite the astonishingly stingy prop budget of $25 per week. Why? Because it was the first and most successful of three children's science fiction shows that seduced kids into the axioms of the Space Opera genre, the other two being "Space Patrol" and "Tom Corbett--Space Cadet." The latter had an uncredited origin in the works of Robert A. Heinlein. It can be argued that these series created some of the popular support that allowed for a genuine space program only a few years later. A wonderful book about these shows is "The Great Television Heroes" by Donald F. Glut and Jim Harmon. I have listed information on 3 science fiction/fantasy/horror television series of the 1940s, and have a hotlink to that listing in the section below on movies of the decade. 1940: Winston Churchill, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1941: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1942: Joseph Stalin, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1943: General George C. Marshall, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1944: General Dwight Eisenhower, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1945: Harry S Truman, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1946: James S. Byrnes, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1947: George C. Marshall, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1948: Harry S Truman, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1949: Winston Churchill, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1950: G. I. Joe, Time Magazine's Person of the Year 1940: Nobel Prize in Physics not awarded due to World War II 1940: Nobel Prize in Chemistry not awarded due to World War II 1940: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology not awarded due to World War II 1941: Nobel Prize in Physics not awarded due to World War II 1941: Nobel Prize in Chemistry not awarded due to World War II 1941: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology not awarded due to World War II 1942: Nobel Prize in Physics not awarded due to World War II 1942: Nobel Prize in Chemistry not awarded due to World War II 1942: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology not awarded due to World War II 1943: Nobel Prize for Physics won by Otto Stern (USA) for molecular beams, protons 1943: Nobel Prize in Chemistry won by Georg de Hevesey (Hungary) 1943: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology won by Henrik Dam (Denmark) and E. A. Doisy (USA), for discovering and analyzing Vitamin K 1944: Nobel Prize for Physics won by Isadore Isaac Rabi (USA) 1944: Nobel Prize in Chemistry won by Otto Hahn (Germany) 1944: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology won by Joseph Erlanger (USA) and Herbert S. Gasser (USA) 1945: Nobel Prize for Physics won by Wolfgang Pauli (USA) Quantum Mechanics 1945: Nobel Prize in Chemistry won by Artturi I. Virtanen (Finland) 1945: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology won by Fleming, Florey & Chain (Great Britain) for discovering and perfecting Penicillin 1946: Nobel Prize for Physics won by Percy W. Bridgman for high-pressure physics 1946: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology won by Hermann Joseph Muller for study of x-ray induced genetic mutations 1946: Nobel Prize for Chemistry won by James B. Summer (USA), John Northrop (USA), and Wendell M. Stanley (USA) for enzyme research 1947: Nobel Prize for Physics won by Sir Edward V. Appleton (Great Britain) 1947: Nobel Prize in Chemistry won by Sir Robert Robinson (Great Britain) 1947: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology won by Carl F. Cori (USA), Gerty T. Cori (USA), and Bernardo A. Houssay (Argentina) 1948: Nobel Prize for Physics won by Patrick M. M. S. Blackett (Great Britain) 1948: Nobel Prize in Chemistry won by Arne W. K. Tiselius (Sweden) 1948: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology won by Paul H. Muller (Switzerland) 1949: Nobel Prize for Physics won by Hideki Yukawa (Japan) Mesons 1949: Nobel Prize for Chemistry won by W. F. Giague, for chemical thermodynamics 1950: Nobel Prize for Physics won by Cecil F. Powell (Great Britain) 1950: Nobel Prize in Chemistry won by Kurt Alder (Germany), Kurt Diels (Germany) 1950: Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology won by Philip S. Hench (USA), Edward C. Kendall (USA), and Tadeus Reichstein (Switzerland) Return to 1940's Timeline Table of Contents

Major Books of the Decade

1940 Herbert Best: "The Twenty-Fifth Hour" (New York: Random House) Germ warefare after economic chaos 1940 L. Sprague de Camp & Fletcher Pratt: "The Compleat Enchanter" [Fantasy] 1940 L. Ron Hubbard: "Final Blackout" 1940 A. E. Van Vogt: "Slan" paranoid mutant hero, but they are after him... this is year of serialization in "Astounding", was in book form (Sauk City WI: Arkham House) in 1946 1940 John Steinbeck, "The Grapes of Wrath", Pulitzer Prize for Fiction [not SF, but here for context] 1941 L. Sprague de Camp: "Lest Darkness Fall" (New York: Holt) American in Rome, 535 A.D., uses technology to try to prevent collapse of empire and the Dark Ages 1941 Robert A. Heinlein: "Methuselah's Children" 1941 Robert A. Heinlein [as Anson MacDonald]: "Sixth Column" 1941 Philip Duffield Strong [editor]: "The Other Worlds" (New York: Wilfred Funk) superior early anthology of 25 magazine stories 1942 Isaac Asimov: "The Foundation Trilogy" the greatest novels of all science fiction? Fall of vast galactic empire 1942 L. Sprague de Camp & Fletcher Pratt: "Land of Unreason" 1942 Lester del Rey: "Nerves" early novelette of atomic reactor accident 1942 Ellen Glasgow, "In This Our Life", Pulitzer Prize for Fiction [not SF, but here for context] 1942 Edmond Hamilton: "The Comet Kings" 1942 Robert A. Heinlein [as Anson MacDonald]: "Beyond This Horizon" 1942 Vita Sackville-West: "Grand Canyon" -- incorrectly forecast victory by Nazui Germany 1942 E. E. Smith: "Second Stage Lensman" 1942 Olaf Stapledon: "Darkness and the Light" (London: Methuen) Future history of Russia versus China with "religious communism" in Tibet caught in between 1942 Clark Ashton Smith: "Out of Space and Time" (Sauk City WI: Arkham House) His first collection, 20 astonishing and poetic stories 1942 George O. Smith: "Venus Equilateral" solar-powered interplanetary space stations 1942 Phil Strong [editor]: "The Other Worlds" (Garden City Press), anthology of 25 stories, some science fiction, mostly fantasy 1942 Peter Vansittart: "I Am The World" dictatorship satire 1942 Austin Tappan Wright: "Islandia" (New York: Farrar & Rinehart) Vast utopian novel of progress versus organic harmony 1943 Roald Dahl: "Gremlins" first book by Dahl, as spinoff of Disney movie that was never released (?) 1943 Herman Hesse: "Das Glasperlspiel" ["The Glass Bead Game" a.k.a Magidter Ludi"] philosophy as a game or vice versa 1943 Fritz Leiber: "Conjure Wife" arguably the first modern urban fantasy, where faculty wives at a university are all witches 1943 Fritz Leiber: "Gather, Darkness!" 1943 C. S. Lewis: "Perelandra" 1943 C. L. Moore: "Judgment Night" 1943 Eric Frank Russell: "Sinister Barrier" (Kingswood, Surrey UK: World's Work) Based on Charles Fort's claim that humans are property of aliens, whom we discover, and against whom we finally rebel; first serialized in Vol.1, No.1 of "Unknown" (1939), expanded in U.S. edition (Fantasy Press, 1948) 1943 Upton Sinclair, "Dragon's Teeth", Pulitzer Prize for Fiction [not SF, but here for context] 1943 Curt Siodmak: "Donovan's Brain" {film hotlink to de done} 1943 A. E. Van Vogt: "The Book of Ptath" 1943 A. E. Van Vogt: "The Weapon Makers" 1943 Donald A. Wollheim [editor]: "The Pocket Book of Science Fiction" (New York: Pocket Books) 1944 Benjamin A. Botkin [editor]: "A Treasury of American Folklore" comprehensive encyclopedia of legendary U.S. characters, stories, and songs. 1944 Martin Flavin, "Journey in the Dark", Pulitzer Prize for Fiction [not SF, but here for context] 1944 Aldous Huxley: "Ape and Essence" 1944 Aldous Huxley: "Time Must Have a Stop" 1944 Raymond F. Jones: "Renaissance" 1944 Thomas Calvert McClary: "Rebirth: When Everyone Forgot" (New York: Bartholomew House) Socialist gives everyone amnesia to wipe the slate clean without Capitalism, chaos, then utopia 1944 Clifford Simak: "City" superior look at the far future 1944 Olaf Stapledon: "Sirius", best ever super-dog or intelligent animal novel 1945 Stanton Coblentz: "When the Birds Fly South" (Mill Valley CA: Wings Press) love in Afghani lost world 1945 Isaac Asimov: "The Mule" (later incorporated into the Foundation trilogy) and much later (1996) wins "1946 Retrospective Hugo Award" for Best Novel 1945 John Hersey, "A Bell for Adorno", Pulitzer Prize for Fiction [not SF, but here for context] 1945 Fritz Leiber: "Destiny Times Three" 1945 C. S. Lewis: "That Hideous Strength" 1945 George Orwell: "Animal Farm" [London: Secker and Warburg] technically a novella, this book is political satire masquerading as animal parable/fantasy. Later (1996) wins "1946 Retrospective Hugo Award" for Best Novella. 1945 A. E. Van Vogt: "The World of Null-A" incomprehensible but un-put-downable Probably the first novel ever of human cloning 1946 Donald A. Wollheim [editor]: "Portable Novels of Science Fiction" (New York: Viking) 1946 Groff Conklin [editor]: "The Best of Science Fiction" (New York: Crown) landmark 785-page 40-story anthology some time soon I'll post here the recollection of Crown editor Samuel H. Post about this breakthrough collection 1946 John Taine [Eric Temple Bell]: "The Time Stream" (Providence RI: Buffalo Book Co. & G.H.E.) superscience, time-travel, 1906 San Francisco quake, atomic energy, eugenics, libertarian utopia, and more; reprint from "Wonder Stories" serial (1931) 1946 Raymond John Healy & Jesse Francis McComas [Editors]: "Adventures in Time and Space" (New York: Random House) superb large (997 pages) anthology of 33 (35?) stories; the most important anthology of its era, good place to start in understanding the science fiction of the late 1930s through mid 1940s. Lester del Rey says that John Campbell says that Healy & McComas published later than Conklin this year, but that Healy & Jesse Francis McComas were first in mailing out their requests for reprint permissions, and thus skimmed the cream of the crop of magazine stories in a way never again possible 1946 Pat Frank: "Mr.Adam" 1946 Lewis Padgett: "The Fairy Chessmen" 1946 E. E. Smith: "The Skylark of Space" [Providence RI: Hadley; Buffalo Book Company] reprinted from "Amazing Stories" serial (1928), this was first interstellar "space opera." This was also the first specialty Science Fiction book publisher as such, and they followed with Campbell (1947) and Hubbard (1948) titles. 1946 George O. Smith: "Pattern for Conquest" 1946 A. E. Van Vogt: "Slan" [Arkham House] arguably the best novel ever of mutant humans 1947 J. O. Bailey: "Pilgrims Through Space and Time" The first academic book about science fiction? 1947 Benjamin A. Botkin [editor]: "A Treasury of New England Folklore" comprehensive encyclopedia of legendary New England characters, stories, and songs. 1947 Ray Bradbury: "Dark Carnival" [Arkham House] short story collection, his first book, and I bitterly regret an ex-girlfriend having taken my autographed first edition... 1947 Bertolt Brecht: "Galilei" [stage play about a scientist and his ideas] 1947 John W. Campbell: "The Mightiest Machine" (Providence RI: Hadley) 1947 Frederick Grove: "Consider Her Ways" [Toronto: Macmillan] Trio of South American ants on odyssey, and engage in telepathic communication with human scientist, about whose species they are not impressed. 1947 H. F. Heard: "Doppelgangers" 1947 Robert A. Heinlein: "Rocketship Galileo" (New York: Scribner's) The first of the Heinlein "juveniles", quite readable by adults, which cumulatively proselytized spacflight, science, and libertarian capitalism to a generation of kids who later became the backbone of the real space program. Adapted (with screenplay co-scripted by Heinlein, who also acted as Technical Director) into the breakthrough film "Destination Moon" {hotlink to be done} 1947 L. Ron Hubbard: "The End Is Not Yet" 1947 David H. Keller: "Life Everlasting and Other Tales of Science, Fantasy, and Horror" (Newark NJ: Avalon) novel, 10 stories, bibliography often based on author's medical/psychiatrist career 1947 Henry Kuttner: "Destination Infinity" 1947 Ward Moore: "Greener Than You Think" When a lawn additive is applied to the diseased devil grass of one Mrs. Dinkman in Hollywood, it soon overwhelms the neighborhood: "Out through the Cahuenga Pass it flowed, toward the fertile San Fernando Valley. Steadily it climbed to the hilltops, masticating sage, greasewood, oak, sycamore and manzanita with the same ease it bolted houses and pavements." Nothing can stop this super-grass, not weed-burners, not oil, not National Guard bombing, so Los Angeles is evacuated so that the city can be sowed with salt. The grass makes it to San Diego. Time magazine reports 'Death, as it must come to all, came last week to Los Angeles... swallowed up, Jonah-wise by the advance of the terrifying Bermuda grass.'" The USSR attacks the West Coast, but Soviet soldiers are enmeshed in the grass, and starve. By the end of the novel, most of the Earth's population lives at sea. 1947 Lawrence O'Donnell [Henry Kuttner]: "Fury" 1947 Alexander M. Phillips: "The Mislaid Charm" (Philadelphia: Prime Press) Fantasy about withdrawn fellow mixed up with a party of gnomes; first book publication by Prime Press, a partnership of investor Alfred Prime, used-0book dealer James Williams, big-name fan "Bud" Waldo, and major collector Oswald Train 1947 E. E. Smith: "Space Hounds of IPC" (Reading PA: Fantasy Press) lesser quality novel by "Doc" Smith, yet quite popular among fans 1947 E. E. Smith: "Children of the Lens" 1947 George O. Smith: "Venus Equilateral" (Philadelphia: Prime Press) collects 10 stories from 1942-1945 "Astounding" series about radio communications relay space station 1947 A. E. Van Vogt: "The Weapon Makers" (Providence RI: Hadley) "the right to buy weapons is the right to be free" mankind hangs in balance in conflict between Isher empress and libertarian underground, with time travel and telepathy and superscience; reprint from "Astounding" (1943) later revised to become sequel to "The Weapon Shops of Isher" (1949) 1947 Robert Penn Warren, "All the King's Men", Pulitzer Prize for Fiction [not SF, but here for context] 1947 Jack Williamson: "The Legion of Space" (Reading PA: Fantasy Press) the secret of AKKA, Imperial politics, alien Medusae of Barnard's Star: popular space opera. This was the first book by Fantasy Press, run by big-name fan and pulp magazine writer Lloyd Arthur Eshbach. 1948 John W. Campbell: "Who Goes There? Seven Tales of Science Fiction" (Chicago: Shasta) collects 7 of Campbell's stories written under pseudonym "Don A. Stuart" 1948 Arthur C. Clarke: "Against the Fall of Night" 1948 Groff Conklin [editor]: "A Treasury of Science Fiction" (New York: Crown) 2nd major by Conklin/Crown anthology some time soon I'll post here the recollection of Crown editor Samuel H. Post about this event 1948 Robert A. Heinlein: "Beyond This Horizon" (Reading PA: Fantasy Press) Ambivalent treatment of genetic engineering 1948 Robert A. Heinlein: "Space Cadet" (New York: Scribner's) Crudely adapted into the children's television show "Tom Corbett: Space Cadet" {hotlink to be done} 1948 L. Ron Hubbard: "Final Blackout" (Providence RI: Hadley) 1948 James Michener, "Tales of the South Pacific", Pulitzer Prize for Fiction [not SF, but here for context] 1948 Eric Frank Russell: "Dreadful Sanctuary" 1948 Theodore Sturgeon: "Without Sorcery" (Philadelphi: Prime Press) collects 13 great stories from 1939-1947 magazine publications, intro by Ray Bradbury 1948 A. E. Van Vogt: "The World of Null-A" (New York: Simon & Schuster) Gilbert Gosseyn [Go Sane] applies General Semantics and non-Aristotelian mind and 2nd brain to battle alien conquerors; dream-logic, confusing but very exciting 1948 A. E. Van Vogt: "The Players of Null-A" 1948 Stanley Weinbaum: "The Black Flame" (Reading PA: Fantasy Press) 1948 Jack Williamson: "... And Searching Mind" 1949 Isaac Asimov: "And Now You Don't" (part of Foundation trilogy) 1949 Benjamin A. Botkin [editor]: "A Treasury of Southern Folklore" comprehensive encyclopedia of legendary Southern U.S. characters, stories, and songs. 1949 Frederic Brown: "What Mad Universe" (New York: E.P. Dutton) Infinite alternate worlds; cleverly combines realistic satire of America complete with science fiction conventions, but also with real monsters and aliens 1949 Hal Clement: "Needle" 1949 James Gould Cozzens, "Guard of Honor", Pulitzer Prize for Fiction [not SF, but here for context] 1949 Max Ehrlich: "The Big Eye" (New York:Doubleday) experimental venture into Science Fiction on the heels of Crown and Random House's successful 1946 anthologies and of Scribners with Robert Heinlein. Doubleday never quit once they started. 1949 Albert Einstein: "The Generalized Theory of Gravitation" Great concepts, weak plot and characterization. 1949 Robert Graves: "Seven Days in New Crete" 1949 Charles L. Harness: "Flight Into Yesterday" 1949 Robert A. Heinlein: "Red Planet" (New York: Scribner) Boy on Mars during revolution is saved by basketball-shaped friendly martian, a very carefully worked out and readable juvenile definitely fun for adults 1949 Robert A. Heinlein: "Sixth Column" (New York: Gnome Press) America conquered by PanAsians, but 7 scientists rebel with superscience and advertising know-how to launch a phony religion; also known as "The Day After Tomorrow" 1949 George Orwell [Eric Blair]: "Nineteen Eighty-Four" (London: Secker and Warburg) Nightmare/satire/SF/contemporary sly political parody/archetypal dystopia 1949 E. E. Smith: "Skylark of Valeron" (Reading PA: Fantasy Press) 3rd of 4-book Skylark series, 4th dimension, intergalactic space, superscience, 2-mile long spaceship; republished from "Astounding" (1934) 1949 George R. Stewart: "Earth Abides" [Random House], later won the 1951 International Fantasy Award. After the protagonists survibe the apocalypse, they let even the memory of our civilized world slip away from them. Unrelenting. 1949 Stanley G. Weinbaum: "A Martian Odyssey and Others" (Reading PA: Fantasy Press) essential collection of his stories, including famous title story of truly alien aliens 1949 Jack Williamson: "The Humanoids" (New York: Simon & Schuster) Robots help people too much, and stifle creativity, initiative, and civilization itself 1949 Jack Williamson [as Will Stewart]: "Seetee Shock" 1950 Isaac Asimov: "Pebble in the Sky" 1950 Isaac Asimov: "I, Robot" (New York: Gnome Press) 9 robot stories establish Asimov's "3 laws of robotics" and robot fiction has never been the same 1950 James Blish: "Earthman, Come Home" 1950 Ray Bradbury: "The Martian Chronicles" (Garden City NY: Doubleday) the single most famous modern science fiction book; brilliant poetic language and emotion nuance in the colonization of Mars 1950 L. Sprague de Camp: "The Hand of Zei" 1950 A. B. Guthrie, "The Way West", Pulitzer Prize for Fiction [not SF, but here for context] 1950 Henry Kuttner (and unacknowledged C. L. Moore): "Fury" (New York: Grosset & Dunlap) 27th Century human exiles in domes beneath Venus oceans try to advance and settle the surface, in power-struggle between immortal elite and regular humans 1950 Edmond Hamilton: "City at World's End" 1950 Robert A. Heinlein: "Farmer in the Sky" (New York: Scribner) Homesteaders on Jovian moon Ganymede; conflict beween pioneers and bureacrats, humans and nature 1950 Robert A. Heinlein: "The Man Who Sold the Moon" (Chicago: Shasta) 6 stories establish the Future History series; great fiction 1950 Fritz Leiber: "Gather, Darkness!" (New York: Pellegrini & Cudahy) science disguised as religion battles dystopian theocracy 1950 Judith Merrill: "Shadow on the Heath" (Garden City NY: Doubleday) Nuclear war against USA, from suburban viewpoint 1950 Theodore Sturgeon: "The Dreaming Jewels" 1950 A. E. Van Vogt: "The Voyage of the Space Beagle" 1950 A. E. Van Vogt: "The Wizard of Linn" Return to 1940's Timeline Table of Contents

Major (and Minor) Films of this Decade

Science Fiction Television of the 1940s The Ape (1940) starring Boris Karloff Before I Hang (1940) starring Boris Karloff Black Friday (1940) starring Boris Karloff, written by Curt Siodmak Buck Rogers (1940) starring Buster Crabbe Dr. Cyclops (1940) from a Henry Kuttner novel Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe (1940) The Invisible Man Returns (1940) starring Vincent Price, story by Curt Siodmak The Invisible Woman (1940) starring John Barrymore and Shemp Howard The Man With Nine Lives (1940) starring Boris Karloff Men With Steel Faces (1940) starring Gene Autry One Million B.C. (1940) starring Lon Chaney, Jr. Perils from the Planet Mongo (1940) starring Buster Crabbe Sky Bandits (1940) The Adventures of Captain Marvel (1941) based on the comic book Man-Made Monster (1941) starring Lon Chaney, Jr. Robot Wrecks (1941) starring Robert Blake (plus Darla, Spanky, Froggy, and Buckwheat) Black Dragons (1942) starring Bela Lugosi Dr. Renault's Secret (1942) Invisible Agent (1942) starring Peter Lorre, written by Curt Siodmak 1943: no science fiction films released that I know about, unless you count throwaways like "Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man" Fighting Devil Dogs (1944) re-edited from the 1938 film The Invisible man's Revenge (1944) starring John Carradine The Purple Monster Strikes (1945) 1945 The Picture of Dorian Gray (MGM) {hotlink to be done} Much later (1996) wins "1946 Retrospective Hugo Award" for Best Dramatic Presentation. 1946: no science fiction films released that I know about The Black Widow (1947) Brick Bradford (1947) Dick Tracy Meets Gruesome (1947) Krakatit (1947) Czechoslovakian production, from the novel by Karel Capek Unknown Island (1948) King of the Rocket Men (1949) The Perfect Woman (1949) DESTINATION MOON (1950) Written by Robert A. Heinlein & James O'Hanlon & Alford "Rip" Van Ronkel, produced by George Pal The Flying Saucer (1950) Mikel Conrad wrote, starred in, produced, and directed Rocketship X-M (1950) starring Lloyd Bridges, with blacklisted Dalton Trumbo as uncredited writer Two Lost Worlds (1950) starring James Arness Return to 1940's Timeline Table of Contents

Major Writers Born this Decade

1940 Douglas Barbour 1940 Angela Carter 1940 Thomas M. Disch 1940 Annie Erneaux 1940 Sue Grafton 1940 Zenna Henderson 1940 Richard Joseph 1940 Alexei Panshin (14 Aug 1940) 1940 Steven Spetz 1940 Norman Spinrad (15 Sep 1940) 1940 Drew Whyte (19 Aug 1940) 1940 Gao Xingjian 1941 Peter Heck (4 Sep 1941) 1941 James Patrick Hogan 1941 Kirby McCauley (11 Sep 1941) 1941 Hayao Miyazaki (Japan, Anime) 1941 Bruce Newrock (16 Aug 1941) 1941 Anne Rice 1941 Ken Rudolph (27 Aug 1941) 1942 Frederick Barthelme 1942 Peter Carey 1942 Carolyn Janice Cherry (writes as C. J. Cherryh) (1 Sep 1942) 1942 Michael Crichton 1942 Dian Crayne (29 Aug 1942) 1942 John Crowley 1942 Samuel R. Delany 1942 Charles L. Grant (12 Sep 1942) 1942 John Irving 1942 Alan J. Lewis (31 Aug 1942) 1942 Robert Lichtman (27 Aug 1942) 1942 Toni Morrison 1942 Rick Norwood (4 Aug 1942) 1942 Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (15 Sep 1942) 1943 Robert Adams (31 Aug 1943) 1943 Joe Haldeman 1943 Christopher Priest 1943 Ian Watson 1944 {to be done} 1945 Michael Bishop 1945 Bill Bridget (9 Sep 1945) 1945 Ed Bryant (27 Aug 1945) 1945 Dennis Lien (26 Sep 1945) 1945 Connie Willis 1946 Katina Alexis: pseudonym of Katina Parthemos Strauch 1946 Dr. Christine Carmichael 1946 Jon De Chancie (3 Aug 1946) 1946 Stephen King (21 Sep 1946) 1946 Rudy Rucker 1946 Rich Wannen (24 Aug 1946) 1946 Robert Weinberg (29 Aug 1946) 1947 Kathy Acker 1947 Paul Auster 1947 Bill Burns (8 Sep 1947) 1947 Octavia Butler 1947 Dwain Kaiser (19 Aug 1947) 1947 Tanith Lee (19 Sep 1947) 1947 Salman Rushdie 1947 Paul Skelton (18 Aug 1947) 1947 John Varley 1947 Vernor Vinge 1947 Jeff Washel (24 Aug 1947) 1948 William Gibson 1948 Nancy Kress 1948 George "Lan" Laskowski (19 Sep 1948) 1948 George R. R. Martin (20 Sep 1948) 1948 Vonda N. McIntyre (28 Aug 1948) 1948 Dan Simmons 1948 Leslie Swigart (23 Sep 1948) 1948 Joan Vinge 1948 Susan Wood (22 Aug 1948) 1949 Martin Amis 1949 Nate Bucklin (11 Aug 1949) 1949 Lois McMaster Bujold 1949 Jeffrey A. Carver (25 Aug 1949) 1949 Sheila Gilbert (26 Aug 1949) 1949 Fred Haskell (26 Aug 1949) 1950 David Angus 1950 William Barton (28 Sep 1950) 1950 Alain Bergeron 1950 John D. Berry (8 Aug 1950) 1950 James P. Blaylock 1950 David Brin 1950 Richard Byers (21 Sep 1950) 1950 Bruce Coville 1950 Sarah Dunant 1950 Steve Erickson 1950 Karen Joy Fowler 1950 Geoff Gilbertson (SF author/NASA Scientist) 1950 Karl Hansen 1950 Patrick Harpur 1950 Sue Harrison 1950 Walter G. Irwin (22 Sep 1950) 1950 K. W. Jeter 1950 Ken Kato, pseudonym of ? 1950 John Katzenbach 1950 John J. Kessel 1950 James P. Killus 1950 Tappan (Wright) King 1950 Mercedes Lackey 1950 Jeanne Larsen 1950 Sarah Maitland 1950 C. Wayne Owens 1950 Lewis Shiner 1950 A. L. Sirois 1950 Michael Swanwick 1950 Braulio Tavares 1950 Steve Rasnic Tem 1950 Richard Thornley 1950 Lars Walker 1950 Geoff Whittle For more on individual writers: AUTHORS: annotated list of 3,274 links, last updated 23 Sep 2000; also some brief notes on 6,107 authors and pseudonyms NOT on the Internet, last updated 4 May 2000, for a total of 9,381 authors' hotlinks or names or pseudonyms or notes. Return to 1940's Timeline Table of Contents

Major Writers Who Died this Decade

1940 John Buchan, Lord Tweedsmuir (1875-1940) Scottish author, Thriller pioneer 1940 F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) 1940 Hamlin Garland (1860-1940) American author 1940 Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940) 1940 Nathaniel West [Nathan Wallenstrin Weinstein] (1903-1940) 1941 Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941) 1941 James Joyce (1882-1941) 1941 Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) 1941 Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) English author 1942 1943 Stephen Vincent Benet (1898-1943) 1943 W. W. Jacobs (1863-1943) English author 1943 Max Reinhardt (1873-1943) 1944 George Ade (1866-1944) 1944 Jean Giraudoux (1882-1944) 1944 Arthur Quiller-Couch ["Q"] (1863-1944) English author/critic 1944 Romain Rolland (1866-1944) 1944 Antoine de Saint-Wxupery (1900-1944) French poet, "The Little Prince" 1945 Robert Benchley (1889) American humorist 1945 Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) 1945 Georg Kaiser (1878-1945) German plywright 1945 Ernie Pyle (1900-1945) American war journalist 1945 Paul Valery (1871-1945) French poet/critic 1945 Franz Werfel (1890-1945) Austrian novelist 1946 Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946) 1946 Damon Runyon (1884-1946) 1946 Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) 1946 Booth Tarkington (1864-1946) 1946 H. G. Wells 1947 James Agate (1877-1947) English critic 1947 Willa Cather (1873-1947) 1947 Hans Falada (1893-1947) German novelist 1947 Richard Huch (1864-1947) German author 1948 Alfred Kerr (1867-1948) German critic 1948 Egon Erwin Kisch (1885-1948) German-Czech journalist/author 1948 Emil Ludwig (1881-1948) German author/biographer 1949 Tommy Handley (1894-1949) British comedian 1949 Axel Munthe (1857-1949) 1949 Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949) 1950 Eric Blair [wote as George Orwell] 1950 D. K. Broster 1950 Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950) 1950 Hedwig Courts-Mahler (1867-1950) German novelist of 192 Romances 1950 Heinrich Mann (1870-1950) German novelist 1950 Edgar Lee Masters (1869-1950) American poet 1950 George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) 1950 Edna St.Vincent Millay (1892-1950) American poet 1950 William Olaf Stapledon (born 10 May 1886 in Wallasey, Merseyside, England; died 6 Sep 1950) see Cosmic Future for a study of his influence on Science Fiction, in the context of the ultimate future of the universe 1950 Carl Van Doren (1885-1950) Other major figures who died this decade: 1940 Carl Bosch (1874-1940) German chemist/industrialist 1940 Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) 1940 Lord Rothermere (1868-1940) 1940 Trotsky (1879-1940) assassinated in Mexico City by order of Stalin 1940 Julius Wagner von Jauregg (1857-1940) German psychiatrist 1941 Louis D. Brandeis (1856-1941) American Supreme Court justice 1942 Franz Boas (1858-1942) German-American founder of Ethnology 1942 William Henry Bragg (1862-1942) English physicist 1943 George Washington Carver (1864-1943) African-American agronomist 1943 Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) electrical inventor 1943 1944 Arthur Korn (1870-1945) German physicist 1945 {to be done} 1946 Alexander Alekhine (1892-1946) world Chess champion 1946 John Logie Baird (1888-1946) Scottish inventor of television 1946 Jack Johnson (1878-1946) American boxer 1946 John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) British economist 1946 James J. Walker (1881-1946) 1947 Ettore Bugatti (1882-1047) Italian race car designer 1947 Al Capone (1899-1947) gangster 1947 Henry Ford (1863-1947) leaves estate worth $625 million 1947 Henry Gordon Selfridge (1857-1947) 1948 Ruth Benedict (1887-1948) American anthropologist 1948 Babe Ruth (1895-1948) 1948 Orville Wright (1871-1948) airplane co-inventor 1949 xxx 1950 "Hap" Arnold (1886-1950) Genral of the U.S. Air Force 1950 Al Jolson (1886-1950) entertainer 1950 Jan Smuts (1870-1950) 1950 Henry L. Stimson (1867-1950) USA statesman Return to 1940's Timeline Table of Contents

Other Key Dates in this Decade

Jan 1940 Robert A. Heinlein's "Requiem" in "Astounding" Feb 1940 Robert A. Heinlein's "If This Goes On" serial starts in "Astounding" Feb 1940 First appearance by H. B. Fyfe ("Locked Out") in "Astounding" Feb 1940 First magazine appearance by Leigh Brackett ("Martian Quest") in "Astounding" Feb 1940 "Astonishing Stories" launched, listed as "a Fictioneers Publication" but covertly by Popular Publications, and edited by teenaged fan Frederik Pohl Mar 1940 "Super Science Stories" launched, also covertly by Popular Publications, and edited by teenaged fan Frederik Pohl Mar 1940 James' Blish story "Emergency Refueling" in "Super Science Stories" marks his fiction debut Apr 1940 Malcolm Jameson's first story about space officer Bullard ("Admiral's Inspection") in "Astounding" Apr 1940 Tremendously popular serial novel "Final Blackout" by L. Ron Hubbard begins in "Astounding" May/Jun 1940 Munsey Publications' "Famous Fantastic Mysteries" slips from monthly to bimonthly July 1940 Munsey Publications' ("Famous Fantastic Mysteries") launches "Fantastic Novels" Spring 1940 "Captain Future" quarterly launched, as a companion to "StartlinG' and "Wonder" -- most stories by Edmond Hamilton Sep 1940 First serial "Slan!" by A. E. Van Vogt begins in "Astounding" Sep 1940 Robert A. Heinlein's "Blowups Happen" in "Astounding", which is about Uranium-235 as the fuel in a nuclear power plant Oct 1940 Harry Bate's "Farewell to the Master" in "Astounding", which is later adapted into the film "The Day the Earth Stood Still" {hotlink to be done} Oct 1940 Don Wilcox's "The Voyage that Lasted 600 Years" in "Amazing" Nov 1940 Canada launches "Uncanny Tales", mostly reprints Dec 1940 Willy Ley's "Fog" in "Astounding", under pseudonym "Robert Willey" -- one of his only works of fiction Dec 1940 "Comet Stories" launched, under editor F. Orlin Tremaine ("Astounding" editor under Smith & Street) 1940: Chicon I, the Second World Science Fiction Convention, in Chicago (Hotel Chicagoan), Chaired by Mark Reinsberg, E. E. "Doc" Smith as Guest of Honor, 128 members attending. 1940 Harry Bates's "Farewell to the Master" in "Astounding SF", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then [It was adapted to the film "The Day the Earth Stood Still]. 1940 University of California site of first Cyclotron "atom smasher" 1940 Suspension bridge "Galloping Gertie" over the Puget Sound Narrows goes into convulsions in wind, breaks apart, falls 200 feet 1940 Cincinnati beat Detroit 4-3 to win the World Series 1940 USC beat Tennessee 14-0 to win the Rose Bowl 1941 This is the maximum point in the chart of U.S. science fiction and fantasy magazine publication. Of the 20 magazine titles published in the 1938-1949 time span, in this single year of 1941 there were over 100 individual issues on the news stands, a veritable cornucopia for delighted (and overwhelmed) readers. 1941 Sydney, Australia's Futurian Society (founded 1939) becomes the Australian Futurian Association. Jan 1941 Robert A. Heinlein's serial "Sixth Column" begins in "Astounding", under his pseudonym Anson MacDonald Feb 1941 Big-name fan Donald A. Wollheim launches "Stirring Science Stories", with Damon Knight's authorial debut in this first issue Mar 1941 Donald A. Wollheim's launches "Cosmic Stories" Apr 1941 "Thrilling Wonder Stories" slips from monthly (since Dec 1939) to bimonthly. Apr 1941 "Marvel Science Stories" has its last issue May 1941 Robert A. Heinlein's "Universe" in "Astounding", arguably the greatest story ever about a multi-generation interstellar space voyage May 1941 Robert A. Heinlein's "Solution Unsatisfactory" in "Astounding", under his pseudonym Anson MacDonald July 1941 Robert A. Heinlein's serial "Methuselah's Children" begins in "Astounding", introducing the character Lazarus Long July 1941 "Comet Stories" last of five issues, with start of E. E. Smith series "Vortex Blaster" which thus had to be completed in "Astonishing Stories." The end of "Comet Stories" was also the end of F. Orlin Tremaine's career in Science Fiction editing, and magazines altogether. July 1941 Last issue of Donald A. Wollheim's "Cosmic Stories" Aug 1941 "Thrilling Wonder Stories" editor Mort Weisinger leaves to run the "Superman" family of comic books; Oscar J. Friend becomes new editor, and does lackluster job. Nov 1941 Lyle Monroe [Robert A. Heinlein] novel "The Lost Legion" in "Super Science Stories", perhaps the finest Extrasensory Perception fiction yet 1941 Blue Ribbon Publications ("Science Fiction", "Future Fiction", "Science Fiction Quarterly") replaces editor Charles Hornig with big-name fan Robert A. Lowndes 1941: Denvention I, the Third World Science Fiction Convention, in Denver (Shirley-Savoy Hotel), Chaired by Olon F. Wiggins, Robert A. Heinlein as Guest of Honor, 90 members attending. 1941 E. E. Smith's "The Vortex Blaster" in "Cosmic Stories", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then 1941 Robert Arthur's short story "Evolution's End" 1941 Isaac Asimov's robot short story "Liar!" 1941 Isaac Asimov's short story "Nightfall", decades later voted by Science Fiction Writers of America to be the single best science fiction short story ever! 1941 Alfred Bester's short story "Adam and no Eve" 1941 James Blish's short story "Solar Plexus" 1941 Anthony Boucher's short story "Snulbug" 1941 Frederic Brown's short story "Armageddon" 1941 Lester del Rey's short story "Hereafter, Inc." 1941 Robert A. Heinlein's short story "And He Built a Crooked House" 1941 Robert A. Heinlein's short story "By His Bootstraps", under the pseudonym Anson MacDonald, the greatest tour de force of time travel fiction yet 1941 Robert A. Heinlein's short story "They" 1941 C. M. Kornbluth's short story "The Rocket of 1955" 1941 C. M. Kornbluth's short story "The Words of Guru" 1941 Henry Kuttner and C. L. Moore's short story "A Gome There Was" 1941 Ross Rocklynne's short story "Time Wants a Skeleton" 1941 Eric Frank Russell's short story "Jay Score" 1941 Eric Frank Russell's short story (under the pseudonym Maurice Hugi) "Mechanical Mice" 1941 Theodore Sturgeon's short story "Microcosmic God" 1941 Theodore Sturgeon's short story "Shottle Bop" 1941 A. E. Van Vogt's short story "The Seesaw" {the above 20 stories, and some others, may be found in "The Great SF Stories 3", edited by Isaac Asimov and Martin H. Greenberg} 1941 New York Giants beat Brooklyn Dodgers 4-1 to win World Series 1941 Stanford beat Nebraska 21-13 to win Rose Bowl 1942 Munsey Publications' "Famous Fantastic Mysteries" rebounds to monthly from bimonthly 1942 Munsey Publications' ("Famous Fantastic Mysteries", "Fantastic Novels") sells its magazines to Popular Publications. Both magazines were noted for beautiful cover and interior art by Virgil Finlay. Only "Famous Fantastic Mysteries" continues publication, for now. Mar 1942 Last issue of Donald A. Wollheim's "Stirring Science Stories" Apr 1942 Robert A. Heinlein's serial "Beyond This Horizon" begins in "Astounding" Apr 1942 A. E. Van Vogt's serial "Co-operate -- or Else!" begins in "Astounding" Apr 1942 "Astounding" starts the "Probability Zero" department May 1942 Isaac Asimov's serial "Foundation" begins in "Astounding", initiating the most popular magazine serial in the history of science fiction May 1942 Hal Clement's first story "Proof" in "Astounding" Sep 1942 Anthony Boucher's first science fiction story "The Barrier" in "Astounding", although he had previously published Fantasy in "Unknown" Sep 1942 Lester del Rey's long novelette "Nerves" in "Astounding", about an atomic reactor accident Oct 1942 First appearance of George O. Smith with "QRM -- Interplanetary" in "Astounding", eventually becoming part of the book "Venus Equilateral" Dec 1942 A. E. Van Vogt's "The Weapon Shops" in "Astounding" 1942 Alfred Bester's short story "The Push of a Finger" 1942 Frederic Brown's short story "The Star Mouse" 1942 Anthony Boucher's short story "Barrier" 1942 Hal Clement's short story "Proof" 1942 Lester del Rey's short story "The Wings of Night" 1942 Lewis Padgett's short story "The Twonky" 1942 George O. Smith's short story "QRM-Interplanetary" 1942 A. E. Van Vogt's short story "Asylum" 1942 A. E. Van Vogt's short story "Cooperate -- Or Else!" 1942 A. E. Van Vogt's short story "The Weapons Shop" 1942 Donald Wollheim's short story "Cooperate -- Or Else!" {the above 11 stories, and some others, may be found in "The Great SF Stories 4", edited by Isaac Asimov and Martin H. Greenberg} 1942 Gordon A. Gile's (Otto Binder)'s "Via Jupiter" in "Thrilling Wonder", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then, and if there had been a Worldcon that year (there was not, because of World War II) 1942 St.Louis beats New York 4-1 to win World Series 1942 Detroit beats Boston 2-0 to win Stanley Cup 1942 Oregon State beats Duke 20-16 to win Rose Bowl but played at Durham, North Carolina rather than the usual Pasadena, California 1942 Joe Louis knocks out Buddy Baer, keeps World Heavyweight Boxing title Jan 1943 By this month, the core of "Astounding" writers were in the military, including Isaac Asimov, L. Sprague de Camp, Robert A. Henlein, L. Ron Hubbard, and Jack Wiliamson. Lester del Rey and others were working full time in defense plants. So John W. Campbell brought Henry Kuttner (popular in "Unknown") into "Astounding" under the pseudonym "Lewis Padgett", starting in this issue with the story "Time Locker" Feb 1943 Lewis Padgett's classic story "Mimsy Were the Borogoves" in "Astounding" Feb 1943 A. E. Van Vogt's serial "The Weapon Makers" concludes in "Astounding" Mar 1943 "Lawrence O'Donnell" [Henry Kuttner and C. L. Moore] novelette "Clash by Night" in "Astounding" May 1943 "Astonishing Stories" and "Super Science Stories" editor Frederik Pohl quits to serve in the U.S. Army, closing down both magazines until Jan 1949 May 1943 Fritz Leiber's classic serial "Gather Darkness" begins in "Astounding" Aug 1943 "Thrilling Wonder Stories" slips from bimonthly to quarterly. Oct 1943 Raymond F. Jones's "Fifty Million Monkeys" in "Astounding" Oct 1943 Last issue of "Unknown Worlds" Nov 1943 "Astounding" shrinks to digest size (5 1/2" x 8") 1943 Leigh Brackett's short story "The Halfling" 1943 Frederic Brown's short story "Daymare" 1943 Anthony Boucher's short story "Q.U.R." 1943 Edmond Hamilton's short story "Exile" 1943 P. Schuyler Miller's short story "The Case" 1943 C. L. Moore's short story "Doorway Into Time" 1943 Lewis Padgett's short story "The Iron Standard" 1943 Lewis Padgett's short story "The Proud Robot" 1943 Eric Frank Russell's short story "Symbiotica" 1943 A. E. Van Vogt's short story "Cooperate -- Or Else!" 1943 A. E. Van Vogt's short story "The Storm" {the above 11 stories, and some others, may be found in "The Great SF Stories 5", edited by Isaac Asimov and Martin H. Greenberg} 1943 Manly Wade Wellman's "Frontier Planet" in "Thrilling Wonder", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then, and if there had been a Worldcon that year (there was not, because of World War II) 1943 New York beats St.Louis 4-1 to win World Series 1943 Detroit beats Boston 2-0 to win Stanley Cup 1943 Georgia beats UCLA 9-0 to win Rose Bowl 1943 Count Fleet, with Johnny Longden, wins Belmont, Preakness and Kentucky Derby Mar 1944 Cleve Cartmill's "Deadline" in "Astounding" about an atomic bomb using Uranium-235, which got government security personnel to investigate and interview Cleve Cartmill, John W. Campbell, and even artist Paul Orban May 1944 Clifford D. Simak's "City" in "Astounding", the first of a series of stories later collected as a book with the same title June 1944 Frederik Brown's "Arena" in "Astounding" July 1944 Raymond F. Jones' serial "Renaissance" begins in "Astounding" Aug 1944 Isaac Asimov's "Foundation" series adds another story in "Astounding" Oct 1944 Isaac Asimov's "Foundation" series adds another story in "Astounding" Nov 1944 Theodore Sturgeon's "Killdozer" in "Astounding" {film hotlink to be done} 1944 Isaac Asimov's short story "Catch That Rabbit" 1944 Leigh Brackett's short story "The Veil of Asteller" 1944 Ray Bradbury's short story "Lazarus Come Forth" 1944 Frederic Brown's short story "Arena" 1944 John Russell Fearn's short story "Wanderers of Time" 1944 C. L. Moore's short story "No Woman Born" 1944 Lewis Padgett's short story "When the Bough Breaks" 1944 P. Schuyler Miller's short story "As Never Was" 1944 Lawrence O'Donnell's short story "The Children's Hour" 1944 Clifford Simak's short story "Desertion" 1944 Clifford Simak's short story "Huddling Place" 1944 A. E. Van Vogt's short story "Far Centaurus", the first to describe time travel by a black hole, quite interesting, as black holes had not yet been hypothesized by science... 1944 A. E. Van Vogt's short story "The Changeling" 1944 A. E. Van Vogt's short story "A Can of Paint" {the above 11 stories, and some others, may be found in "The Great SF Stories 5", edited by Isaac Asimov and Martin H. Greenberg} 1944 Frederic Brown's "And the Gods Laughed" in "Planet Stories", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then, and if there had been a Worldcon that year (there was not, because of World War II) 1944 St.Louis (American League) beats St.Louis (National League) 4-2 to win World Series 1944 USC beats Washington 29-0 to win Rose Bowl Feb 1945 Lewis Padgett's "The Piper's Son" in "Astounding" Mar 1945 Ray Palmer publishes Richard S. Shaver's "I Remember Lemuria", the first of the "Shaver Mystery Stories" in "Amazing" May 1945 Murray Leinster's classic story "First Contact" in "Astounding", creating the very name of this subgenre of first-time meetings between human and extraterrestrial {hotlink to my book to be done} Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then, and if there had been a Worldcon that year (there was not, because of World War II). Later (1996) wins "1946 Retrospective Hugo Award" for Best Novelette. Aug 1945 A. E. Van Vogt's classic novel "The World of Null-A" begins serialization in "Astounding" Nov-Dec 1945 Isaac Asimov's "Foundation" series adds another serial: Isaac Asimov's novel "The Mule" appears in "Astounding" (later incorporated into the Foundation trilogy) and much later (1996) wins "1946 Retrospective Hugo Award" for Best Novel Sep 1945 "Hal Clement's short story "Uncommon Sense" in "Astounding" much later (1996) wins "1946 Retrospective Hugo Award" for short story Winter 1945 "Thrilling Wonder Stories" editor Oscar J. Friend replaced by the highly professional Sam Merwin Winter 1945 Munsey Publications' "Famous Fantastic Mysteries" a second time slips from monthly to bimonthly 1945 Cosmic rays researched by Lajos Janossy (Hungary) 1945 Detroit Tigers beat Chicago 4-3 in World Series 1945 Ruppert and Barrow family heirs sell New York Yankees for $2,800,000+ to McPhail-Webb-Topping syndicate 1945 Branch Rickey/Walter O'Malley/John L. Smith buy control of Brooklyn Dodgers 1945 USC beats Tennessee 25-0 to win Rose Bowl 1946 "Thrilling Wonder Stories" bounces back to bimonthly from quarterly. 1946 Ted Carnell becomes editor of "New Worlds" in England Jan 1946 Lewis Padgett's serial "The Fairy Chessman" begins in "Astounding", post-nuclear-holocaust Apr 1946 Arthur C. Clarke's "Loophole" marks his debut in "Astounding" May 1946 Arthur C. Clarke's classic "Rescue Party" in "Astounding" Summer 1946 Ray Bradbury's "The Million Year Picnic" in Fiction House's "Planet Stories", under editor Malcolm Reiss; the start of his immortal "Martian Chronicles" serial/short-story-collection/novel Sep 1946 "Lawrence O'Donnell" [Henry Kuttner and C. L. Moore] "Vintage Season" in "Astounding" 1946: Pacificon I, the Fourth World Science Fiction Convention, in Los Angeles (Park View manor), Chaired by Walter J. Daugherty, A. E. Van Vogt and E. Mayne Hull as Guests of Honor, 130 members attending. 1946 Anthony Boucher's "The Chronokinesis of Jonathan Hull" in "Astounding SF", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then Dec 1946 first appearance in "Astounding" of Alejandro as cover artist 1946 St.Louis beats Brooklyn Dodgers in NL Playoff, then beats Boston Red Sox 4-3 to win World Series 1946 With death of Alexander Alekhine, world Chess champion becomes Mikhail Botvinnik of USSR (though 2 years transpire before he proves it in match) 1946 Joe Louis fights, wins, has successfully defended World Heavyweight Boxing title 23 times 1946 Assault, with W. Mehrtens, wins Belmont, Preakness, and Kentucky Derby 1946 Alabama beats USC 34-14 to win Rose Bowl 1947 The Hydra Club founded in New York by Frederik Pohl and Lester del Rey, with members including Phillip Klass, David Kyle, Robert A. Lowndes, and Judith Merrill -- a science fiction fan club for professional writers and editors 1947 "Fantasy Book" launched, with first issue including the debut story of Andre Norton (under pseudonym Andrew North). 1947 Big-name fan Donald A. Wollheim ("Stirring Science Stories", "Cosmic Stories") becomes an editor of Avon Books, and launches the reprint magazine "Avon Fantasy Reader) Jan 1947 Special "Shaver" issue in "Amazing" 1947: Philcon I, the Fifth World Science Fiction Convention, in Philadelphia (Penn-Sheraton Hotel), Chaired by Milton Rothman, Hohn W. Campbell, Jr., as Guest of Honor, 200 members attending. 1947 JArthur C. Clarke's "The Fires Within" in "Fantasy", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then Mar 1947 Hubert Rogers reappears as cover artist of "Astounding" Mar 1947 William Tenn's "Child's Play" in "Astounding" -- a "Bild-a-Man kit" arrives from the future... Mar 1947 Poul Anderson's "Tomorrow's Children" in "Astounding" (co-authored with F. N. Waldrop), post-nuclear-holocaust Apr 1947 H. Beam Piper's "Time and Time Again" is his debut in "Astounding" May 1947 "Lawrence O'Donnell" [Henry Kuttner and C. L. Moore (?)] serial "Fury" (sequel to "Clash by Night") in "Astounding" -- the Avon book publication is later under the title "Destination Infinity" May 1947 T. L. Sherred debuts in "Astounding" with "E for Effort" -- a classic story about making movies with a machine that can view the past July 1947 Poul Anderson's "Logic" (sequel to "Tomorrow's Children") in "Astounding" July 1947 Jack Williamson's classic "With Folded Hands" in "Astounding", about robots too good at protecting people Sep 1947 Edmond Hamilton's "The Star Kings" novel in "Amazing" Oct 1947 Chesley Bonestell's first appearance as cover artist of "Astounding", he was soon acknowledged the Dean of Astronomical artists Nov 1947 E. E. Smith's last Lens serials "The Children of the Lens" begins in "Astounding" 1947 Thor Heyerdahl sails raft from Peru to Polynesia, to test his hypothesis about prehistoric Pacific migration 1947 First British fission reactor, at Harwell 1947 New York Giants beat Brooklyn Dodgers 4-3 to win World Series 1947 Jackie Robinson is first African-American to sighn player contract with Major League Bseball franchise 1947 Illinois beats UCLA 45-14 to win Rose Bowl 1948 Ted E. Dikty founds Shasta as a specialty publishing house, printing Bester, de Camp, Heinlein, and other modern clasics (and they reject L. Ron Hubbard's first book on "Dianetics). Dikty subsequently marries Julian May. 1948 Science Fantasy Society formerly founded in England (a.k.a. British Fantasy Society) now has 150 members (has Eastercon 1944 con and Loncon 1949, among other conventions) Jan 1948 Isaac Asimov's "Foundation" series adds another serial, "Now You See It" starting this issue in "Astounding" Mar 1948 Munsey Publications' had sold ("Famous Fantastic Mysteries", "Fantastic Novels") to Popular Publications in 1942, and now under Popular Publications "Fantastic Novels" resumed publication, and both magazines appeared on newstands. Mar 1948 Isaac Asimov's "The Endochronic Properties of Resublimated Thiotimoline" parody of a scientific paper in "Astounding", about a chemical which dissolves just before you add water Mar 1948 Jack Williamson's "... And Searching Mind" (sequel to "With Folded Hands") in "Astounding" July 1948 H. Beam Piper's "Police Operation" in "Astounding", starting a series of stories about an infinity of alternate time-lines in "paratime" Sep 1948 Fredric Brown's "What Mad Universe?" in "Startling Stories", spoofing the cliches of pulp science fiction Nov 1948 Arthur C. Clarke's far-future masterpiece "Against the Fall of Night" in "Startling Stories" 1948: Torcon I, the Sixth World Science Fiction Convention, in Toronto, Canada (RAI Purdy Studios), Chaired by Ned McKeown, Robert Bloch as Pro Guest of Honor, Bob Tucker as Fan Guest of Honor, 200 members attending. 1948 Ray Bradbury's "Mars is Heaven" in "Planet Stories", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then 1948 Cleveland beat Boston 4-2 to win World Series 1948 Michigan beats USC 49-0 to win Rose Bowl Jan 1949 "Super Science Stories", formerly under editor Frederik Pohl who quit in May 1943 to serve in the U.S. Army, acquires new editor Ejler Jakobsson and is back in print May 1949 Hal Clement's serial "Needle" begins in "Astounding" July 1949 James H. Schmitz' "Agent of Vega" is his "Astounding" debut (he'd previously been in "Unknown"), the first of a related crop of stories Aug 1949 L. Sprague de Camp's serial "The Queen of Zamba" begins in "Astounding" Fall 1949 "The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction" launched Fall 1949 Raymond A. Palmer said he'd leave "Amazing" and start his own magazine. Oct 1949 Raymond A. Palmer, did quit as Editor of "Amazing", and launched his own magazine: "Other Worlds", digest-sized. Oct 1949 "Amazing" and its sister "Fantastic" have a new Editor, Howard Browne, formerly Assistant Editor 1949: Cinvention, the Seventh World Science Fiction Convention, in Cincinnati, Ohio (Hotel Metropole), Chaired by Don Ford, Lloyd A. Esbach as Pro Guest of Honor, Ted Carnell as Fan Guest of Honor, 190 members attending. 1949 Robert A. Heinlein's "Gulf" in "Astounding SF", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story, if the award had existed then Nov 1949 Isaac Asimov's "Foundation" series concludes (for the next few decades, anyway), with "And Now You Don't" in "Astounding" Dec 1949 James H. Schmitz' "The Witches of Karres" in "Astounding" 1949 New York Giants beat Brooklyn Dodgers 4-1 to win World Series 1949 Northwestern beats California 20-14 to win Rose Bowl 1949 Ezzard Charles beats Jersey Joe Walcott in Heavyweight Boxing 1950: a boom year in science fiction magazines, with 25 titles adding to 110 distinct issues on the news stands 1950 Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas' "The Magazine of Fantasy" renamed "The Magazine of Fantasy of Science Fiction", often known by the abbreviation "F&SF", one of the two major magazines of this decade (along with "Galaxy") Jan 1950 Edmond Hamilton's "City at World's End" in "Startling Stories" Mar 1950 L. Ron Hubbard's serial "To the Stars" begins in "Astounding" (later published by Ace Books as "Return to Tomorrow") Apr 1950 James Blish's "Okie" in "Astounding", part of the Cities In Flight series May 1950 L. Ron Hubbard's "Dianetics, the Evolution of a Science" in "Other Worlds" Summer 1950 Richard Matheson's "Born of Man and Woman" in "F&SF" July 1950 Cyril Kornbluth's "Little Black Bag" in "Astounding" 1950: NorWesCon, the Eighth World Science Fiction Convention, in Portland, Oregon (Multnomah Hotel), Chaired by Donald B. Day, Anthony Boucher as Guest of Honor, 400 members attending. 1950 James Blish's "Bindlestiff" in "Astounding SF", Richard Lupoff contends that this should have won the Hugo Award for best short story Aug 1950 H. Beam Piper's "Last Enemy" in "Astounding", a paratime story Sep 1950 H. R. Van Dongen's cover art debut on "Super Science Stories" Oct 1950 H. L. Gold launches "Galaxy Science Fiction" magazine, the other of the two major magazines of this decade (along with "F&SF") Oct 1950 Groff Conklin's book review column begins in "Galaxy Science Fiction" (and runs through Oct 1955) Oct 1950 Willy Ley's science column begins in "Galaxy Science Fiction" (and runs until he died in 1969) 1950 Glenn T. Seaborg discovers the elements Californium and Berkelium 1950 The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel opens in New York 1950 199,854 see World Cup soccer championship between Brazil and Uruguay, in Rio de Janeiro, a record attendance 1950 The New York Yankees sweep the Philadelphia Phillie 4-0 to win the World Series 1950 Ohio State beats California 17-14 to win the Rose Bowl 1950 the Australian team beats the USA in Tennis' Davis Cup Return to 1940's Timeline Table of Contents Hotlinks to Other Timeline Pages |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Literary Precursors |Cosmic History:13 Billion BC to 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: When the Goddess Ruled |5th Millennium BC: Mesopotamia, Egypt |4th Millennium BC: Iceman of the Alps, Old Kingdom Egypt |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: Homer, Buddha, Confucius, Euclid |1st Century: Jesus, Cymbeline, Caligula, Pliny |2nd Century: Hero, Ptolemy, Nichomachus |3rd Century: 3 Kingdoms China, Legendary Japan |4th Century: Constantine, Hypatia, Ausonius |5th Century: Rome in Crisis, Dark Ages start |6th Century: Boethius, Taliesin, Mohammed |7th Century: Bede, Brahmagupta, Isidorus |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Khayyam, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Crusades, Kublai Khan, Universities |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age [you are HERE] |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: This Decade |2010-2020: Next Decade |Cosmic Future: Billions, Trllions, Googols Return to 1940's Timeline Table of Contents

Where to Go for More

51 Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: ALDISS: "Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction", Brian W. Aldiss (New York: Doubleday, 1973; Schocken Paperback, 1974) ALLEN: "Science Fiction Reader's Guide", L. David Allen (Centennial Press, 1974) AMIS: "New Maps of Hell", Kingsley Amis (London: Gollancz, 1960; New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960) ASH1: "Who's Who in Science Fiction", by Brian Ash (Taplinger, 1976) ASH2: "The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction", edited by Brian Ash (Harmony Books, 1977) ASHLEY: "The History of the Science Fiction Magazine" [3 volumes] (London: New English Library, 1974) ASIMOV "Asimov on Science Fiction" (New York: Avon, 1981) ATHELING: "The Issue at Hand", "William Atheling, Jr." [James Blish] (Chicago: Advent, 1964) BARRON: "Anatomy of Wonder", edited by Neil Barron (Bowker, 1976) BAXTER: "Science Fiction in the Cinema", John Baxter (London: A. Zwemmer, 1970; New York: A. S. Barnes, 1970) BERGONZI: "The Early H.G. Wells", Bernard Bergonzi (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1961) BLEILER: "The Checklist of Fantastic Literature" Everett F. Bleiler (Chicago: Shasta, 1948) BRETNOR1: "Modern Science Fiction: Its Meaning and Future", edited by Reginald Bretnor (New York: Coward-McCann, 1953) BRETNOR2: "The Craft of Science Fiction", Reginald Bretnor (New York: Harper & Row, 1977) BRINEY: "SF Bibliographies", Robert E. Briney & Edward Wood (Chicago: Advent, 1972) CLARESON1: "SF: The Other Side of Realism", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Gregg Press, 1978) CLARESON2: "Extrapolation, 1959-1969", edited by Thomas D. Clareson (Bowling Green, Ohio: University Popular Press, 1971) CLARKE: "The Tale of the Future", I. F. Clarke (London: The Library Association, 1961, 1972) CONTENTO: "Index to the Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections", William Contento G.K. Hall, 1978) DAY: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazine: 1926-50", Donald B. Day (Portland, Oregon: Perri Press, 1952) DeCAMP: "Science Fiction Handbook", L. Sprague DeCamp (New York: Hermitage House, 1953) ELLIK: "The Universes of E. E. Smith", Ron Ellik & Bill Evans (Chicago: Advent, 1966) EVANS: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines", Bill Evans with Jack Speer (Denver: Robert Peterson, 1946?) FRANKLIN: "Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century", H. Bruce Franklin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966) FREWIN: "One Hundred Years of Science Fiction Illustration", Anthony Frewin (London: Jupiter Books, 1974) GOODSTONE: "The Pulps", Tony Goodstone (New York: Chelsea House, 1970) GUNN: "Alternate Worlds", James Gunn (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) HARRISON: "John W. Campbell: Collected Editorials from Analog", Harry Harrison (Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1966) HOLMBERG: "Science Fiction History", John-Henri Holmberg (Vanersborg, Sweden: Askild & Karnekull, 1974) KNIGHT: "In Search of Wonder", Damon Knight (Chicago: Advent, 1956; enlarged 1967) KYLE: "A Pictorial History of Science Fiction", David Kyle (London: Hamlyn House, 1976) LOCKE: "Worlds Apart", edited by George Locke (London: Cornmarket Reprints, 1972) LUNDWALL: "Science Fiction: What It's All About", Sam J. Lundwall (New York: Ace Books, 1971) METCALF: "The Index of Science Fiction Magazines, 1951-1965", Norm Metcalf (J. Ben Stark, 1968) MILLIES: "Science Fiction Primer for Teachers", Suzanne Millies (Dayton OH: Pflaum, 1975) MOSKOWITZ#1: "The Immortal Storm", Sam Moskowitz (AFSO Press, 1954; Hyperion Press, 19??) MOSKOWITZ#2: "Explorers of the Infinite: Shapers of Science Fiction", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) MOSKOWITZ#3: "Seekers of Tomorrow", Sam Moskowitz (Cleveland & New York: World, 1963) NESFA: "Index to the Science Fiction Magazines", New England Science Fiction Association (Cambridge MA: NESFA, 1971) PERRY: "The Penguin Book of Comics", George Perry & Alan Aldridge (London: Penguin, 1971) ROGERS: "A Requiem for Astounding", Alva Rogers (Chicago: Advent, 1964) ROTTSTEINER: "The Science Fiction Book", Franz Rottsteiner (London: Thames & Hudson, 1975) SADOUL: "Hier, L'An 2000 [Illustrations from the Golden Age of Science Fiction]", Jaxques Sadoul (Paris: Editions Denoel, 1973) STRAUSS: "The MIT Science Fiction Society's Index to the SF Magazines: 1951-64" Erwin S. Strauss (Cambridge MA: MIT Science Fiction Society, 1966) TUCK: "The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, 2nd Edition", Donald H. Tuck (Hobart, Tasmania: Donald H. Tuck, 1959) VERSINS: "Encyclopedie des l'utopie, des voyages extraordinaires et de la science fiction", (Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme, 1972) WAGGONER: "The Hills of Faraway", Diana Waggoner (Athenaeum, 1978) WARNER: "All Our Yesterdays", Harry Warner, Jr. (Chicago: Advent, 1969) WELLS: "Fictional Accounts of Trips to the Moon", Lester G. Wells (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Library, 1962) WILLIAMSON: "H.G. Wells: Critic of Progress", Jack Williamson (Baltimore: Mirage Press, 1973) WOLLHEIM: "The Universe Makers", Donald A. Wollheim (New York: Harper & Row, 1971) Return to 1940's Timeline Table of Contents
Return to Ultimate SF Table of Contents



Compiled by Magic Dragon Multimedia

Go to Ultimate Mystery/Detective Web Guide



Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.