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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 0 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 22 June 2003 [106 kilobytes (formerly 100)].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Facts are also drawn from the 1911 Encyclopedia Brittanica, and the Wikipedia. Executive Summary of the Second Century China in the Second Century Japan in the Second Century India in the Second Century Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the Century Fiction About the Second Century Non-Fiction About the Second Century Major Books and Events of the Decade 100-110 AD Major Books and Events of the Decade 110-120 AD Major Books and Events of the Decade 120-130 AD Major Books and Events of the Decade 130-140 AD Major Books and Events of the Decade 140-150 AD Major Books and Events of the Decade 150-160 AD Major Books and Events of the Decade 160-170 AD Major Books and Events of the Decade 170-180 AD Major Books and Events of the Decade 180-190 AD Major Books and Events of the Decade 190-200 AD Other Key Dates and Stories of this Second Century Major Writers Born this Second Century Major Writers Died this Second Century Second Century Science Background Second Century Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Historians, and Where to Go for More Information There was no great Mathematician of the Century, the way Fibonacci was to the 13th century. But Pappas, Diophantus, and Iamblichus come close.

Executive Summary of the Second Century

The 2nd Century was one in which Greek science and mathematics declined, with a few remaining men of genius, while Rome continued to rise. The Roman empire flourished under "the Five Good Emperors" from 96-180 A.D.: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. There were great engineer/scientists, such as Hero of Alexandria [inventor of pneumatic and optical devices, and the first steam engine] and, in China, Zhang Heng [the seismograph, the combined water clock and armillary], where paper was being used for the first time for writing. The greatest ancient physician besides Hippocrates, Galen, flourished, as did the great astronomer Ptolemy, whose view of the cosmos lasted one and a half millennia, until the era of Copernicus and Galileo. The greatest invention of the 2nd Century: writing paper, by Ts'ai Lun, also anglicized as Cai Lun, in 105 A.D. Also in China [100-109], the first use of insecticide. The early Christian Church continued its astonishingly fast growth in numbers and strength, while sowing the seeds of schisms not resolved until the 3rd century. The conflicts between Romans, who persecuted the Christians, and the Jewish and Christian religions, was to transform the Roman Empire, and, centuries later, split it into Eastern and Western empires. The level of education in Europe continued to rise, with both Greek and Latin literacy being spread in schools. Nobody alive could tell that one day Rome would fall, and a Dark Ages would smother the continent in ignorance.
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China in the Second Century

Writing paper, in the modern sense, is perfected by the eunuch Ts'ai Lun, also anglicized as Cai Lun, in 105 A.D. Also in China [100-109], the first use of insecticide. In 101 A.D., the Tibetan Chinese brought Buddhism to Indonesia. In 2nd century China, scholars such as An Shih-kao began translating Buddhist texts from India, motsly using current Chinese terminology from Taoism. As a result, most Chinese initially considered Buddhism yet another version of Taosim. From 2nd century China, Buddhism was first introduced to Vietnam, to be followed by later (3rd century) missions, both from Mahayana and non-Mahayana schools of Buddhism.

Japan in the Second Century

The "Legendary" era of Emperors, Shoguns, and Regents of Japan lasted from 660 BC to 539 AD. Kaika reigned early in the 3rd Century, followed by Sujin [219-249], Suinin [249-280], and Keiko [280-316]. Japan: Legendary Era

India in the Second Century

Mahayana Buddhism appeared in 2nd century India as a separate school of Buddhism. The 4th Buddhist Council met in Jalandhar, under the royal patronage of Kaniska. In roughly 200 A.D., the great Buddhist monastic university of Nalanda flourishes; is continued to be a world center for Buddhist study for over 1,000 years. In late 2nd century and early 3rd Century India, Master Nagarjuna taught profundities about emptiness. "When a unified state has occurred in Indian history, it has had varying religious, political, and even linguistic bases: e.g. Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, and foreign. The rule of the Sultans of Delhi and the Moghul Emperors was at once Islamic and foreign, since most of them were Turkish or Afghani, and the Moghul dynasty was founded directly by incursion from Afghanistan. The surpremely foreign unification of India, of course, was from the British, under whom India achieved its greatest unity, although lost upon independence to the religious division between India and Pakistan. The Moghuls and British, of course, called India by its name in their own languages (i.e. "Hindustan" and "India")." "In addition to these complications, Indian history is also less well known and dated than that of China or Japan. Classical Indian literature displays little interest in history proper, which must be reconstructed from monumental inscriptions and foreign references. The dating of both the Mauryas [322-184 BC] and the Guptas [320-550] displays small uncertainties [see: Stanley Wolpert's 'A New History of India', Oxford University Press, 1989]. The 'Saka Era,' as the Indian historical era, significantly starts rather late [79 AD] in relation to the antiquity of Indian civilization. Indeed, like Greece [c.1200-800 BC] and Britain [c.400-800 AD], India experienced a 'Dark Ages' period [c.1500-800 BC], in which literacy was lost and the civilization vanished from history altogether. Such twilight periods may enhance the vividness of quasi-historical mythology like the Iliad, the Arthurian legends, and the Mahabharata." India: Historical Era Copyright (c) 2000 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved

Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the 2nd Century

Major Scientist/Engineer/Mathematicians of the 2nd century included:
  1. Claudius Ptolameus (Ptolemy)
  2. ; see:c.100 (birth); c.140-149 (Almagest); c.150-169 (Geographia); c.170-179 (death)
  3. Bhaskara
  4. ; see: c.100-109
  5. Nichomachus of Gerasa
  6. ; see: c.100-109
  7. Menelaus of Alexandria
  8. ; see: c.100-109
  9. Heron or Hero of Alexandria
  10. ; see: c.100-109
  11. Serenus of Antinoopolis
  12. ; see: c.100-109
  13. Sextus Julius Frontinus
  14. ; see: c.100-109
  15. Ch'ang ch'un-ch'ing
  16. ; see: c.100
  17. Theodosius
  18. ; see: c.100
  19. Balbus
  20. ; see: c.100
  21. Ts'ai Lun
  22. ; see: 105
  23. Pliny the Younger
  24. ; Roman Scientist/Lawyer; see 100, 103, 113
  25. Zhang Heng
  26. ; see: 110-119, 125, 132
  27. Theon of Smyrna
  28. ; see: 117
  29. Hyginus Gromaticus
  30. ; see: 120
  31. Plutarch
  32. ; great Greek Historian; see 120
  33. Galen of Pergamum
  34. ; see: c.130 (birth); 170-179 (pulse); 180-189 (medical text); 190-209 (death)
  35. Marinus of Tyre
  36. ; see: 150
  37. Nipsus
  38. ; see: 180
  39. Ts'ai Yung
  40. ; see: 190
  41. Liu Hui
  42. ; see: 190-209
  43. Epaphroditus
  44. ; see: c.200
  45. Domitus Ulpianus
  46. ; see: c.200
  47. Quintus Sammonicus Serenus
  48. ; see: c.200
  49. Master Nagarjuna
  50. , Buddhist of India, taught profundities about emptiness.
2nd Century Popes *****

Fiction About the Second Century

As usual, all book reviews on this page are by Your Humble Webmaster, and included in my copyright notice. Novels listed below, in alphabetical order by author, include those by these 4 authors: * Gillian Bradshaw * Peter Rogers * David M. Ross * Marguerite Yourcenar Gillian Bradshaw, "Island of Ghosts", [St.Martin's Press, year?], ISBN 0-312-86439-6, While Marcus Aurelius held the Roman throne in Britain, Ariantes, a barbarian prince, finds romance with Lady Pervica, while becoming more and more deeply enmeshed in Roman politics. Peter Rogers, "The Scribes", Juliana and Justin are Christian scribes in Rome. While they try to reconcile their very different analyses of the Gospel of Mark, they fall in love. Theology, Romance, Action, Adventure... what fun! David M. Ross, "In the Army of Marcus Batallius", [Writers Club Press, Oct 2002] ISBN 0-595-249116, The northern frontier of Rome is under attack from German barbarians, Horsemen from beyond the Danube. By 175 AD, under that pressure, Emperor Marcus Aurelius unites Romans and Sarmatians against the natives of Britain, on the deadly side of Hadrian's Wall. Emperor Marcus Aurelius deploys the famous commander Batallius and his troops to build forts and garrisons along the East bank of the Rhine. Conflict mounts... Sarmatians are an equestrian people, on horseback in in horse-drawn wagons from infancy. They seem like barbarians to the Romans, with a nomadic fighter's code of honor, ceremonially drinking from the skulls on conquered yet valorous fighters. Romans and Sarmatians are uneasy allies. They have less in common than do the Britans and Sarmatians, both under the Roman lash. For that matter, Romans and Sarmatians have less in common than Romans and Britains, who are both pedestrians (not horsemen) and who both live in houses, not on the move. In this vivid, fast-paced, and cleverly plotted Adventure/Romance, we see these tumultuous times through the viewpoint of Lord Ariantes, Sarmatian prince, who lost wife, and children born and unborn to the Romans. In parallel, Ariantes' nemesis, the senior Roman centurion Facilis lost his soldier son to a Sarmatian raid on the Romans. Can either Ariantes or Facilis adapt to changing cultures, and find happiness? Marguerite Yourcenar [1903-1987], "Memoirs of Hadrian" [originally in French as "Memoires d'Hadrien", 1951; numerous English translation editions] The Roman Emperor Hadrian shows his skills musician, poet, and administrative leader. He writes a series of sad, measured, and reflective letters as the embers of his reign and life grow dimmer... Marguerite Yourcenar's fictional works set in the past, which also include: * "Le coup de grace" * "L'Oevre au noir" * "Anna" * "Soror" as well as her contemporary novels, plays, essays, and translations made her an officially "immortal" writer in France, where she became, in 1980, the first woman elected to the Academie francaise.

Non-Fiction About the Second Century

Major Books and Events of the Decade 100-110 AD

60-130 Papias Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 69-155 Polycarp; The Martyrdom of Polycarp; Polycarp's letter to the Philippians Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline Quadratus Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline Aristides Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline Athenagoras Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 97-105 Evaristus Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 98-117 Roman Emperor Trajan Roman Emperors c.100 Gnosticism Prevelant Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 100 "Pict and Celt ships are visiting Iceland and knew of three other lands beyond Iceland to the west, so reported the Greek named Demetrius, who is a Roman Government employee in Tin Island (Britain). He described a large land that the natives called Cronus. The land of Cronian legend is where Titan and Cronus are imprisoned." European History: 100-149 AD c.100 Birth of Claudius Ptolameus (Ptolemy), later to write the most important book on Astronomy through the Middle Ages, the Megala Syntaxis tes Astronomias, known in Arabic translation as the Almagest. [Hellemans, p.50] see: c.140-149 (date of that book); c.150-169 (Geographia); c.170-179 (death) 100-109 Alexander, a Greek merchant, travels by sea to the south of China. [Hellemans, p.48] 100 "Evaristus, [(about 91, 100-109], likely a Jewish-Greek but some suggest he is a Jew from Bethlehem (Ephrath), is listed as the 2nd or 4th Papa of Paulist Rome depending on which tradition one follows. His tenure is claimed as from eight or nine to thirteen or fourteen years. One tradition suggests he divided the Roman parishes among his followers. Some suggest he follows Anacletus (79-91) as Papa of Paulist Rome and Clement I (91-101) precedes Anacletus." European History: 100-149 AD 100-109 Bhaskara, in India, measures the diameter of the Sun. [Hellemans, p.48] 100 "The Paulist and Christian Churches are in theological disarray. Marcion, a shipbuilder and merchant suggested that the Paulist and Christian Churches should have their own Bible separate from the Jewish scripture. He suggested the writings of Luke and Paul should be selected so as not to confuse the people. Other leaders suggested other, geographically popular, writings should be included as a unifying agent. This strategy to incorporate and absorb other religious traditions would prove highly successful among Greek and Roman cultures. The down side is the Church is forced to compromise many early Christian principles of equality, sharing and tolerance. About this time the biblical book called the Apocrypha is dropped from the evolving bible. Biblical texts are compiled from numerous different texts of the same book. These early authors tried to reconcile these differences based on current accepted theology." European History: 100-149 AD 100-109 In China, the first insecticide is invented and used: powdered dry chrysanthemum flowers, whose active ingredient (Pyrethrum) is widely used to this day, especially on vegegetables, because it is harmless to mammals, and is biodegradable. [Hellemans, p.48] 100 "The Marcion doctrine (100-165) establishes a new Christian sect that rejected a Jewish God that is harsh and cruel who exterminated whole populations in his passion for justice. The Marcion sect attracted a huge following who rejected a Jewish God who they say is lustful for war. The Jesus God is placid, mild and simply good and excellent much like the God of Abraham EL (Elohime)." European History: 100-149 AD 100-109 The book Spherics, by Menelaus of Alexandria, is the first definitive book on spherical trigonometry. [Hellemans, p.49] Menelaus also wrote about the Anharmonic Ratio [D.E. Smith, p.553] "Of those who, in the period of decay of Greek mathematics, showed any evidence of genius, Menelaus was one of the most prominent. He was a native of Alexandria and wrote a treatise on the sphere (the Latin title by which it is known is Sphaericorum Libri III, there are also editions by Maurolycus [1558], Mersenne [1644] and later writers). particularly with respect to the geometric properties of spherical triangles. He was known to have made astronomical observations in Rome in the year 98. Besides his treatise on the sphere he also wrote six books on the calculations of chords. One of his most important theorems states that if the three lines forming a triangle are cut by a transversal, the product of the lengths of three segments which have no common extremity is equal to the product of the other three. This appears as a lemma to a similar proposition relating to spherical triangles, "the chords of three segments doubled" replacing "three segments." The proposition was known in the Middle Ages as the regula sex quantitatum because of the six segments involved. He also knew the invariant property of the Anharmonic Ratio of the line segments formed by a transversal cutting four concurrent lines,-- a property the discovery of which was formerly attributed to Pappus, who flourished about two centuries later." [D.E. Smith, pp.126-127] 100 "The social order of early Judeo-Christians became tied to a strict interpretation of Biblical Order. Property is held in common. Women are treated as equals including leading the community in prayer. This idealistic interpretation of Jesus' teachings is short lived in Europe. About this time a great schism developed among the Roman and Jewish Christian traditionalists. Their arguments cited Paul's writings and Jewish tradition that eventually led the Roman Church to create a male dominated social order. Paul, a self-proclaimed apostle, had preached that man did not come from woman since he is the image of God and women did not come from God but from man and is therefore subject to man. Women should be kept silent. This major theological error of Paul's would plague the Roman Paulist Church. Paul failed to remember that Christ himself chose to come from woman and not man. Women are displaced from teaching roles and the holding of property in common is abandoned. This alignment with Jewish tradition failed to attract Jewish converts. Some believe the Gospel according to John is written after 100 AD. Other evidence suggests it is written before 70 A.D., by the Messianic Essene, likely making it the first Gospel to be recorded." European History: 100-149 AD 100-109 The book Introductio, by Nichomachus of Gerasa, is the first definitive Western book on number theory. It lists the only four Perfect Numbers (those equal to the sum of their factors) known at that time: 6 = 1 + 2 + 3 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 496 8128 [Hellemans, p.49] "The best known of the Greek writers on arithmetic, although not the greatest arithmetician, was Nichomachus of Gerasa, his birthplace probably being the modern Jerash, a town situated about 56 miles northeast of Jerusalem. Since he mentions Thrasyllus, who lived under Tiberius [reigned 14-37], but says nothing of the work of Theon of Smyrna, who lived under Hadrian [reigned 117-138], and since his work was translated from Greek into Latin by Appuleius, who lived at the same time as Antoninus Pius [reigned 138-161], we are safe in asserting that he lived about the close of the First Century." "Nichomachus wrote a treatise on music and a work in two books on arithmetic [this was first printed in 1538, at Paris. The best edition is that of Hoche, Leipzig, 1866]. The arithmetic as it comes down to us may only be a compendium of a larger work which has long since been lost. Some such work seems to have been known to Boethius [c.510] and to have been used by him in compiling his own treatise on the subject. Nichomachus belonged to the Neopythagoreans... Nichomachus mentions the Sieve of Eratosthenes... and gives an extended treatment of figurate numbers, and in his work appears an early form of the Greek multiplication table [no earlier Greek example is known].... Another work of Nichomachus, the Theologumena, has been lost, the extant work of the same name being a later compilation." [D.E. Smith, pp.127-129] c.100 Ch'ang ch'un-ch'ing wrote a Commentary on the Chou'pei. [D.E. Smith, p.553] c.100 Theodosius wrote on Geometry and Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.553] "There lived about this time, and certainly in the reign of Trajan, the mathematician and astronomer Theodosius. He seems, on the testimony of Suidas, to have been a native of Tripoli, on the Phoenician coast. He wrote several works, the most important being his work on the Sphere [fist printed, in Latin, at Paris, in 1529]. While this work possessed but little merit, it was translated into Arabic along with most of the other Greek works on astronomy, and its brevity gave it considerable standing in Arabic schools. He is often confused with a Theodosius of Bithynia, who lived c.50 BC and wrote on the sundial." [D.E. Smith, p.125] c.100 Balbus wrote on Surveying. [D.E. Smith, p.553] "The Roman surveyor Balbus [c.100] was very likely contemporaneous with Hyginus Gromaticus [see 120], but his contributions were unimportant." [D.E. Smith, p.125] 100 "The Christian Coptic Church of Egypt and Ethiopia refused to accept the dual nature of Jesus as man and God. Some believe that the Acts of the Apostles is written about this time." European History: 100-149 AD 100-109 Hero of Alexandria writes about his experiments with air, describing the expansion of air when heated; he also writes texts on light and mirrors, and on simple machines. [Hellemans, p.49] "Heron, or Hero of Alexandria, represented the applications of mathematics more completely than any other writer of about the beginning of our era. He seems to have been an Egyptian, his style not being that of a Greek. He invented the pneumatic device commonly known as Heron's Fountain, a simple form of the steam engine, and various other machines, showing much ingenuity in all his numerous activities. He wrote on pneumatics, dioptrics, and mechanics, but from the standpoint of mathematics his work on mensuration is probably the most interesting. In this he treats of land surveying, probably summarizing the methods in use by the Egyptians. As is the case with many of the Greek scholars, some of his works are lost. His formula for the area of a triangle: A = Square-root [s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)] is well known. It appears in the Geodesy, which is contained in his Metrics, but the proof is given (possibly an interpolation) in his Dioptrics. In his Geometry may be found the first definition of the trigonometric rule which we express by the formula: c = (n/4) cot(180 degrees/n) where n is the number of sides of a regular polygon of area A and side s, and where c = A/(s squared). He computed c for n = 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 but his method is unknown. He was able to solve the equation which we write in the form a(x squared) + bx = c so that the general quadratic as we know it was thus fully mastered by the Greek mathematicians." [D.E. Smith, pp.125-126] 100 "The camel imported from Asia is first being used in the Sahara desert." European History: 100-149 AD 100-109 Serenus of Antinoopolis "was the author of a treatise on the Section of the Cylinder, containing 33 propositions, and one on the Section of the Cone, with 69 propositions. The latter also has considerable work on maxima and minima. He also employed the principle of a harmonic pencil of rays." [D.E. Smith, p.126] 100-109 In China, invention of the multitube seed drill. [Hellemans, p.49] 100-109 Death of Roman administrator Sextus Julius Frontinus; also known as Frontinus, he published in 97 AD a 2-volume work on the aqueducts of Rome, and also covers many technologies of construction that were developed in ancient times. [Hellemans, p.49] Frontinus was, "next to Vitruvius [f.20-14 BC], the most prominent of the Roman writers who made any practical use of mathematics. Sextus Julius Frontinus [c.40-106], general, superintendent of water supply, and author of a work on war [Strategematicon Libri IV; there is an edition by Gundermann, Leipzig, 1888], and one on aqueducts [De Aquaeductibus urbis Romae Libri II, first printed in Rome c.1490; there is an edition in English by Herschel, London, 2d edn, 1913]. Some appreciation of the engineering works of this period may be formed from a consideration of the aqueduct of Claudius which was constructed in the 1st Century A.D. There are also preserved certain other books, generally believed to be written by Frontinus, setting forth the principles of land surveying as commonly practiced by the Romans [Codex Arcerianus, see K. Lachmann and A. Rudorff, Gromatici Veteres, being Vol.I of F. Blume, K. Lachmann and A. Rudorff, Die Schriften der Romischen Feldmesser, 2 vols, Berlin, 1848]. [D.E. Smith, pp.123-124] 100 Pliny the Younger promoted to Consul. ca.100 Birth of Roman advocate, rhetorician, grammarian Marcus Cornelius Fronto. 100 Death of Jewish Historian Josephus. 100 Death of Agrippa II, of Judea. 101 Trajan begins expedition against Dacia (Romania). 101 Birth of Kinama, descended from Ishmael. 101 Death of Gan Ying, envoy of the Han Dynasty in China, who gathered data about the Roman Empire, which China called "Ta Ts'in" -- yet never reached it in person. 101 Death in Ephesus of Saint John the Apostle. 101 Death of Silius Italicus, the author of "Punicus", the epic of Hannibal in the Second Punic War. 101 Epictetus wrote and published "The Discourses" 102 Trajan returns to Rome, after victory against Dacia (Romania). Sometime between this date and 107, Trajan divides Pannonia into two parts. 102 This is the traditionally given date for the death of Pope Clement I, also known as Saint Clement, Bishop of Rome, who wrote the "Epistle to the Corinthians." More accurately, we only know that he died sometime in the final decade of the 1st century. 103-104 Pliny the Younger joins the College of Augers. 104-117 Persecution [of Christians] under Trajan Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 105 "Ts'ai Lun of China created paper from hemp, tree bark, rags and fishnets that quickly replaced silk and bamboo strips. Papermaking didn't reach Europe until the 12th century." European History: 100-149 AD 105 The traditional claim in China is that the eunuch Tsai Lun [born c.50 in Kueiyang, Kweichow; died c.110-119] invents paper; archeological evidence, however, suggests that paper was invented at least 250 years earlier [c.150 BC] but was originally not used for writing, but rather for purposes such as packing. [Hellemans, p.49] 105 Pope Alexander I succeeds Pope Evaristus. 105 Trajan begins 2nd expedition against Dacia (Romania). 105 Death of Han Hedi of the Eastern Han Dynasty of China. Final (17th) year of the Yonyuan era, and beginning of the Yuanxing era of the Eastern Han Dynasty of China. Han Shangdi takes power, marking the first (only) year of the Yanping era. 105 In Constantinope, Patriarch Plutarch succeeded by Patriarch Sedecion. 105-115 Alexander I Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 106 "An Essene of the Judo-Christian Sect named Simon is recorded to have interpreted the dream of Archelaus. This is important as some suggest the sect had been abandoned after the fall of Jerusalem." European History: 100-149 AD 106 Death, in August or September, of Han Shangdi of the Eastern Han Dynasty of China. Han Andi takes power. 106 Trajan victorious over King Decebalus of Dacia (Romania). Dacia becomes a province of the Roman Empire. 106 Most likely date of publication by Aelis of "Taktike Theoria" 107 "The Hsiungnu Tartars recaptured Hami on the northern Turkestan trade route to the West. They would hold this important post until 131 AD." European History: 100-149 AD 107 Death of Bishop/Theologian Ignatius of Antioch. 109 "Alexander I [?109-116?], likely a Paulist is the son of a Roman also named Alexander, is appointed (5th or 6th) Papa of Paulist Rome with estimates of 7 to 10 years reign. Others suggest this claim is obscure. It is claimed he introduced the Last Supper tradition into the mass. The Messianic Essenes are the first to practice this tradition. It is noteworthy that Jesus is an Essene being baptized by John the Baptist who is also an Essene." European History: 100-149 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 110-120 AD

110-172 Tatian Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 110 "A Roman edict to force solidarity in religion required all people to worship the state deities and then they are free to worship other Gods. Those who do not conform are to be executed under Roman Law. Many Jews and Christians refused to render unto Caesar and are persecuted under the law. At this time it is written that Nero, in order to stifle the rumor (the he had set Rome on fire) ascribed it to those people who were hated for their wicked practices, and called by the vulgar, Christians; these he punished exquisitely." European History: 100-149 AD 110 The oldest known use of paper for writing. [Hellemans, p.51] 110-119 Invention by Zhang Heng of a grid for locating points on a map. [Hellemans, p.51] see: 125, 132 110 Death of John the Evangelist 110 Publication by Suetonius of "De viris illustribus" [Of Illustrious Men] 111 "The first pagan mention of Christians was Pliny, then Tacitus in 115 AD, and then Suetonius in 122 AD. They all agreed that Christianity at this time is a new, mischievous, depraved and excessive superstition. These Christians are in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it is light, when they sang in alternate verses a hymn to Christ, as to a God, and bound themselves to a solemn oath, not to any wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud, theft or adultery, never to falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to partake of food - but food of an ordinary and innocent kind. Pliny tortured and martyred two Christian female slave deaconesses to extract the real truth about the religion but could discover nothing more than depraved and excessive superstition." European History: 100-149 AD 112 "Trajan's epistle to Pliny makes it clear that Christians may be allowed pardon, upon their repentance. Trajan established three principles: Do not go searching for Christians; Do not punish them if them repent; Do not accept anonymous accusations." European History: 100-149 AD ca.113 Death of Roman Scientist/Lawyer Pliny the Younger. 113 Trajan begins expedition against Parthia; annexes Armenia. 114 First year of Yuanchu era of Eastern Han Dynasty of China. 114 Erection of trumphal arch in Benevento. 114 In Constantinope, Patriarch Sedecion succeeded by Patriarch Diogenes. 115 "Caesar [98-117] annexed Armenia as a Province in 114, invaded the Parthia Empire in 115 conquering Adiabene and Mesopotamia to Charax and Assyria in 116 to the Tigris." European History: 100-149 AD 115-125 Sixtus I -- also called Xystus I -- succeeds Pope Alexander I Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 116 Trajan (full name Marcus Ulpius Trajanus) conquers the rival empire of Parthia (center in northeastern Iran), thereby extending the Roman Empire. [Hellemans, p.50] Specifically, by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, and Susa, the Roman Empire reaches its maximum expansion to the East. 116 "Sixtus (Xystus) I [?116-125], a Roman likely of Greek extraction, is listed the Papa of Paulist Rome. The actual dates of his reign are unknown. He is believed to be the son of a Paulist priest. The Jews again revolted as did the peoples of the newly acquired territories. Both are suppressed with great severity." European History: 100-149 AD 9 Aug 117 Death by illness of Emperor Trajan 117-138 Roman Emperor Hadrian succeeds Trajan. Roman Emperors 117 "The Roman Emperor Hadrian [117-138] had a moderate tolerance to the Christian sects in the Empire. Hadrian immediately pulled the Roman legions back to the Euphrates." European History: 100-149 AD 117 Emperor Hadrian makes a peace settlement with Parthia, which includes his returning a major portion of Mesopotamia. 117 "Theon of Smyrna, so called to distinguish him from Theon of Alexandria [who is mentioned c.390 in the web page on the 4th Century] lived in the time of Hadrian. He was interested in arithmetic and astronomy, and was the author of a work which is commonly known in the Latin translation as the Expositio. Of this work, which set forth the mathematics necessary for the reading of Plato, two books are extant, one on arithmetic and one on astronomy, and very likely these were all that he wrote. The former resembles the work of Nichomachus but is less systematic." [D.E. Smith, p.129] 117 Ignatius Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline c.117 Hermas Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 117 Beginning, in Rome, of construction of the Pantheon. 117-138 Persecution [of Christians] under Hadrian Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline

Major Books and Events of the Decade 120-130 AD

120 Birth of Christian Bishop/Apologist Iranaeus. 120 Death of Plutarch, great Greek Historian. 120-129 The Expositio by Theon of Smyrna expands on Plato's theory of Music. [Hellemans, p.51] c.125 Theon wrote a History of Pythagorus [D.E. Smith, p.553] c.120 Hyginus wrote on Surveying. [D.E. Smith, p.553] "Among those who made use of mathematics in the work of surveying, Hyginus [c.120], known as Gromaticus (the surveyor), is one of the most prominent. The gromatici were those who used the groma [or gruma], an instrument employed in measuring and laying out the land, and Hyginus was well known as a writer on the subject, although the fragments of his work extant show no mathematical contributions to the science. There was an earlier Hyginus [Gaius Julius Hyginus, a friend of Ovid, and therefore living in the 1st Century B.C.], who wrote a work of no merit on astronomy, and who is sometimes confused with his more prominent namesake, the surveyor." [D.E. Smith, pp.124-125] 120 "Kanishka [120-160], a convert to Buddhism, is considered the greatest of the Kushan Empire." European History: 100-149 AD 121 Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty changes designation from Yongning Era (second year) to Jianguang Era. 121 First written records of Roman settlement in what today is Wiesbaden, Germany. 26 Apr 121 Birth of Marcus Annius Verus, better known later as Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius 121 "Emperor Hadrian [117-138] visited England and ordered the construction of the Hadrian wall in Scotland. Hadrian believed the Roman Empire needed to establish defendable boundaries." European History: 100-149 AD 122 "The Romans built the wall of Hadrian [117-138] isolating the barbarian Pict and Celt of Scotland. The Romans had four legions in England and that should have been enough to control the Pict and Celt barbarians in the North. Hadrian likely ordered the building of the wall for personal ego reasons." European History: 100-149 AD [Hellemans, p.50] 123 Hadrian's villa constructed at Tivoli. 123 Zhang Heng, in China, corrected the calendar, reconciling it with the seasons. c.125 Ch'ang Hong wrote on Astronomy, geometry, and the approximation Pi = square-root-of 10. [D.E. Smith, p.553] Is this "Ch'ang Hong" the same as the "Zhang Heng" above and below? 125 A third ring is added to the armillary by Zhang Heng, perfecting this invention in its full form. [Hellemans, p.50] see: 110-119, 125, 132 125 Deaths of Han Andi and Han Shaodi of the Chinese Han Dynasty. Han Andi is succeeded as Emperor by Han Shaodi, himself succeeded by Han Shundi. 125 Juvenal writes the expression "panem et circenses" [bread and circuses] 125 Hadrian has the Pantheon constructed as it stands today in Rome. 125 "Plague swept through much of North Africa, killing eight hundred thousand in Numidia and some two hundred thousand in the region around Carthage." European History: 100-149 AD 125-136 Pope Telesphorus succeeds Pope Sixtus I Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 125 "St. Telesphorus [?125-136], a Greek hermit, is listed as a Papa of Paulist Rome who is the only 2nd century Papa of Paulist Rome whose martyrdom is reliably attested. His dates of reign are unknown. It is claimed he introduced the seven-day fast before Easter. The Roman Paulist Church at this time however did not observe Easter (the resurrection) so this claim is unlikely true." European History: 100-149 AD 126 Start of Yongjian era of Han Dynasty in China. 126 Birth of Pertinax, later Emperor of Roman Empire 127 {to be done} 128 "The Roman Emperor Hadrian [117-138] wrote not to seek out Christians but, once denounced and found guilty, they must be punished." European History: 100-149 AD 129 Succession of Patriarch of Constantinople; Patriarch Diogenes succeded by Patriarch Eleutherius.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 130-140 AD

130-200 Irenaeus (130-200) Against Heresies, 180 Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline c.130 Hegesippus Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline c.130 birth of Galen of Pergamum (Turkey), Greek/Roman physician/anatomist. [Hellemans, p.50] see: 170-179 (pulse); 180-189 (medical text); 190-209 (death) 130 Birth of Lucius Verus, future Emperor of Roman Empire. 130 Claudius Ptolemaeus, for several transparent materials, measured and wrote down the Angles of Refraction; a big year for Optics. 130 "Christian Irenaeus of Lyons [130-200] attacked the heretical transcendentalism of the Christian Gnostic Sect. The Gnostic Sect believed women are equal and can be ordained into the priesthood. They also renounced worldly wealthy. Gnosticism is derived from the Egyptian Gnosis philosophy that concerns itself with the Knowledge of God. The Gnostic Sect read the Egyptian Books of Hermes, both technical and philosophical and likely included them among their sacred books. Irenaeus of Lyons (about 130-200) is Papa of the Greek Orthodox Christian Church. The lost Christian Gospel written in Coptic, an ancient Egyptian language that uses the Greek alphabet, is claimed by American scholars to be written in the first or second century A.D. These Gospels have clear differences from the Roman versions of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John but have similarities to the Lost Gospel of Thomas. The researchers believe this discovery reinforces evidence of early rivalry of the Gnostic Christians and the Orthodox Christian Churches. Much of the Gospels are taken up with questions to Jesus by the Disciples, likely after his death and resurrection and his answers." European History: 100-149 AD 130 "Basilides, a Christian Gnostic philosopher, likely from Syria, taught at Alexandria. He claimed to stand in the tradition of Peter the Apostle. He wrote a Gospel, a lengthy commentary on it, and a collection of Psalms; all these writings are destroyed or lost." European History: 100-149 AD 130 "Carpocrates, a Gnostic, also taught in Alexandria and his writings also did not survive. He likely espoused the full equality of women." European History: 100-149 AD 130 suicide of Antinous, favourite of Emperor Hadrian. 130 Death of Aulus Gellius, Latin Grammarian/Author. 131 Hadrian has the city Aelia Capitolina built at Jerusalem 132 A water clock is added to the armillary by Zhang Heng, creating an invention which keeps track of where stars are supposed to be in the sky at a given time, similar to a 20th century planetarium. [Hellemans, p.50] see: 110-119, 125, 132 132 The world's first seismograph is invented by Zhang Heng, creating an invention which shows the plane of vibration of an earthquake by dropping a ball, from the mouth of a bronze dragon, into the mouth of a bronze frog. [Hellemans, p.51] see: 110-119, 125, 132 132 "The Judeo Messianic prophesies are again circulating to differentiate the Judeo Sect from the Roman-Paulist Sect and the other Judeo-Messianic Sects. The Judeo Sect of Roman Jerusalem revolted under the leadership of the priest Eleazar and the fanatic Simon Bar-Cocheba. Roman Trajan Emperor Hadrian [117-138], a Spaniard, sent his armies against the Judeo Sect to put down another rebellion." European History: 100-149 AD 132 "The Jews of Judea again revolted being led by the priest Eleazar and the fanatic Simon Bar-Cocheba. This second Jewish War (132-135) ended with the entire Jewish culture being expelled from anywhere in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem." European History: 100-149 AD 132 Completion of the Olympeion in Athens. 132 Yongjian (seventh year) name of Chinese Han Dynasty changed to to Yangjia. 133 Emperor orders governor of Britain, Julius Severus, to Palestine to crush revolt 135 "The Romans suppressed the revolt and depopulated Judea and from this time forward the Judea Sect is only allowed to enter Jerusalem but once a year. This final action completed the denationalization of the Jews." European History: 100-149 AD 135 "The Christians in Transjordania and Syria over the next twenty years become the Church of Ebionites (followers of James the Just) and do not accept the divinity of the Messiah and reject the Roman Pauline Letters. The Ebionites are Christianized Jews." European History: 100-149 AD ca.135 Epictetus writes the "Enchiridion" 135 Fourth and final year in Chinese Han Dynasty of Yangjia era. 136-140 Pope Hyginus succeeds Pope Telesphorus Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 136 Patriarch Eleutherius of Constantinople succeeded by Patriarch Felix 137 Death of former Pope Telesphorus 137 "The Egyptian book of Hermes, the God who presides over learning, has for long been rightly regarded as common to all priests. Hermes is the true knowledge about the Gods (spirits). Hermes is considered a composite of all ancient writings of antiquity. Some (Seleucus) says the books number 20,000, others (Manetho) says they number 36,525 books. The books are written in Egyptian with some being translated into Greek." European History: 100-149 AD 138 "The Romans build the wall of Caesar Antoninus Pious [138-161] from the Firth of Forth to the mouth of the Clyde to contain the Highlanders (the Picts)." European History: 100-149 AD 138-161 Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius succeeds Hadrian Roman Emperors 138 Death of former Emperor Hadrian 138 "Hyginus [?138-142], a Greek philosopher from Athens, is listed as a Papa of Rome. It is claimed he organized the clergy on a hierarchical basis. During his reign [140] the Christian Gnostic Church leaders Valentinus of Egypt and Cerdo of Syria came to Rome. Gnostics means those who know. The Gnostic Church held the belief in female wisdom a philosophy from the ancient goddess Sofia believed to have originated in Egypt. His length of reign is unknown (4-12 years). The Roman Paulist Church would later in the 4th century condemn all Gnostics as heretics and martyr them by their tens of thousands. The Christian Churches have broken into small unstable sects, often at odds with one another. The countries are filled with charismatic leaders, wandering preachers, zealots and mystics." European History: 100-149 AD 138 Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus (future emperor Marcus Aurelius), adopted by his uncle Antoninus Pius, the Emperor. 139 Death of Chinese Mathematician/Astronomer Zhang Heng

Major Books and Events of the Decade 140-150 AD

c.140-149 The most important book on Astronomy through the Middle Ages, the Megala Syntaxis tes Astronomias, known in Arabic translation as the Almagest, is written by Claudius Ptolameus (Ptolemy) [born. c100] [Hellemans, p.50] see: c.130 (birth); 150 (spherical Earth); c.150-169 (Geographia); c.170-179 (death) 140-155 Pope Pius I succeeds Pope Hyginus. Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 140 "The Roman Paulist Church is becoming fragmented over the Jewish issue. Some believed the Roman Paulist Church should reject all Jewish tradition while others held that Jesus is Jewish and followed Jewish tradition. The Roman Paulist Church as a compromise became committed to the concept that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah. Most Jews didn't accept Jesus as the Messiah because Jewish tradition foretold that the Messiah would be a political King who would free the Jews. They also claimed that Jesus never claimed to be the Jewish Messiah. The Roman Paulist Church branded all Christian sects as heretics who didn't follow this Roman interpretation. This proclamation clearly defined Jews versus Roman Paulist Christians and clearly established the basis for the persecution of the Jews. Interestingly the Marshinites who proposed this theology are excommunicated yet the Church incorporated some of their principles." European History: 100-149 AD 141 Construction of Roman Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. 141 Patriarch Felix of Constantinople succeeded by Patriarch Polycarpus II. 141 Sixth and final year of Chinese Han Dynasty's Yonghe era 142 "Pius I [?142-155], son of Rufinus from Aquilesia, a Roman slave, is listed as Papa of Rome. Some place his reign after Anicetus [155-166]. The humble beginnings are likely borrowed from his brother who is claimed to be a former slave and teacher of repentance. During his reign is the first hint of disputes about the rank (authority) of church leaders. The Christian Gnostics Church (those who know) leaders Valentinus of Egypt, Cerdo of Syria and Marcion of Pontus rejected the Old Testament view of God as being unfavorable with the God of Jesus. This synod expelled the Christian Gnostic Marcion of Pontus from the Roman Paulist Church in July 144." European History: 100-149 AD 142 In Scotland, the Antonine Wall begins to be built. 142 Start of Chinese Han Dynasty's Hanan era 143 {to be done} 144 Patriarch Polycarpus II of Constantinople succeeded by Patriarch Athendodorus 144 Chinese Han Dynasty name, from Hanan era in its third year, changed to Jiankang era 144 Chinese Han Dynasty Emperor Han Shundi succeeded by Han Chongdi. Death of Han Shundi. 145 Chinese Han Dynasty name switch from first year of Jiankang era to Yongxi era 145 Chinese Han Dynasty Emperor Han Chongdi succeeded by Han Zhidi; Death of Han Chongdi. 146 Chinese Han Dynasty name change from first year of Yongxi era to Benchu era 146 Chinese Han Dynasty Emperor Han Zhidi succeeded by Han Huandi; Assassination of Han Zhidi. 11 Apr 146 Birth of Septimius Severus, future Roman emperor 147 Chinese Han Dynasty's first year of Jianhe era 148 Patriarch Athendodorus of Constantinople succeeded by Patriarch Euzois 148 An Shih Kao [?-ca.170] arrives in China. Also written as "An Shigao", he was a Parthian prince of who renounced his throne to become a Buddhist monk and missionary. At Loyang, the Han Dynasty capital, he founded a center for translation of Buddhist texts. He himself translated 35 texts, primarily of the Theravada school.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 150-160 AD

150 "Ptolemy, the mapmaker, at Alexandria knew that the earth is a sphere. He believed only a third of the northern hemisphere is habitable." European History: 150-249 AD see: c.130 (birth); 140-149 (Almagest); 150 (spherical Earth); c.150-169 (Geographia); c.170-179 (death) 150-159 Claudius Ptolameus (Ptolemy) writes the Geographia (Geography), which includes an atlas of the world known to Rome, based on information collected from Roman legions in their travels. [Hellemans, p.50] This was, in a sense, the first Atlas. see: c.100 (birth); c.140-149 (Almagest); c.150-169 (Geographia); c.170-179 (death) 150 Marinus of Tyre wrote on Geodesy and Geography. [D.E. Smith, p.553] "Marinus of Tyre, a Greek scientist who lived c.150, may be properly called the founder of ancient mathematical geography. Apparently with greater success than Hipparchus [c.150 BC], he definitely located places by reference to two coordinates, namely latitude and longitude, and his maps set a new standard which the astronomer Ptolemy recognized a little later. The maps themselves, however, have not come down to us. He established the prime meridian through the Fortunatae Insulae, and this meridian was adopted by Ptolemy. At a later time, the meridian was more definitely located through Ferro, one of the Canary Islands, and this position was recognized until modern times." [D.E. Smith, pp.129-130] 150 "The Apostle's creed is developed to draw the line between Roman Paulists and other Christian groups. Those who don't profess the Creed are considered as non-Christians subject to excommunication. This principle of forced absolutism is a Roman tradition periodically applied by the Romans against the Christians and Jews. This is believed the first time that any of the New Testament is written and only fragments exist from these second generation Apostles of Christ." European History: 150-249 AD 150 "Justin Martyr [100-165] explained to Emperor Antoninus Pius why Roman Paulist Christians worship on Sunday. On the Sun's day all who abide in towns or country come together to trade and Jesus rose from the dead on this day." European History: 150-249 AD 150 Justin Martyr (110-165), writes "First Apology" Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline c.150 Polycarp martyred Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 150 Marcion's Canon Rejects Old Testament Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 150 Only year of Chinese Han Dynasty's Heping era 151 Chinese Han Dynasty's first year of Yuanjia era 152 {to be done} 153 Death of Cathair Mor, bequested in the will was a chess set. [According to the Wikipedia. I need to confirm this fact] 153 Chinese Han Dynasty name change from third year of Yuanjia era to Yongxing era 154 "Bardaisan [154-222], an Orthodox Christian Edessene, has a Gnostic (those who know) hue in his philosophy. It is noteworthy that the Christian Essene Sect in Egypt is called Therapeutai. Ephraem the Syrian also an Edessene, in 240 says Mani (216-276) (the Persian) claimed as heralds of his message, Hermes of Egypt, Plato the Greek and Jesus who appeared in Judaea." European History: 150-249 AD 154 Patriarch Euzois of Constantinople succeeded by Patriarch Laurence 154 Second and final year in Chinese Han Dynasty of Yongxing era 155-166 Pope Anicetus succeeds Pope Pius I Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 155 Barnabas of Alexandria Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 155 "Anicetus [?155-166], a Syrian from Emesa and Eusebias, is listed a Papa of Rome. Polycarp, the octogenarian Papa of Smyrna, having reached agreement on many issues, tried to persuade the Roman Paulist Church to adopt the Asia Minor tradition of observing Easter on the 14th of the Jewish month Nisan, the day of the Passover (Quartodeciman). Rome at this time did not celebrate Easter. Papa Anicetus [155-166] rejected the Eastern custom of celebrating the Lord's resurrection. This likely suggests the Roman Paulist Church is split on the issue of resurrection or they are concerned with the Eastern Church gaining more authority over the Western Churches. Hegesippus, a scholar, came to Rome teaching anti-Gnostic Christian teachings about this time. The Jews again revolted against Roman rule this year." European History: 150-249 AD 155 Chinese Han Dynasty's first year of Yongshou era 155 Death of Saint Polycarp of Smyrna 156 {to be done} 157 {to be done} 158 Chinese Han Dynasty name change from Yongshou era to Yangxi era 159 Birth of Gordian I, future Roman emperor

Major Books and Events of the Decade 160-170 AD

160 "As a result of the Creed (claiming the resurrection of Jesus) the Christians are considered enemies of the Roman Gods and are accused of abandoning their Greek and Jewish historical traditions. African Tertullian [160-220] wrote that the Marcion Good God had more in common with the God of Greek philosophy than the God of the Bible." European History: 150-249 AD 160 "The first list of the Paulist Bishops of Rome is compiled about 160-185 A.D. and names Peter and Paul as conjointly the founders of the Christian Churches. The Church at this time is split between the Paulist Sect and the Peter Sect, and not until 220 during Callistus I [217-222] reign of Papa of Rome is Peter recognized as the first Papa of the Roman church." European History: 150-249 AD 161-180 Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Roman Emperors 161 "Marcus Aurelinus Antoninus [161-180] is Caesar of the Roman Empire. He shared the Imperial powers in full equality with Lucius Aurelius Verus. In law, the doctrine of the universal brotherhood of man, transcending limits of city or station, emphasized the humanizing trend." European History: 150-249 AD Marcus Aurelius was, besides Emperor, an important Stoic Philosopher and writer. [Hellemans, p.50] 161-180 Persecution [of Christians] under Marcus Aurelius Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 161-166 Roman Emperor L. Verus Roman Emperors 164 "Roman legions returning from Syria brought back a plague that began to quickly spread throughout the Empire, depopulating whole cities. This is during the reign of Roman Emperor Antoninus and the plague ran its course by 180. Many Romans blamed the Christians for their misfortune." European History: 150-249 AD 166-175 Soter Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 166 "Soter [166-174], an Italian from Campania, is listed a Papa of Rome. As a compromise, Easter is firmly established during his reign as previously recommended by the Asia Minor Churches, but not during Passover, but the Sunday following this Jewish tradition. Soter papa of Rome dispatched a letter with gifts to the Corinthian Church, Dionysius papa of Corinth agreed to read his letter at service. European History: 150-249 AD 166 "A terrible plague from the East seriously depopulated the Roman Empire [166-167]." European History: 150-249 AD 166 Marcus Aurelius sends an embassy to China. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 166 "Hordes of Marcomanni and kindred tribes from Bohemia crossed the Danube attacking the Romans." European History: 150-249 AD 167 "The Christian Church is composed of some twenty splinter sects with a fundamental division between the Gnostics who believed God's intent is acquired through knowledge (a Greek tradition), versus the Orthodox who believed its a matter of faith based upon the Church's interpretation of scripture. The Gnostic Christians live by the oldest surviving Gospel, called the Gospel of Thomas, that includes some 114 sayings of Jesus. The Gnostic Christians had some 13 books in their Bible. The Roman Paulist Christians considered the Gnostic Christians as heretics. The longstanding pagan tradition of religious monopoly is adopted in the Roman Paulist Sect Church as a result of this debate." European History: 150-249 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 170-180 AD

170-179 Death of Claudius Ptolameus (Ptolemy). [Hellemans, p.50] see: c.100 (birth); c.140-149 (Almagest); c.150-169 (Geographia); c.170-179 (death) 170-179 The first physician to use the human pulse as an aid to diagnosis is Galen of Pergamum (Turkey), Roman physician/anatomist. [Hellemans, p.50] see: 170-179 (pulse); 180-189 (medical text); 190-209 (death) 170 "Dionysius of Corinth stated that the custom of the Romans, from the beginning, assisted the brotherhood (Federation of Christian Churches) in various ways and send contributions to churches in every city, thus relieving the want of the needy. This is a Roman tradition an attempt to secure allegiance to Rome. This cultural tradition did more to secure the Roman Church power base than any doctoral claims." European History: 150-249 AD 172 "The Romans subdued the Marcomanni and imported a considerable number of these people into depopulated areas resulting from the plague. The Sarmatians attacked the lower Danube frontier." European History: 150-249 AD 172 Montanist Movement begins Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 174 "Eleutherius or Eleutherus [174-189], a Greek from Nicopolis, in Epirus and a deacon of Anicetus, Papa of Rome, himself became papa of Rome." European History: 150-249 AD 175-189 Eleutherius Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 175 "The Biblical Acts of the Apostles is believed at this date to be a Christian of the apostolic age, either a thoroughly Hellenistic Jew or more probably, a well educated Greek with some knowledge of medicine. Most believe it must be by St Luke a Syrian from Antioch, doctor of pagan origin." European History: 150-249 AD 175 Roman Emperor Avidius Cassius Roman Emperors 177 "Irenaeus of Lyons visited Rome, speaking of Lyons suffering grievous persecution, and of the New Prophecy on Montanism started in Phrygia." European History: 150-249 AD 177 "Commodus [177-192] became co-ruler of the Roman Empire. He fancied himself a gladiator and armed his opponents with swords made of soft lead, so that the tips bent when a blow struck the Emperor. He is eventually strangled to death." European History: 150-249 AD This was fictionalized in the 2000 A.D. film "Gladiator" 178 "Irenaeus [178-200] became Papa of Lyons. He is a disciple of Polycamp, Papa of Smyrna, a disciple of John the Apostle. Irenaeus developed the theory of apostolic succession. Celsus accused the Roman Christians of adopting a narrow provincial view of God. God is available to all human beings yet Christians huddled together in a sordid little group. Irenaeous proposed that only those churches, and those churches alone, which could trace their descent from one of the apostles, were repositories of the true faith, which the apostles had handed down. This posed a serious problem to the Paulist church of Rome because Paul is not an apostle. It is likely about this time that the Paulist Church of Rome changed their doctrine of Paul being the founder of the Roman Church to Paul and Peter being conjointly the founders of the Roman Church. Later they would change this doctrine to make Peter alone the founder of the Roman Church. Future members of the Paulist Sect would attempt to retrofit history to support their claim to succession from Peter." European History: 150-249 AD 178 "The major Christian churches, at this time, which claimed authority from the Apostles include Jerusalem, Antioch, Corinth, Ephesus, Smyrna, Philippi, Thessalonica, and Alexandria. Rome at this time may have claimed conjoint authority from Paul and Peter. There is serious concern that Peter never endorsed any of the Paulist Sect members thereby making the Paulist Church of Rome not of the true faith." European History: 150-249 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 180-190 AD

180-192 Roman Emperor Commodus Roman Emperors 180 "Commodus [180-192] is Caesar of the Roman Empire." European History: 150-249 AD 180-189 Greek physician/anatomist Galen edits together all known medical knowledge in a single compilation; this systematic analysis remains in use through the entire Middle Ages. [Hellemans, p.50] see: 170-179 (pulse); 180-189 (medical text); 190-209 (death) 180-189 In Egypt, the first writings about Alchemy appear. [Hellemans, p.51] 180 Nipsus writes on Surveying. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 181 death of Theophilus Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 184 "During an epidemic in China, Chang Chueh led a revolt against the Han Dynasty. Chueh is killed in 184, but his revolt continued until 204 and that led to the abdication of the emperor in 221, ending the reign of the Han Dynasty." European History: 150-249 AD 185 In China, a "guest star" is observed in the constellation Centaurus, which remains visible to the naked eye for some 20 months, and was thus almost surely a supernova. [Hellemans, p.50] 185 "Origen [185-254], a Father of the Church, followed the advice of the Biblical Matthew and after him there grew up a whole Christian Sect who castrated themselves, the better to enter the kingdom of heaven. This sect persisted into the twentieth century in Russia. Many eunuchs throughout history became a privileged class in positions of power." European History: 150-249 AD 186 "Taupo, a volcano, possibly the most powerful in history, leveled six thousand square miles of the surrounding countryside in New Zealand." European History: 150-249 AD 189-199 Victor I Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 189 "Until these time the Roman Church had been dominated by Graeco-Oriental philosophy. Victor [189-198], a Latin African, is listed Papa of Rome and is responsible for shifting the Paulist Church of Rome away from Eastern influence to a Roman philosophy. Victor Papa of Rome commissioned a series of synods throughout the known world to force uniformity upon all the Churches. The Majority opinion sided with Papa Victor except for the Asia Minor Church. He attempted to force the Asia Minor Churches to abandon the age-old tradition of observing Easter on the Passover in favor of the Roman decree of the Sunday following Passover. The Asia Minor Church is excommunicated from the Roman Church over this alleged issue. His real issue is that the Eastern Churches contend that the Roman Paulist Church is not the true church because its founder is Paul and not Peter. The Easter issues are likely a diversion tactic. Victor's action provoked a storm of protest and Irenaeus, papa of Lyons, sharply reminded him that Easter is originally an Eastern Church tradition that the Roman Church had not previously celebrated. He also excommunicated the Church of Theodotus of Byzantium who taught that Jesus was ordinary until the Spirit descended upon him at his baptism. He also excommunicated the Gnostic Christian writer Florinus from the priesthood. Victor Papa of Rome is the first Paulist papa of Rome to have an intimate relationship with the Roman Imperial household. Roman Emperor Commodus [180-192] had a Christian mistress Marcia, and the Papa of Rome obtained the release of many Christians condemned to the mines of Sardinia. Included is a future papa of Rome, Callistus I [217-222], whose name he had deliberately withheld." European History: 150-249 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 190-200 AD

190 Ts'ai Yung writes on the Chinese Calendar. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 190 death of Melito Ancient and Medieval Church History Timeline 190-209 Death in Sicily of the great physician/anatomist Galen [Hellemans, p.50] see: 130-139 (birth); 170-179 (pulse); 180-189 (medical text) 190-209 Chinese mathematicians use powers of 10 to express numbers. [Hellemans, p.51] 190-209 Liu Hui uses polygons of up to 3072 sides to calculate Pi to 3.14159 [Hellemans, p.51] 190-209 Liu Hui develops the method of approximation known as Horner's Method, since it was rediscovered by W.G. Horner in 1819. [Hellemans, p.51] 190-209 The Chinese develop a device which allows two oxen to, together, pull a single cart: the "whippletree" [Hellemans, p.51] 190-209 The Chinese develop porcelain. [Hellemans, p.51] 192-193 Roman Emperor Pertinax Roman Emperors 193 Roman Emperor Didius Julianus Roman Emperors 193-211 Roman Emperor Septimius Severus Roman Emperors 193-194 Roman Emperor Pescennius Niger Roman Emperors 193-197 Roman Emperor Clodius Albinus 193 "Pertinax and Didius Julianus are listed as Caesar this year. Pertinax reigned for 86 days before he is assassinated. The army auctioned off the post of Emperor to the highest bidder. Didius Julianus is beheaded after two months. Septimus Severus [193-211] is Caesar of the Roman Empire." European History: 150-249 AD 198 "Caracalla [198-217] is listed as Caesar. Zephyrinus [198-217], son of Habundius the Roman is listed Papa of Rome. Some considered him an inept Papa of Rome in his failure to condemn modalism being taught by Noetus, Praxeas and Sabellius that obliterated the distinctions between the persons of the Trinity. Adoptionism or the belief that Jesus is an ordinary man until his baptism still flourished with Theodotus and Asclepiodotus as the leaders." European History: 150-249 AD 198 "The African Tertullian [160-225] of Carthage developed the theory of apostolic succession. Those churches, and those churches alone, which could trace their descent from one of the apostles, were repositories of the true faith, which the apostles had handed down. The Churches at this time included Jerusalem, Antioch, Ephesus, Smyrna, Philippi, Thessalonica, and Corinth that claimed descent from one or other of the apostles. Alexanderia quickly claimed Mark as its founder. It is noteworthy that Rome claimed Paul as its founder and he is not an Apostle. Only Jerusalem, Antioch and Corinth claimed direct descent from St. Peter. This theory is established to counter the growing number of schismatic groups such as Montanists, Gnostics, Adoptionists, Marcionists and other such movements. It is from this time forward that false document and earlier history is created to secure a Roman Church of authority and power." European History: 150-249 AD 200 "Slav-Russian (Sarmatia-Mongolian people) are displaced and peopled by Mongolian-Germanic peoples called Scandia Goths, Visigoth (Western Goth) and Ostrogothic (Eastern Goth) mixed with (Mongol, Turks and Hun). These Goths descended from the north along the Dnieper and Don rivers. They adopted the Sarmatian tradition to become mounted warriors. They forced the Slavic tribes to serve them. They would become known as the East Slavic tribes. Near the end of the 4th century the Goth rule would be broken by the Hun." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 200 "Literacy is remarkably widespread throughout the Roman Empire through public and privately funded schools. The western region is dominated by Latin, while the eastern region uses Greek writings . The Roman Christians adopted a strategy of absorbing many Roman Religious traditions so as to be more attractive and acceptable to Roman citizens. The Roman Church headed by Zephyrinus [199-217] wanted to eliminate all reference to Jews from the Bible, especially the book of Mathew. It is noteworthy that no copies of the Gospels predate this period except the Gospel of Thomas by the Gnostic Christian sect. The earliest copy of Mark is 225 A.D." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 200 "The proto-Franks expanded to the lower Rhine with two major groups. The Salian-Franks are the dwellers by the sea and the Riparians are the dwellers by the riverbanks. They formed no permanent confederation at this time." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD c.200 At beginning of century, Edessa (Urfa in modern Turkey) becomes first Christian state. What Happened in the 3rd Church Century? c.200 Epaphroditus wrote on Surveying and the Theory of Numbers. [D.E. Smith, p.553] c.200 Domitus Ulpianus created a Mortality Table. [D.E. Smith, p.553] c.200 Quintus Sammonicus Serenus wrote on General Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.553]

Other Key Dates and Stories of this Second Century

{to be done}

Major Writers Born this Second Century

{to be done} 120 Birth of Christian Bishop/Apologist Iranaeus.

Major Writers Died this Second Century

{to be done} 100 Death of Jewish Historian Josephus. 101 Death of Silius Italicus, the author of "Punicus", the epic of Hannibal in the Second Punic War. 107 Death of Bishop/Theologian Ignatius of Antioch. ca.113 Death of Roman Scientist/Lawyer Pliny the Younger. 120 Death of Plutarch, great Greek Historian. 130 Death of Aulus Gellius, Latin Grammarian/Author. 139 Death of Chinese Mathematician/Astronomer Zhang Heng Data is scattered through the main body of text, and more should be added.

Second Century Science Background

The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site break these apart (science/math versus political/military history). Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about Christian saints, and poetry of equivalent function.

Second Century Mundane Background

See the political/military history in the main body of text, and the index of Politico-Military People of the Century, below. The biggest names in Mundane History of the Second Century included: {to be done}

Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology

|Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Literary Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: When the Goddess Ruled |5th Millennium BC: Mesopotamia, Egypt |4th Millennium BC: Iceman of the Alps, Old Kingdom Egypt |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: Homer, Buddha, Confucius, Euclid |1st Century: Jesus, Cymbeline, Caligula, Pliny |2nd Century: Hero, Ptolemy, Nichomachus [you are here] |3rd Century: 3 Kingdoms China, Legendary Japan |4th Century: Constantine, Hypatia, Ausonius |5th Century: Rome in Crisis, Dark Ages start |6th Century: Boethius, Taliesin, Mohammed |7th Century: Bede, Brahmagupta, Isidorus |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights [you are here] |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

Historians, and Where to Go for More Information

Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources:

96-161 A.D.

Blyth, P.H., 'Apollodorus of Damascus and the Poliorcetica', GRBS 33 (1992), 127-158 Frere, S.S. and Lepper, F.A., Trajan's Column (Gloucester, 1988) Invernizzi, A., 'Traiano a Hatra?', Mesopotamia 21 (1986), 21-50 Isaac, B. and Oppenheimer, A., 'The Revolt of Bar Kokhba: Ideology and Modern Scholarship', JJS 36 (1985), 33-60 Lepper, F.A., Trajan's Parthian War (Oxford, 1948) Lighfoot, C., 'Trajan's Parthian War and the Fourth-Century Perspective', JRS 80 (1990), 115-126 Richmond, I., Trajan's Army on Trajan's Column (London, 1982) revised version of PBSR 13 (1935), 1-40 Rossi, L., Trajan's Column and the Dacian Wars (London, 1971) Rossi, L., 'A Historiographic Reassessment of the Metopes of the Tropaeum Traiani at Adamklissi', Archaeological Journal 129 (1972), 56-68 Speidel, M.P., 'The Captor of Decebalus', JRS 60 (1970), 142-153 Wylie, G., 'How did Trajan succeed in subduing Parthia where Mark Antony failed?', AHB 4 (1990), 37-43

161-235 A.D.

Birley, A.R., Marcus Aurelius: A Biography, 2nd edition (London, 1987) Birley, E., 'Septimius Severus and the Roman Army', Epigraphische Studien 8 (1969), 63-82 Campbell, D.B., 'What happened at Hatra? The problems of Severan Siege Operations', Defence in the Roman and Byzantine East, eds. P.W.M. Freeman and D.L. Kennedy (Oxford, 1986), 51-58 Kennedy, D.L., '"European" soldiers and the Severan Siege of Hatra', Defence in the Roman and Byzantine East, eds. P.W.M. Freeman and D.L. Kennedy (Oxford, 1986), 397-409 Rubin, Z., 'Dio, Herodian and Severus' Second Parthian war', Chiron 5 (1975), 419-441 Smith, R.E., 'The Army Reforms of Septimius Severus', Historia 12 (1972), 481-500 Speidel, M.P., 'Valerius Valerianus in Charge of Septimius Severus' Mesopotamian Campaign', CP 80 (1985), 321-26 Ammianus Marcellinus (AD 330-395) Gibbon considered Ammianus to be the ╩most notable Latin historian after Tacitus, and the best contemporary source on the late 4th century Empire. Though he was a Syrian Greek, Ammianus wrote in Latin. His major work, written in AD 390, is Commentaries on the Remaining Conducted Affairs (Rerum gestari libri qui supersunt), of which books 14-31 survive. ╩╩ Born into a wealthy family at Antioch in about AD 330, Ammianus became a Roman officer at an early age, and traveled through much of the Empire. Describing himself as miles quondam et Graecus ("a soldier and a Greek"), Ammianus brings to his writings both military experience and the comprehensive perspective of the Greek historical tradition which began with Herodotus. In the well-established canons of Roman historical writing, the historian epitomizes periods by selectively relating the major events. As Ammianus believed this method recorded only "incomplete knowledge," his writings stand out among the contemporary writers Eutropius, Festus, and Aurelius Victor. Telling his readers that his quest is to write the whole story, to record ad scientiam proficiet plenam ("with a view toward complete knowledge"), Ammianus describes wars, happenings at court, heroic acts, and the current state of the Roman empire, including growing turbulence along the frontiers. The principle focus of his main written work, the Rerum gestarium, is the Persian campaign led by Julian the Apostate in AD 363, of which Ammianus provides an eyewitness account. In his capacity as miles, Ammianus first served in Persia as an officer under Constantinus II's general Urinus, where he witnessed the brutal events of the Persian capture of Amida in 359. He later served under Julian in the campaign that saw the Emperor killed and the army defeated near Nisibis in the summer of 363. Ammianus provides a lengthy, often emotional account of the events in Persia. This includes in-depth sketches of Julian himself, who commanded Britain and Gaul after being named Caesar in AD 355. As attested by writings of both Ammianus and Julian (himself a prolific writer and competent historian), Britain was an important source of grain for Gaul. One large grain-producing area may have been Salisbury plain. Ammianus directly mentions ships arriving in war-weary Gaul: "He even constructed granaries in place of those burned, in which could be stored the supply of grain usually brought over from Britain" (Book 18, 2,3; AD 359). Julian, in his AD 361 Letter to the Athenians, also mentions the arrival of ships from Britain after his campaiging of AD 358-9 effectively reopened the supply routes between Britain and Gaul: "Then followed the second and third years of that campaign, and by that time all the barbarians had been driven out of Gaul, most of the towns had been recovered, and a whole fleet of many ships had arrived from Britain. " Ammianus spent the years 355-357 in Gaul. Between military accounts, he relates the history, geography, and culture of the Gallic provinces, based on his experiences and the writings of the Greek historian Timagenes. In retelling the story of Gaul, Ammianus includes mythological origins and the early history of the region. In his descriptions of Britain under the rule of Julian, Ammianus writes that unrest in Gaul distracted Julian from taking an active role as commander of Britain. During the winter of AD 360, he briefly sent the commander of the armed forces, Lupicinus, to the island: "In Britain during the tenth consulship of Constantius and the third of Julian, invasions by the fierce tribes of the Scots and the Picts, who had broken the peace they had agreed upon, were causing destruction in those areas along the frontiers, and the provinces, worn out by numerous disasters in the past, were caught in the grip of fear. The Caesar Julian, who was wintering at Paris and was preoccupied by various problems, was afraid to go to the assistance of those across the sea, as I have related Constans did, in case he left the Gallic provinces without a ruler at a time when the Alamanni were roused to savagery and war. "(Book XX, 1) In AD 367 barbarian tribes mounted a concerted invasion by land and sea, and breached Hadrian's Wall. As Ammianus states, "The Picts and Saxons and Scots [Irish] and Atecotti harassed the Britons with continual afflictions." Theodosius, sent to quell the revolt, rebuilt Hadrian's Wall, and restored peace to Britannia for the next 40 years. Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review ╩Vol.1, no.2] Eutropius (fl. AD 350-370) Flavius Eutropius, a contemporary of Ammianus Marcellinus, and fellow soldier under Julian in the Persian campaign, became the court historian for the emperor Valens (364-378). Little else is known about his life. He should not be confused with his more notorious contemporary, Eutropius the Eunuch, who was a powerful advisor to the Emperor Arcadius and Consul in 399 (prior to being beheaded for high treason). While working for Valens, Flavius Eutropius wrote a ten-book compendium of Roman history entitled Historiż romanż breviarium (A Concise History of Rome), which provides details of the British campaigns of Caesar, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian and Trajan, as well as later happenings in Gaul. His description of Claudius' conquest of Britain in AD 43 is based partly on Tacitus: "He made war upon Britain, which none of the Romans after Julius Caesar had meddled with; and conquering it by Cnaeus Centius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble gentlemen, he had a famous triumph. He added likewise some islands, lying in the ocean beyond Britain, to the Roman Empire, which are called Orcades; and gave the name of Britannicus to his son." (VII, 13) In discussing Nero's reign, Eutropius refers to Boudicca's rebellion: "He [Nero] attempted no conquest in the military way, and very nearly lost Britain. Under him two very famous towns were there taken and destroyed" [ie., London and St. Albans, or Colchester] (VII, 14) Eutropius also provides details on the successful campaign of Vespasian in Britain: "[Vespasian] having been sent by Claudius into Germany, and from there into Britain, engaged thirty-two times with the enemy, and added two very potent nations [gentes], twenty towns, and the Isle of Wight [Insulam Vectam], near Britain, to the Roman Empire." (VII, 19) Eutropius somewhat mistakenly attributes the construction of the Antonine Wall to Septimius Severus (who did in fact repair the wall): "Septimius had his final campaign in Britain, and in order to secure the lines, he had built a palisade stretching 32 miles from sea to sea. "(VIII, 18) This inaccuracy was picked up by Orosius in his History, from which it was later copied by Bede in his 8th century Ecclesiastical History (see below). Eutropius was translated into Greek in AD 380 by Paeanius as well as by a certain Capito (whose writings are now lost). Besides Orosius and Bede, Eutropius was used by both St. Jerome and Hincmar of Reims (ca. AD 806-882). More recently, he has been referenced by 18th and 19th century historians including Gibbon and Mommsen. Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review ╩Vol.1, no.2] Claudian (fl. AD 395-410) Claudius Claudianus, a Greek born in Alexandria, is often considered the last great poet of the pagan world. He lived in Rome at the end of the 4th century AD, and is best known for verse written in praise of Honorius and his general Stilicho. One of his poems, On the Consulship of Stilicho, provides our only source for an expedition to Britain mounted by Stilicho in AD 396-8. Frere (1987) believes this is evidence of naval activity against the Irish, Picts, and Saxons. Claudian's colorful style in this poem and another, The Gothic War, also provides rare detail on the appearance of the Picts and Caledonians: "There also came the legion set to guard the furthest Britons, the legion that curbs the savage Scot and scans the lifeless patterns tatooed on the dying Picts." (Gothic War, 416-418) "Next spoke Britannia, dressed in the skin of some Caledonian beast, her cheeks tatooed, her sea-blue mantle sweeping over her footsteps like the surge of ocean." ╩(On the Consulship of Stilicho, II) Late Roman and Dark Age Historians of Britain [Athena Review ╩Vol.1, no.2]
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