TIMELINE 3rd CENTURY


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TIMELINE 3rd CENTURY

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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 0 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 26 May 2003 [from 75 to 84 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Facts are also drawn from the 1911 Encyclopedia Brittanica, and the Wikipedia. Executive Summary of the Third Century: Nicaea North Africa in the Third Century Severan Dynasty Rome in the Third Century The Roman Crisis of the Third Century China in the Third Century Japan in the Third Century India in the Third Century Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the Century Fiction About the Third Century Non-Fiction About the Third Century Major Books and Events of the Decade 200-210 Major Books and Events of the Decade 210-220 Major Books and Events of the Decade 220-230 Major Books and Events of the Decade 230-240 Major Books and Events of the Decade 240-250 Major Books and Events of the Decade 250-260 Major Books and Events of the Decade 260-270 Major Books and Events of the Decade 270-280 Major Books and Events of the Decade 280-290 Major Books and Events of the Decade 290-300 Other Key Dates and Stories of this Third Century Major Writers Born this Third Century Major Writers Died this Third Century Third Century Science Background Third Century Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology There was no great Mathematician of the Century, the way Fibonacci was to the 13th century. But Pappas, Diophantus, and Iamblichus come close.

Executive Summary of the Third Century: Nicaea

"The council of Nicaea is the most important event of the fourth century, and its bloodless intellectual victory over a dangerous error is of far greater consequence to the progress of true civilization, than all the bloody victories of Constantine and his successors. It forms an epoch in the history of doctrine, summing up the results of all previous discussions on the deity of Christ and the incarnation, and at the same time regulating the further development of the Catholic orthodoxy for centuries. The Nicene creed, in the enlarged form which it received after the second ecumenical council, is the only one of all, the symbols of doctrine which, with the exception of the subsequently added filioque, is acknowledged alike by the Greek, the Latin, and the Evangelical churches, and to this, day, after a course of fifteen centuries, is prayed and sung from Sunday to Sunday in all countries of the civilized world. The Apostles' Creed indeed, is much more generally used in the West, and by its greater simplicity and more popular form is much better adapted to catechetical and liturgical purposes; but it has taken no root in the Eastern church; still less the Athanasian Creed, which exceeds the Nicene in logical precision and completeness. Upon the bed of lava grows the sweet fruit of the vine. The wild passions and the weaknesses of men, which encompassed the Nicene council, are extinguished, but the faith in the eternal deity of Christ has remained, and so long as this faith lives, the council of Nicaea will be named with reverence and with gratitude."

North Africa in the Third Century

North Africa becomes a key Christian center. Egypt alone has a million Christians by the end of 3rd century. Carthage and Alexandria leading centers of Christian theological development with such figures as Origen, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria. The Christian Church has to deal with the difficult problem of how to handle the "lapsed"--those who relented during the persecution and now want back into the church. But Church problems are not only political: intellectual attacks must also be answered. Porphyry writes Against the Christians attacking apostles, church leaders, Gospels and Old Testament. Origen around 245 answers attack of Celsus written 70 years earlier and apparently still a threat to the church. The role of the bishop continues to grow in strength. Before 300, Anthony goes into desert as a hermit, an important early step in development of monasticism--which will be a kind of protest movement against worldly Christianity and an alternative approach to spiritual commitment. What Happened in the 3rd Church Century?

Severan Dynasty Rome in the Third Century

The Severan Dynasty ruled Rome from 193 to 235 A.D. (except for the interruption of Macrinus and Diadumenian, 217-218). "It took a little time for Septimus [Severus] to put down all the would-be Emperors in the provinces, but he did so with determination and ferocity. The virtues of nobility reputed to Trajan, of culture to Hadrian, of piety to Antoninus, and of philosophy to Marcus Aurelius were all missing in Septimus Severus. He also doesn't seem to have considered anything other than hereditary succession, despite having a particularly nasty son, Caracalla, as the candidate. His attempt to balance Carcalla with his brother Geta simply got Geta murdered. Another factor, however, was the loyalty inspired in the troops to the family, and Caracalla himself maintained that popularity reasonably well, until his inevitable murder. This set off another brief free-for-all, until loyalty to the Severan family prevailed. The 'family,' however, turned out to be the entirely matrilineal creation of Severus' sister-in-law, Julia Maesa, who brought her two grandsons, entirely unrelated to Severus, to the throne. The bizarre Elagabalus (sometimes 'Heliogabalus'), styling himself the god of his grandmother's Syrian solar cult, and then the amiable and reasonably effective Alexander thus wrapped up the dynasty. Alexander was killed after the overdue reality check of battle, against the newly aggressive Persians. He was not that bad, but evidently not good enough for his own troops, who killed him and his mother. Septimus Severus himself was one of the two Roman Emperors (Constantius Chlorus was the other) to die (a natural death) at York (Eboracum) in Britain." Severans

The Roman Crisis of the Third Century

"The chaos that had threatened in some earlier successions (in 69 and 193) now arrived in 238, when we can say that there were five Emperors in one year. .... Few Emperors reigned long or died natural deaths. Gordian III's six years would count as lengthy for the period, but his murder would prove all too typical. The musical chairs of murders did not help prepare the Empire for increased activity by the Germans and Persians. Decius and Herennius were killed in battle by the Goths in 251 -- the only Roman Emperors to die in battle (against external enemies) besides Julian (against the Persians, 363), Valens (against the Goths again, 378), Nicephorus I (against the Bulgars, 811), and Constantine XI (with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, 1453). Valerian's relatively long reign ended with the unparalleled ignominy of being captured by Shapur I -- the only Roman Emperor captured by an enemy until Romanus IV in 1071. His son Gallienus then endured one invasion and disaster after another, with the Empire actually beginning to break up. Despite a short reign (and a natural death), Claudius II began to turn things around by defeating the Goths, commemorated with a column that still stands in Istanbul. His colleague Aurelian then substantially restores the Empire, only to suffer assassination, initiating a new round of revolving Emperors. This finally ended with Diocletian, who picked up reforming the Empire, militarily, politically, and religiously, where Aurelian had left off." Chart: The Crisis of the Third Century Copyright (c) 2000 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved

China in the Third Century

The (Later, Eastern) Han Dynasty in China lasted from 25 to 220 A.D. Han Dynasty That was followed by the China of the Three Kingdoms era, 220-265 A.D. The three kingdoms and their rulers, may be summarized as follows: The Minor Han (Shu Han) Dynasty [221-265], in the western third of the empire, had its capital at Ch'eng-tu. Chao-lieh Ti took the throne in 221, succeeded by Hou Chu in 223. The Wei Dynasty [220-265], in the northern third of the empire, had its capital at Lo-yang. The Wu Dynasty [222-258], in the southern and southwestern third of the empire, had its capital at Nanking. Three Kingdoms After the Three Kingdoms era came the six dynasties of the Northern and Southern Empires [265-589]. The start of this era overlapped the Third Century A.D., with the Western Tsin (Jin) Dynasty [265-317]. Emperor Wu Ti [265-290], was succeeded by Emperor Hui Ti [290-307], and then in the Fourth Century Emperor Huai Ti [307-313] and Emperor Min Ti [313-317]. Northern and Southern Empires

Japan in the Third Century

The "Legendary" era of Emperors, Shoguns, and Regents of Japan lasted from 660 BC to 539 AD. Kaika reigned early in the 3rd Century, followed by Sujin [219-249], Suinin [249-280], and Keiko [280-316]. Japan: Legendary Era

India in the Third Century

"When a unified state has occurred in Indian history, it has had varying religious, political, and even linguistic bases: e.g. Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, and foreign. The rule of the Sultans of Delhi and the Moghul Emperors was at once Islamic and foreign, since most of them were Turkish or Afghani, and the Moghul dynasty was founded directly by incursion from Afghanistan. The surpremely foreign unification of India, of course, was from the British, under whom India achieved its greatest unity, although lost upon independence to the religious division between India and Pakistan. The Moghuls and British, of course, called India by its name in their own languages (i.e. "Hindustan" and "India")." "In addition to these complications, Indian history is also less well known and dated than that of China or Japan. Classical Indian literature displays little interest in history proper, which must be reconstructed from monumental inscriptions and foreign references. The dating of both the Mauryas [322-184 BC] and the Guptas [320-550] displays small uncertainties [see: Stanley Wolpert's 'A New History of India', Oxford University Press, 1989]. The 'Saka Era,' as the Indian historical era, significantly starts rather late [79 AD] in relation to the antiquity of Indian civilization. Indeed, like Greece [c.1200-800 BC] and Britain [c.400-800 AD], India experienced a 'Dark Ages' period [c.1500-800 BC], in which literacy was lost and the civilization vanished from history altogether. Such twilight periods may enhance the vividness of quasi-historical mythology like the Iliad, the Arthurian legends, and the Mahabharata." India: Historical Era Copyright (c) 2000 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved *****

Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the 3rd Century

:
  1. Galen, Greek Physician
  2. : died 190-209, see [190-209]
  3. Origen, Theologian, a presbyter of Alexandria
  4. : see [210]
  5. Mani
  6. : [216-276], Persian religious leader, see [216]
  7. St. Hippolytus
  8. : [217-235], see [217]
  9. Wang Pi
  10. : see [245]
  11. Siu Yo
  12. : see [250]
  13. Hsu Yueh
  14. : see [250]
  15. Liu Hui
  16. : see: [263]
  17. Sporus of Niceae
  18. : Math Historian, see: [275]
  19. Anatolius
  20. : wrote on Astronomy, see: [280]
  21. Porphyrius
  22. : see: [280]
  23. Liu Chih
  24. : Chinese writer, see: [289]
  25. Pappas of Alexandria
  26. : see [300]
  27. Iamblichus
  28. (c.250-c.330): see [325]
  29. Diophantus
  30. (born 210; died 290-299): see [290-299]

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Fiction About the Third Century

As usual, all book reviews on this page are by Your Humble Webmaster, and included in my copyright notice. Novels listed below, in alphabetical order by author, include those by these 4 authors: * Allienne R. Becker * Marian Zimmer Bradley and Diana L. Paxon * Bertrice Small Allienne R. Becker, "Eagle in Flight", [Writers Club Ltd., Jan 2002] ISBN 0-595-21393-6. The Patriarch of Alexandria is Athenasius, one day to become Saint Athenasius. He defends the theology of the Trinity against dangerous opposition. For this faith, he is five times exiled, and ultimately threatened with execution after false accusations of murder, rape, and treason. Will our hero die for his God? Marian Zimmer Bradley and Diana L. Paxon, "Priestess of Avalon", Pagan British princess Eilan turns into Helena, becomes the lover of the man who will himself become the Roman Emperor Constantius, and will eventually herself be the mother of Emperor Constantine. Bertrice Small, "Beloved", In the exotic desert city Palmyria, Queen Zonobia falls in love with her sworn enemy, a Roman man.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 200-210 A.D.

200 "Slav-Russian (Sarmatia-Mongolian people) are displaced and peopled by Mongolian-Germanic peoples called Scandia Goths, Visigoth (Western Goth) and Ostrogothic (Eastern Goth) mixed with (Mongol, Turks and Hun). These Goths descended from the north along the Dnieper and Don rivers. They adopted the Sarmatian tradition to become mounted warriors. They forced the Slavic tribes to serve them. They would become known as the East Slavic tribes. Near the end of the 4th century the Goth rule would be broken by the Hun." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 200 "Literacy is remarkably widespread throughout the Roman Empire through public and privately funded schools. The western region is dominated by Latin, while the eastern region uses Greek writings . The Roman Christians adopted a strategy of absorbing many Roman Religious traditions so as to be more attractive and acceptable to Roman citizens. The Roman Church headed by Zephyrinus [199-217] wanted to eliminate all reference to Jews from the Bible, especially the book of Mathew. It is noteworthy that no copies of the Gospels predate this period except the Gospel of Thomas by the Gnostic Christian sect. The earliest copy of Mark is 225 A.D." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 200 "The proto-Franks expanded to the lower Rhine with two major groups. The Salian-Franks are the dwellers by the sea and the Riparians are the dwellers by the riverbanks. They formed no permanent confederation at this time." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD c.200 At beginning of century, Edessa (Urfa in modern Turkey) becomes first Christian state. What Happened in the 3rd Church Century? c.200 Epaphroditus wrote on Surveying and the Theory of Numbers. [D.E. Smith, p.553] c.200 Domitus Ulpianus created a Mortality Table. [D.E. Smith, p.553] c.200 Quintus Sammonicus Serenus wrote on General Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 190-209 Death of Greek Physician Galen. [Hellemans, p.51] 190-209 Chinese mathematicians use powers of 10 to express numbers. [Hellemans, p.51] 190-209 Liu Hui uses polygons of up to 3072 sides to calculate Pi to 3.14159 [Hellemans, p.51] 190-209 Liu Hui develops the method of approximation known as Horner's Method, since it was rediscovered by W.G. Horner in 1819. [Hellemans, p.51] 190-209 The Chinese develop a device which allows two oxen to, together, pull a single cart: the "whippletree" [Hellemans, p.51] 190-209 The Chinese develop porcelain. [Hellemans, p.51] 201 Claudius Galens dies in Sicily. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 202 "Origen [born 182] of Alexandria a disciple of Clement [150-215], teaching at the Catechetical School of Alexandria, believed that the Christian life means turning against the world. He is convinced that martyrdom is the way to heaven. Future missionaries would adopt this philosophy as an ideal." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 202 Clement of Alexandria driven from Alexandria. Chronology of the Early Church: 3rd Century 202 "The Romans at this time are astonished to discover the freedom of Celtic women who could inherit and dispose personal property freely during or after marriage. She could be the family head and even discard her husband in favor of another. She had sexual freedom without shame. She could be a warrior even hold military command." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 202 Emperor Septimus Severus [202-211] persecutes; forbids conversion to Christianity. Then a generation of peace for the church. Amazing growth and spread of faith continues and church buildings begin to be built. What Happened in the 3rd Church Century? 203 Arch of Septimius Severus, built to commemorate his victories over the Parthians, the Arabs, and the people of Mesopotamia, dedicated to his sons Caracalla and Geta. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 204 Elagabalus (Varius Avitus Bassianus) born at Emesa in Syria, to Sex. Varius Marcellus and Julia Soaemias. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 205 Severus Alexander born Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 206 The building of the Baths of Caracalla is begun in Rome by Septimius Severus. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 209 Geta becomes co-ruler with his father Septimius Severus and his brother Caracalla. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD Geta's rule as Emperor is [209-211] 209 "Geta [209-212] is listed as Caesar of the Roman Empire." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 210-220 A.D.

210 "Dura Europus, a middle eastern city, contained Roman, Jewish and Christian churches, indicating a period of religious tolerance. It is believed the Roman Church adopted the Syrian tradition of the trinity of God into their own tradition about this time. This conforms to their strategy to absorb other traditions to attract new converts." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 210 "Origen, a presbyter of Alexandria, excluded the Epistles of James and Jude from his catalogue of the books of the New Testament. He makes reference to these books in other writings, suggesting he has access to copies." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 210 "Horseracing is established in England." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 193-211 "It took a little time for Septimus Severus to put down all the would-be Emperors in the provinces, but he did so with determination and ferocity. The virtues of nobility reputed to Trajan, of culture to Hadrian, of piety to Antoninus, and of philosophy to Marcus Aurelius were all missing in Septimus Severus. He also doesn't seem to have considered anything other than hereditary succession, despite having a particularly nasty son, Caracalla, as the candidate. His attempt to balance Carcalla with his brother Geta simply got Geta murdered. Another factor, however, was the loyalty inspired in the troops to the family, and Caracalla himself maintained that popularity reasonably well, until his inevitable murder. This set off another brief free-for-all, until loyalty to the Severan family prevailed. The 'family,' however, turned out to be the entirely matrilineal creation of Severus' sister-in-law, Julia Maesa, who brought her two grandsons, entirely unrelated to Severus, to the throne. The bizarre Elagabalus (sometimes 'Heliogabalus'), styling himself the god of his grandmother's Syrian solar cult, and then the amiable and reasonably effective Alexander thus wrapped up the dynasty. Alexander was killed after the overdue reality check of battle, against the newly aggressive Persians. He was not that bad, but evidently not good enough for his own troops, who killed him and his mother. Septimus Severus himself was one of the two Roman Emperors (Constantius Chlorus was the other) to die (a natural death) at York (Eboracum) in Britain." Severans 211 "Caracalla [211-217] is Caesar of the Roman Empire. Others list his reign as [198-217]." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 211 Septimius Severus dies at Eboracum (York) in Britain and leaves the throne to his sons Geta and Caracalla. He gave this advice to his sons on his deathbed: 'Live in peace, enrich the soldiers, and despise the rest of the world.' Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 211 Around this date, Severus and Caracalla introduced the first definite ban on abortion in Rome as a crime against the rights of parents, and punished it with temporary exile. [Oxford Classical Dictionary] 212 "The edict of Caracalla extended Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire save for a limited group likely the Egyptians and some others." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 212 Caracalla institutes the Constitutio Antoniniana which gave citizenship to all free born men of the empire. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 212 Caracalla murders Geta. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 212 Aurelian (L. Domitius Aurelianus) born in Dacia or Pannonia. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 212 Aemilius Papinianus, a Roman jurist, is put to death by Caracalla. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 213 Caracalla conducts a successful campaign against the Alemanni on the Upper Rhine. This is where he acquired his nickname Alemannicus. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 215 Alternate date of Aurelian's birth. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 216 "Mani [216-276], a Persian, believed he was the successor of Jesus, and combined elements of Christianity, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism. He was martyred by the Zoroastrianism priests. He wrote in Syriac but only the Old Coptic or Greek copies survived. This religious sect called them-selves Manichaeism. This sect died out by the 14th century. St. Augustine was a follower of this sect. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 217 Macrinus [217-218] is Caesar of Rome. Callistus I (Calixtus) [217-222], a slave of a Christian freeman Carpophorus, became Papa of Rome. Carpophorus had previously established Calixtus (217-222) as a banker but he panicked and fled when the business failed. There are serious losses to the Paulist Christian depositors. He is brought back to work on a treadmill then released. Calixtus, a failed banker, is charged with brawling in a synagogue on the Sabbath and sentenced to hard labor in the mines of Sardinia. Victor I [189-198] Papa of Rome did not like Calixtus but Zephyrinus [198-217] Papa of Rome did, and obtains his release from prison, making him his principle deacon. Papa Calixtus [217-222] excommunicated Sabellius, the leader of modalism, but never formally censured papa Hippolytus [217-235] of Rome. He preached that the Church is a home for sinners as well as saints and freely offered reconciliation; this infuriated the Saints of the Church. It is believed he is killed (murdered) during a popular riot." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 217 The 16th Bishop of Rome is St. Calixtus I. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 217 "This is the first period in the Roman Church that a position of Bishop of Rome first emerged. Prior to this time such a position did not exist. The first list of bishops of Rome is alleged dated from 160-185 A.D. but is likely a later forgery. This list makes Peter and Paul conjointly the founders of the Roman Church. No one at that time asserts that St. Peter was a Bishop. Callistus I is the first to claim Peter as the first bishop of Rome, likely to support his own position. Callistus I (Calixtus) [217-222] is the first Paulist Papa of Rome to directly invoke Petrine authority to impose his doctrine of penance on all the other Christian Churches. It didn't work but Stephen I [254-257] would again try by adopting the phrase of the Chair of Peter." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 217 "St. Hippolytus [217-235], a Greek Presbyter and chief intellectual of the Roman Church, became what the Roman Church called the first anti-Papa of Rome. St. Jerome considered him papa of Rome and a prolific author. Hippolytus, Papa of Rome, accused Callistus Papa of Rome of modalism and laxity in discipline. He said Calixtus permitted papas guilty of grace offences to remain in office, ordained men who had been married two or even three times, refused to condemn clergy who married, recognized unions (condemned by Roman law) between upper-class women and men of inferior status and readmitted to the church without penance converts from heretical or schismatic sects. Hippolytus [217-235] envisaged the Roman Church as a community of saints." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 217 Caracalla is murdered by his praetorian prefect Macrinus in April at Carrhae (where Crassus had been killed so many years before) after coming from Edessa. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 217 Macrinus becomes emperor, but Elagabalus is declared emperor by his soldiers (N.B: Macrinus is not part of the Severan Dynasty) Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 218 Elagabalus (Heliogabalus) defeats and kills Macrinus on the borders of Syria and Phoenicia to become emperor. [218-222] Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 218 Macrinus' son Diadumenian, who was attempting to flee to Parthia, executed. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 218 Elagabalus made high priest of the Sun God on May 16. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 218 "Elagabalus [218-222] is Caesar of the Roman Empire. He dressed in drag and proclaimed himself as Empress of Rome." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 220-230 A.D.

220 "The Hsiungnu Tartars regained control of the Turkestan trade routes linking East and West." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 220 "During Callistus I [217-222] reign as Papa of Rome is Peter recognized as the first Papa of the Roman church. Prior to this time Paul is recognized as the first Papa of Rome and it would be another 20-30 years before the tradition of Peter being the first Papa of Rome took shape." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 220 Clement of Alexandria dies in Caesarea. Chronology of the Early Church: 3rd Century 220 Sextus Julius Africanus writes an Encyclopedia which includes a History of Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 222 "Alexander Severus [222-235] is Caesar of the Roman Empire and tolerant of all religions. Urban (222-230) son Pontianus, a Roman is elected Papa of Rome. St. Hippolytus (217-235) still reigned as Papa of Rome splitting the Roman Church." European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 222 Elagabalus murdered in an insurrection of the praetorians, and his cousin and adopted son Severus Alexander becomes emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 222 Domitius Ulpianus, a Roman jurist born at Tyre, becomes Alexander's principal adviser and praetorian prefect. Chronology of Roman History: 201-225 AD 222 the 17th Bishop of Rome is St. Urban I. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 228 Domitius Ulpianus murdered by his own soldiery. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 230-240 A.D.

230 The Teuton, Sennones, under Roman pressure, federated into the Franks and Alemanni. Franks means people who are free of the Romans. To the north of the Germanic-Franks are the other Germanic tribes of Frisians, Saxon, Angles, as wells as the Jutes and Lombards. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 230 Pontian's [230-235], a Roman, son of Calpurnius is the papa of Rome. Origen, the outstanding Greek theologian, is expelled from Egypt by Demetrius papa of Alexandria. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 230 the 18th Bishop of Rome is St. Pontianus. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 231 Beginning of Severus Alexander's first expedition against Artaxerxes of Persia. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 233 End of Severus Alexander's first expedition against Artaxerxes, Severus successful. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 235 Alexander and his mother murdered during an insurrection led by Maximinus near Mainz and end of Severan dynasty. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 235 Maximinus Thrax becomes emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 235 Maximinus Thrax [235-238] became the Roman Emperor, determined to strike at Roman Church leaders. He arrested both Hippolytus [217-235] Papa of Rome,and Pontian [230-235] Papa of Rome, deporting them to Sardinia. Pontian (230-235) Papa of Rome abdicated September 28, 235 being the first Papa of Rome to do so. This however did not save his life. Both Papas died shortly from harsh treatment at Sardinia that is known as the Island of death. Some Church historians have attempted to detach from Hippolytus some of his writings and assign them to another hand. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 235 the 19th Bishop of Rome is St. Anterius. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 235 Anterus [235-236], a Greek, became Papa of Rome, and died a natural death the following year. Papa Donatus of Carthage excommunicated papa Privatus of Lambaesis at the Africa synod. Papa Fabian [236-250] of Rome later supported this action. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 235 Censorinus writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 236 the 20th Bishop of Rome is St. Fabianus. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 236 Fabian [236-250] a Roman became Papa of Rome and Emperor Thrax did not harass this Papa. Emperor Gordian III [238-244] and Emperor Philip the Arab [244-249] also showed sympathy towards this Papa of Rome. Fabian Papa of Rome held influence in the Roman Courts and used this position to restructure the Roman Church. Donatus Papa of Carthage condemned Privatus Papa of Lambaesis at an African council with the support of the Papa of Rome. The Roman Church speaks of a great church with a single rule of faith that shuns extremity and eccentricity. The Roman Orthodox Church outlawed the Gnostic, Marcionites and Montanist sects of Christianity. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 238 Death of Maximinus Thrax. Can be called year of the six emperors: Maximinus Thrax, Gordian I and Gordian II, Pupienus and Balbinus, and finally Gordian III. A month after gaining office, Gordian II is slain in battle near Carthage by Capellianus, governor of Numidia, and Gordian I commits suicide Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 238 Gordian I and Gordian II are listed as the Roman Emperor this year. Roman Emperor Gordian III [238-244] dropped the policy of Christian persecution. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 238 Gordian I is also referred to as Gordian I Africanus. Balbinus and Pupiens were Emperors until Gordian III took the throne.

Major Books and Events of the Decade 240-250 A.D.

240 Ephraem the Syrian, also an Edessene, in 240 says Mani [216-276], a Persian, claimed as heralds of his message Hermes of Egypt, Plato the Greek and Jesus who appeared in Judaea. Mani created the sect Manichaeism. He believed he was the successor of Jesus but also combined elements from Buddhism and Iran's fire-glorifying Zoroastrianism. This creed spread from North Africa to China but died out in the 14th century. Their belief called for freeing the good (light) trapped in human bodies regarded as inherently evil, or dark. He died in prison in Iran in 276 at the hands of the Zoroastrians. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 242 Gordian III (Gordianus Pius) marches against the Persians and relieves Antioch. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 244 Philip [244-249] is Caesar of the Roman Empire. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD 244 Gordian III assassinated on February 11 on the order of Iulius Philippus the Arab, who becomes emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD Iulius Philippus the Arab was also called Philip I the Arab 245 Diocletian (C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) born in Dalmatia. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 245 Carausius born. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 245 Wang Pi writes on the I-Ching. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 248 Rome's 1000th birthday celebrated under the emperor Philip the Arab. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 249 Philippus sends Decius to reduce the rebellious army of Moesia and the soldiers declare Decius emperor against his will. He encounters Philippus near Verona and kills him to officially become emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 249 Messius Quintus Traianus Decius [249-251] persecuted those who would not sacrifice to the Roman emperor, likely the Jews, Roman Christians and other non-loyal sects. In 250 he arrested the papa of Rome where he died. European History: 150 AD - 249 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 250-260 A.D.

250 Decius persecutes the Christians and makes emperor worship compulsory. Chronology of Roman History: 226-250 AD 250 Persecution of Christians under Emperor Decian begins. Chronology of the Early Church: 3rd Century 250 The first empire-wide persecution instituted under Decius in AD 250. Everyone must offer pagan sacrifice and show certificate of proof. What Happened in the 3rd Church Century? 250 The Black Plague strikes the Roman Empire and deaths in Rome numbered five hundred per day and before it ended in 265, much of the empire is depopulated. There is some evidence to support the contention that the Mongolian peoples brought the Black Plague with their western intrusion. The Romans under Emperor Decius [249-251], however, blamed the Jews and Christians beginning another session of persecutions. Fabian Papa of Rome [236-250] is one of the first to be executed. Few people are executed, but many left the faith. European History: 249-350 AD 250 Siu Yo writes a book on Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 250 Hsu Yueh writes a commentary on Siu Yo's Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 250 The Lapps and Finns are displaced from Denmark by Germanic tribes. European History: 249-350 AD 250 Cyprian of Carthage (250-258) is Papa of Africa. He wrote that the Papa of Rome is no more than a Papa among other Papas. At this time there is no papa in Rome, as most candidates are in jail, including Moses, the most likely next papa of Rome. Novatian, papa of Rome [251-258], acted as spokesman during this period, and Moses died in jail. European History: 249-350 AD 251 the 21st Bishop of Rome is St. Cornelius. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 251 "The Goths invaded the Balkans and overthrew Decius. Cornelius [251-253], a Roman, is elected Papa of Rome. A schism developed over how to treat Christian prisoners who had renounced their faith and now wanted to be reinstated. Cornelius favored their readmission after suitable penance whereas Novatian wanted their complete exclusion. Novatian [251-258], an anti-Papa of Rome, held the title Founder of Roman Theology, had expected to be elected as he was the official spokesperson during the fourteen months when no Papa of Rome ruled. He believed that serious sin after baptism could not be forgiven. Papa Cyprian of Carthage and Papa Dionysius of Alexandria supported Cornelius. As a result of the support, Cornelius Papa of Rome excommunicated Papa Novation at a synod of sixty Papas. A rigorist group of Romans both clergy and laity refused to accept Cornelius' over-lenient position. Roman Emperor Trebonoanus Gallus [251-253] banished Cornelius Papa of Rome to Centumcellae near Rome in 252." European History: 249-350 AD 251 Decius killed at Abricium and Trebonianus Gallus becomes emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 251 Anthony born in Egypt, the first hermit/monk. Chronology of the Early Church: 3rd Century 253 Gallus is murdered by his own soldiers and Aemilianus becomes emperor for a short time. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 253 Valerian (P. Licinius Valerianus) is proclaimed emperor by the legions in Rhaetia and is accompanied by his son P. Licinius Gallienus. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 253 The Alemanni and Franks had penetrated as far as Spain and are believed to have originally come from Sweden. The Franks are a group of people who do not wish to be enslaved by Rome and therefore formed a confederation. The Franks are a group of various Scandivian warriors, distinguished by their long hair, blue eyes and largeness of limb. The Frank confederation is slave traders, sellers of swords, mercenary raiders and farmers. They established their leaders by elections, by the assembly of free men. European History: 249-350 AD 253 the 22nd Bishop of Rome is St. Lucius I. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 253 Lucius I [253-254], a Roman, is elected Papa of Rome. Roman Emperor Gallus [251-253] immediately banished Lucius I from the capital. He made no concessions to the anti-Papa of Rome Novatian. Valerian [253-260] became Caesar of the Roman Empire. Gallienus [253-268] became co-ruler of the Roman Empire. European History: 249-350 AD 254 the 23rd Bishop of Rome is St. Stephen I. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 254 "Stephen I [254-257], an ardent Roman, is elected Papa of Rome and clashed with the influential Cyprian, Papa Cyprian [200-258] of Carthage. Papa Cyprian, the Churches of Syria, Asia Minor and the Churches of North Africa believed baptism administered by heretics is invalid and therefore need to be re-baptized by a non-heretic baptism. The Church of Rome, Alexandria and Palestine are adamant that heretical baptism is valid. Papas held two synods in 255 and 256 that reaffirmed his position. Stephen Papa of Rome determined to impose Roman theology on the churches held his own synod and excommunicated the Churches of Asia Minor. Many Papas put the blame on Stephen for splitting the church due to his uncompromising position. Cyprian [d.258] claimed that Papas of Rome are no more Papa among other Papas. Stephen I (254-257) attempted to establish his authority by adopting the phrase 'the Chair of Peter' means the Papa of Rome has authority over the other churches. This move failed to impress anyone and the issue is laid to rest until Damasus [366-384] and Leo I [440-461] again raised the issue. The Federation of Christian Churches held to their own customs and usage, loosely ruled by synods with no special authority vested in any one Church." European History: 249-350 AD 254 Origen dies. Chronology of the Early Church: 3rd Century 256 "The Roman Rhine frontier shattered and the Gaul are overrun by the Franks and Alemanni confederation. The Franks and Alemanni penetrated toward Spain and Italy. The Celts struck toward the Balkins into Anatolia. Licinius Valerianus [253-259], who became Roman Emperor, is the general who fought unsuccessfully against the Franks this season." European History: 249-350 AD 257 the 24th Bishop of Rome is St. Sixtus II. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 257 "St.Sixtus alias Xystus [257-258], a Greek, is elected Papa of Rome. Roman Emperor Valerian [253-260] ordered Christians to take part in Roman ceremonies and forbid them to assemble. The Emperor issued a second edict ordering the execution of Christian Papas, priests and deacons. The Papa of Rome and six deacons are executed August 6, 258 in the cemetery of Praetextatus. The Emperor effectively eliminated the whole Diaconal College of Rome driving the Roman Church underground. It would be many months before the Roman Church is rebuilt." European History: 249-350 AD 258 Bishop Cyprian of Carthage beheaded in the Valerian persecution. Chronology of the Early Church: 3rd Century 258 "Thascius Caecilianus Cyprinus (Cyprian) [c205-258]. He converted to Christianity in 246 and was Bishop of Carthage (248-258). He was forced into hiding because of a succession of persecutions by Roman Emperors. He believed no one can have God as Father who does not have the Church as Mother. He also wrote there is no salvation outside the church. He was first exiled, then condemned to death and beheaded." European History: 249-350 AD 258 Roman Emperor Valerian [253-260] ordered anyone who would not renounce Christianity to be put to death. European History: 249-350 AD 259 the 25th Bishop of Rome is St. Dionysius. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes

Major Books and Events of the Decade 260-270 A.D.

260 Valerian is completely defeated at Edessa, is captured by the Persian Shapur, and dies in captivity, a disgrace. He suffered every Oriental cruelty while in captivity. Shapur liked to call himself 'King of kings of Iran and Non-Iran.' Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 260 Gallienus becomes sole emperor Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 260 St. Dionysius [260-268], a Greek, became Papa of Rome and reorganized the church. Roman Emperor Fallienus [260-268] restored the church property and positions. European History: 249-350 AD 260-269 In what is now El Salvador, the Mount Ilopango volcano erupts. The early Maya civilization is driven away by several hundred miles, and it takes some 200 years before their culture revives. [Hellemans, p.53] 260-269 Ma Chun, using differential gears, builds a "south-pointing carriage." [Hellemans, p.53] 263 Liu Hui writes the Hai-tau Suan-king. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 264 Paul of Samosata, Papas of Antioch [260-272] is condemned at the Synod of Antioch this year. He retained his position with the support of Queen Zendbia of Palmyra. European History: 249-350 AD 265 Wang Fan writes a book on Astronomy, and gives the approximation Pi = 142/45 [D.E. Smith, p.553] 268 Claudius II [268-270] is Caesar of the Roman Empire. European History: 249-350 AD 268 While besieging one of his rivals in Milan, Gallienus is murdered by some of his officers and Claudius II becomes emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 269 Claudius II (Gothicus) destroys a huge invading Goth army at Naissus. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 269 the 26th Bishop of Rome is St. Felix I. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 269 St. Felix I [269-274], a Roman, is elected Papa of Rome. European History: 249-350 AD 269 When Septima Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, captures Egypt, the Library of Alexandria is partly burned. [Hellemans, p.52]

Major Books and Events of the Decade 270-280 A.D.

270 Aurelian [270-275] is Caesar of the Roman Empire. He would kill thousands of Christians during his reign. European History: 249-350 AD 270 Death of Claudius II, and Aurelian becomes emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 270 Aurelian (a.k.a. 'restitutor orbis' = restorer of the world) built a wall around Rome and defeated Queen Zenobia of Palmyra whose husband was Odenathus and infant son was Vaballathus. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 271 The first type of magnetic compass is probably used in China for finding South. [Hellemans, p.53] 271 The Roman Empire attempted to impose the Sun God as a single God concept in an attempt to unify the splintered Roman religions. December is chosen to celebrate the one true Sun God. The Roman Christians would later select December 25 to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, likely to align with this Roman initiative. European History: 249-350 AD 273 Aurelian returns to Palmyra and destroys the city. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 274 Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantius), the eldest son of Constantius Chlorus and his first mistress Helena (a tavern-keeper from Bithynia), born at Naissus in upper Moesia. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 274 Aurelian establishes December 25 as Natalis Solis Invicti. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 275 Aurelian assassinated near Byzantium during a campaign against the Persians, and Tacitus becomes emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 251-275 AD 275 Diophantus writes a very important book on Algebra and the Theory of Numbers. [D.E. Smith, p.553] The Arithmetica by Diophantus [born c.210] is the earliest treatise known devoted to algebra, although many of the problems involve solutions in integers only (diophantine equations). Diophantus obtains negative numbers as solutions to equations, but dismisses them as 'absurd.' [Hellemans, p.51] 275 Sporus of Niceae writes on the History of Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 275 the 27th Bishop of Rome is St. Eutychianus. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 275 St. Eutychian [275-283], a native of Tuscany, is elected Papa of Rome. Some suggest he decreed that only beans and grapes could be blessed at mass. European History: 249-350 AD 276 Probus [276-282] is Caesar of the Roman Empire. European History: 249-350 AD 276 End of Tacitus' reign, and Florian becomes emperor for 88 days from April to June. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 276 M. Aurelius Probus, governor of Asia, forced to become emperor by his soldiers. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD

Major Books and Events of the Decade 280-290 A.D.

280 Anatolius writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 280 Porphyrius writes a Life of Pythagorus. [D.E. Smith, p.553] 282 Probus murdered by a body of troops engaged in draining the swamps about Sirmium, and Carus becomes emperor. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 283 Carus dies during a thunderstorm. Some sources say lightning struck him, but the Praetorian Prefect Aper probably had a hand in his death. His two sons Carinus and Numerian succeed him with Carinus in the West and Numerian in the East. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 283 St. Gaius alias Caius [283-296], a Dalmatin, possible relative of Emperor Diocletian [284-305], resulting in a peaceful reign. Carinus and Numerian held co-rule of the Roman Empire. European History: 249-350 AD 283 the 28th Bishop of Rome is St. Caius. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 284 Diocletian [284-305] is Caesar of the Roman Empire. He would kill thousands of Christians during his reign including Marcellinus (296-304) Papa of Rome. Tetrarchy is the co-ruler of the Roman Empire. European History: 249-350 AD 284 Diocletian takes imperial throne in the east. Chronology of the Early Church: 3rd Century 284 Consuls are Bassus, Carinus, Numerian, and Diocletian. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 284 Numerian dies, and Diocletian proclaimed emperor on August 29 by the army at Chalcedon. Fixed wages and prices with the Edict of Maximum Prices. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 284 Diocletian bans alchemical books Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 285 Consuls are Aristobulus, Carinus, and Diocletian. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 285 Diocletian faces and kills Carinus in March during a battle in the Margus Valley of Moesia. Carinus had the upper hand, but one of his own generals killed him for seducing his wife, making Diocletian the undisputed emperor of the empire. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 286 Diocletian takes on Maximian as his colleague and assigns him the Western empire Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 287 Consuls are Diocletian and Maximian. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 287 Carausius becomes emperor in Britain Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 287 The first recorded Viking raids are on the Lower Rhine. The Viking age is traditionally considered as 789 1100 A.D. European History: 249-350 AD 288 Ianuarianus consul Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 289 Consuls are Maximian and Bassus. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 289 Liu Chih may have been the Chinese writer who gave the approximation Pi = 3.125 [D.E. Smith, p.553]

Major Books and Events of the Decade 290-300 A.D.

290 Consuls are Diocletian and Maximian. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 290-299 Death of mathematician Diophantus. [Hellemans, p.53] 292 Diocletian establishes tetrarchy (rule of four men). Diocletian and Galerius are 'Augustus and Caesar' in East; and Maximian and Constantius are the 'Augustus and Caesar' in West. Diocletian's seat of government was in Nicomedia. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 292 Birth of Pachomius, a great organizer of monks. Chronology of the Early Church: 3rd Century 293 Emperor Carausius murdered by Allectus. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 295 Diocletian's Palace is built on the Dalmatian coast of Yugoslavia. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 295 Hilary of Poiters born. Chronology of the Early Church: 3rd Century 296 Roman-British insurgent Allectus dies, and Britain is restored to the empire. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 296 Diocletian's Egyptian expedition. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 296 the 29th Bishop of Rome is St. Marcellinus. The Bishops of Rome, the Popes 296 St. Marcellinus [296-304] is elected Papa of Rome. European History: 249-350 AD 297 The first mention of Picts by the Romans is made this year. The Scots called them Cruithni, the mother of Gaelic, Irish and Manx. European History: 249-350 AD 297 Rome recaptures Armenia and Mesopotamia. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 298 Persians defeated. Chronology of Roman History: 276-300 AD 300 "The Scandian-Frank confederation settled on the edge of the great forests of Northern Europe near the Rhine river. To the south are the Scandia Visigoth (Western Goth) or Burgundian peoples. The Celts and Picts from Scotia (Ireland) and Scotland are making regular trips to Iceland. Germanic-Saxon savages are plundering the Roman British shores. They are considered fierce and cruel; women and children are included in their plunder. Roman Christianity began to dominate as it offered more to the average person as a result of its absorption policy concerning other religious traditions. The Christian faith and dogma suppressed the useful image of the world so painfully drawn by ancient geographers. During the life time of Eusebius [260-339], the Christian Churches are divided concerning which books are canonical, non- canonical and outright fraud. The gospel according to John, who died about 98 A.D., is considered the first of the Gospels and the greatest of the four. Disputed books include Revelations of John, James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Shephard by Paul, Revelations by Peter, Epistle by Barnabas, Teachings of the Apostles, Gospel of Hebrews, Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John and other Apostles. The second Epistle of Peter is still being used in many Churches. The Shephard by Hermas is also uncanonical, but some consider it indispensable." European History: 250 AD - 329 AD 300 Pappas of Alexandria writes a very important book on geometry. Suidas [10th century] claimed that Pappas was in the reign of Theodosius [379-395], yet others placed him as much as two centuries earlier. In any case, his great work, the Mathematical Collections consisted of 8 books, of which only the last 6 are extant. * the 3rd book was on Proportian, Inscribed Solids, and the Duplication of the Cube * the 4th book was on Spirals, and higher plane curves (i.e. Quadratrix) * the 5th book was on Maximum and Isoperimetric figures * the 6th book was on the Sphere * the 7th book was on Analysis and its history among the Greeks * the 8th book was on Mechanics. [D.E. Smith, p.136] Pappus, born roughly 260 in Egypt, not only summarized the goemetric knowledge of his day, but wrote numerous clever proofs believes to have been original to himself. His writing is our best source of information on various Hellenistic mathematicians, including Euclid and Apollonius. [Hellemans, p.53] 300-309 Astronomer Chen Zhuo of China makes a single star map by combining the 4th Century BC star maps of Shih Shen, Gan De, and Wu Xien. [Hellemans, p.52] 300-309 Chinese development of the Abacus may have been underway, although the first printed reference was not until 1593 AD. [Hellemans, p.52] 300-309 Chinese discover the use of coal instead of wood as fuel for making Cast Iron. [Hellemans, p.52] 300-309 Mayans create the day-count calendar, which combines the 52-year-cycle of the 365-day Olmec calendar with the 260-day "tzolkin" cycle (13 cycles of 20 days each). They date events back to 3000 BC. [Hellemans, p.52]

Other Key Dates and Stories of this Third Century

{to be done}

Major Writers Born this Third Century

210 Diophantus see: [275] c.250 Iamblichus (c.250-c.330): Neoplatonist Philosopher, born in Chalcis, Coele-Syria; a pupil of Anatolius and Porphyrius, Mathematician, wrote several books. He wrote an Arithmetic..., see [325] He tried to unify Plato, Pythagoras, Hermeticism, and the literature of Magic (in his book "De mysteriis"). 260 Pappas of Alexandria (260-???), Mathematician: see [300] 2??-3?? Astronomer Chen Zhuo of China makes a single star map by combining the 4th Century BC star maps of Shih Shen, Gan De, and Wu Xien. see: [300-309] 2??-3?? Hsi Han, in his Record of Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions, gives the first written account of the biological control of pests see: [304] ???-??? Metrodorus, who compiled the arithmetical epigrams in the Greek Anthology, may have flourished around 325, but may have been as much later as 500. see: [325] Chen Zhuo: see 300-309 Hsi Han: see 304 More: {to be done} Data is scattered through the main body of text, and more should be added.

Major Writers Died this Third Century

254 Death of Origen ??? Pappas of Alexandria (260-???), Mathematician: see [300] 290-310 Diophantus born 210, see: [275] {to be done} Data is scattered through the main body of text, and more should be added.

Third Century Science Background

The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site break these apart (science/math versus political/military history). Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about Christian saints, and poetry of equivalent function.

Third Century Mundane Background

See the political/military history in the main body of text, and the index of Politico-Military People of the Century, below. The biggest names in Mundane History of the Fourth Century included: {to be done}

Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology

|Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Literary Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: When the Goddess Ruled |5th Millennium BC: Mesopotamia, Egypt |4th Millennium BC: Iceman of the Alps, Old Kingdom Egypt |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: Homer, Buddha, Confucius, Euclid |1st Century: Jesus, Cymbeline, Caligula, Pliny |2nd Century: Hero, Ptolemy, Nichomachus |3rd Century: 3 Kingdoms China, Legendary Japan [you are here] |4th Century: Constantine, Hypatia, Ausonius |5th Century: Rome in Crisis, Dark Ages start |6th Century: Boethius, Taliesin, Mohammed |7th Century: Bede, Brahmagupta, Isidorus |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights [you are here] |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners
Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: {to be done}
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