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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
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Jump Straight to the Chronology, or else first read: Note on dates: "BP" means "Before Present", so 3000 BC = 5000 BP

4th MILLENNIUM B.C.: Executive Summary

{to be done} Fiction About the 4th MILLENNIUM B.C. {to be done} Jump to Century-by-Century Chronology of 4th MILLENNIUM B.C.: 4,000 BC to 3,900 BC 3,900 BC to 3,800 BC 3,800 BC to 3,700 BC 3,700 BC to 3,600 BC 3,600 BC to 3,500 BC 3,500 BC to 3,400 BC 3,400 BC to 3,300 BC 3,300 BC to 3,200 BC 3,200 BC to 3,100 BC 3,100 BC to 3,050 BC 3,050 BC to 3,000 BC 3,000 BC to 2,900 BC

4000 BC to 3900 BC

"Agriculture was long believed to have begun in a single centre in the Middle East, about 4000 BC. Modern dating techniques have since disproved this hypothesis; they indicate agriculture already in progress about 7000 BC, and archaeologists have uncovered evidence of animal domestication thousands of years earlier. It has also been shown that some plants were probably cultivated in the New World, which suggests that agricultural development took place simultaneously in many areas and thus did not spread from a single originating centre." Encyclopedia Britannica: agriculture, history of 4000 BC: Global; Holocene delta development worldwide Holocene delta development worldwide transgressive sequence of deltaic deposits #160. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Mesopotamia; Mesopotamia delta Stratigraphic relations by the authorshowing the rapid development of a rich, fertile delta in Mesopotamia #165. Contents: Late Quaternary Chronology Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Europe; Atlantic hypsithermal Atlantic hypsithermal "Eden"; wet warm conditions in Near East, time of plenty. #2. Ice Core Evidence Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Ireland; Irish elm decline Irish elm decline, 4000 to 3250 BC #88. Iceman Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Global; Valleys in the Holocene #142. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: USA; On Mississippi at 6000 BP, slowing sea level rise at 10-15 below present level, beginning of meander belts. Development of Pine Island Beach trend, a linear sand shoal developed when sea level slowed 10-15 ft. below present level at mouth of Mississippi (currently beneath Lake Pontchartrain). Transition from Middle to Late Archaic period. Alternative view (Penland) that sea level rose to above present level at this time. See Sancier Geomorphology and Quaternary Geologic History of the Lower Mississippi Valley, 1994 (1.4525). #492. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Mesopotamia; Sea level, Persian Gulf Recent (1996) reviews of Persian Gulf paleosealevel indicates that levels were up to 2 meters higher than at present during the period 6000-4000 BP (Earth and Plan Sci Letters 142 (1996) 43-57. #64. Stanford "3000 BC" notes

3,900 BC to 3,800 BC

7000-3900 BC: Stone Age in Cyprus The first settlers came to Cyprus during the Neolithic or Stone Age, possibly on rafts from Asia Minor. One of the largest known settlements was at Khirokitia where the remains of 'beehive' stone houses can be found. Other remains can be found at Kastros and Tentra. The History of Cyprus in 90 Centuries

3,800 BC to 3,700 BC

3800 BC: Early Indus Periods are long, chronological detail is poor except within certain sites but improving rapidly * Neolithic 7000 - 3500 BC (3500 years) * Mehrgarh I-II 7000 -4500 BC (2500 years) * Mehrgarh III 4500-3800 BC (700 years) * Early Indus Period 3500 - 2600 BC (900 years) Emergence of Civilizations in the Indus valley: Early Indus period

3,700 BC to 3,600 BC

3700 BC: Mesopotamia; Father Burrows #125. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3700 BC: Mesopotamia; Burrows' flood, Jesuit paleographer Burrows, who accompanied Leonard Woolley on his 1930s archeological dig at Ur (and who later figures a the murderer in Agatha Christie's "Murder in Mesopotamia"), dates Mesopotamian/biblical flood at 3700 BC (January 1930 Dublin Review) #3. Stanford "3000 BC" notes

3,600 BC to 3,500 BC

3600 BC: "By predynastic Amratian times, about 3600 BC, agriculture appears to have begun in the valley alluviums of the Nile. By late predynastic times, about 3100 BC, there is evidence of a considerable growth in wealth consequent upon the earlier agricultural development and accompanied by a more integrated social system." Encyclopedia Britannica: agriculture, history of 3600 BC: California; Central coast 3600 Central California coast investigations show that there had been little laminated sediment deposition on the continental shelf of California after 5000 BP, (Gardner, J.V. Geology 14, p 691-694, 1986) #4. Stanford "3000 BC" notes

3,500 BC to 3,400 BC

3500: "As far as is known, no animals were domesticated in the Americas until a comparatively late date. Available evidence seems to indicate that, in spite of the early domestication of some plants, village life did not begin to develop on any scale until 3500 BC or possibly somewhat earlier in Mexico, following domestication of corn. The process of agricultural development was therefore rather slow, occurring in widely dispersed centres, often in areas of poor fertility, sometimes even in deserts. Cacao (chocolate used to make a beverage), tomatoes, and avocados were cultivated. Irrigation, terracing, and the construction of islands in lakes increased land usage in drier areas. The land was cleared by chopping and burning, and the seeds were sown with the aid of fire-hardened digging sticks (see photograph ). Crops were stored in pits or granaries. The corn was prepared by boiling in limewater and by wet grinding. Cornmeal paste was then made into tortillas or flat cakes and gruel. Fine textiles were woven of cotton, and paper was made from tree bark. Village life was based on the extended family, composed of parents and their children's families, which provided the labour force. Villages were organized into larger territorial units based on ceremonial centres commonly in the form of flat-topped pyramids. Larger territorial units developed early in the 1st millennium AD." Encyclopedia Britannica: agriculture, history of 3500 BC: Early Indus Periods are long, chronological detail is poor except within certain sites but improving rapidly * Neolithic 7000 - 3500 BC (3500 years) * Mehrgarh I-II 7000 -4500 BC (2500 years) * Mehrgarh III 4500-3800 BC (700 years) * Early Indus Period 3500 - 2600 BC (900 years) Emergence of Civilizations in the Indus valley: Early Indus period 3500-2600 BC: Kot Diji * one of the better known settlements of the Early Indus period (3500-2600 BC) * 33 km (20 miles) from the Indus river today, but when occupied, the river flowed right by it; the river has shifted course since then. * massive defensive wall, lower part built of stone from the outcrop the site is on, upper part of mud brick; preserved to 4-5 m high (13-16 feet) * defense, animal protection, or flood control? Emergence of Civilizations in the Indus valley: Early Indus period 3500 BC: Mesopotamia; Leonard Woolley's flood 3500 BC: Leonard Woolley, head of the joint British American team excavating Ur, dates the flood layer found at the base of the ruins of Ur at 3500BC. #6. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: Morocco; Arid interval Arid interval 5010-4860 (+/- 150) at Tigalmamine in montane Morocco. Corresponding decline in oaks (Quercus rotundifolia and canariensis) in favor of Gramineae suggests reduced winter precipitation corresponding to cooler sea temperatures in North Atlantic. Lamb, H. F. et al, Nature, 373 p 134 (1995). #70. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: Mesopotamia; Tigris and Euphrates alluvial plain At about 3500 BC the lower Tigris and Euphrates alluvial plain was under extreme pressure from both rapidly rising sea and buildup of the Karun delta. Under such unstable conditions, a large storm in the Zagros mountains could trigger a diversion of the Karun in an upstream direction, resulting in a flood filling of the lower Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, similar to the filling of the Salton Sea in the early part of this [20th] century. #84. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: South Carolina; South Carolina sea level A recent sea level curve from South Carolina indicates a sudden sea level rise (transgression) beginning about 3500 BC, followed by an equally rapid 2 meter drop a century or two later. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Pub. 27, p. 192. #79. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: Global; Holocene delta development worldwide The sequence of Holocene delta development worldwide is indicated as beginning at 6000 BC; by 3000 BC a transgressive sequence of deltaic deposits had developed as shown on the figure. Under conditions of rapid sea level rise these fresh deposits would have been swampy and waterlogged. However, a sudden regression would leave a silty, nutrient-rich floodplain well- drained with a slightly receding (downcutting) river, a condition ideal for irrigated agriculture. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Pub. 27, p. 235. (trans.html) #78. EF PRO-EUSTASY Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: Mesopotamia; Rain storms, climatic oscillation. Millennial-scale warming terminates with a period of climatic disturbance and flooding in the lower latitudes (Nile, Arizona, Morocco, Israel, Mesopotamia), followed by a drought; general, worldwide, climate-driven shock to early societies living in "edenic" geography of plenty with "fertile crescent" survivors organizing into more centrally administered culture based on irrigation.  #487. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: Fiji; Fiji sea level A recent sea level curve from Fiji suggest a 1 meter drop between 3500 and 3000 BC. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Pub. 27, p. 313. (fiji.html) #77. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: China; Han River delta Recent graph of sea level data from the Han River delta. #162. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: Europe; Upper treeline in alps Upper treeline in alps and elsewhere drops 100 meters in 3500 BC then rises to 2500 BC indicating a cold spell at 3500 (Markograf 1974 in Lamb, p 374) #5. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: China; Han River delta Recent data from the Han River delta indicate a rapid sea level rise (3 meters) from 4000 to 3000 BC. The data are not detailed enough to permit accurate charting of century scale variations, though the data at 3200 BC suggest the possibility of a major oscillation at that time. (Journal of Coastal Research, Special Pub. 27, p. 133. #80. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3500 BC: Europe; Early agriculture Introduction of early agriculture in Europe: "The Neolithic Mosaic on the North European Plain" Peter Bogucki Princeton University; web site #65. The Neolithic Mosaic on the North European Plain Stanford "3000 BC" notes

3,300 BC to 3,200 BC

3400 BC: Egypt; Pharoah Sneferu at Meydum 3400 C14 date (4802) of Cypress beam at temple of Pharoah Sneferu at Meydum. First radiocarbon date by Libbey. #7. Nubia: The Land Upriver Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3400 BC: Mississippi; Mississippi delta Carcoal nut dated at 4869 rcybp 6 meters below MSL at Bayou Lafourche at Paincourtville in Mississippi delta represents beginning of delta formation in this area. Other C14 dates indicate regular rise in alluviation thereafter. Science #60. Stanford "3000 BC" notes

3,300 BC to 3,200 BC

3300 BC: California; Mid Holocene wet Mid Holocene Atlantic wet period features high human population growth in Santa Barbara area (4600-4800 BP). This follows an earlier warmer time about 5500 BP with older milling (metate) grinding techniques and is followed by another hot spell about 3500 BP with increasing hunting, sea fishing, residential bases, status ranking, mortar and pestle use for large pulpy seeds, technology in general. From Glassow, UCSB Anthropology Dept, 4/9/93 talk at Asilomar #9. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3300 BC: Europe; Belgian coast Along the Belgian coast, recent work shows that "two rather distinct retardations appear to be present; a more marked one at about 7500-7000 cal yrs. B.P. and a second one at about 5500-5000yrs. calB.P." In other words, sea level rise was temporarily reversed at these times.  The idea of irregular sea level rise, introduced my Fairbridge (1961), and subsequently dismissedby uniformitarian interpretations, has recently been reinforced by analysis of Australian coralreefs(4). Fairbridge's sea level curves are discussed in the Encyclopedia Brittanica. They had been suppressed in favor of the more uniform curve of Shepard, though the irregular model is now coming backinto vogue with the return to respectability of more catastrophic ways of looking at the data. #75. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3300 BC: Global; July summer cooling, Soviet Union Maximum Piora July summer cooling according to pollen counts between 60 and 70 degrees latitude in the Soviet Union (4.7 ka assumed to be c14date) #8. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3300 BC: California; San Francisquito Bay The upper graph shows C14 dates for muds and vegetation in the San Francisquito Bay and delta; C14 dates have been corrected to give calendar years, and the effects of autocompaction have been removed. Comparison of these data with the world wide data shown in the lower curves provides reasonable latitude for short term sea level regressions without proving them. It also appears that the data are in close enough vertical agreement to suggest vertical crustal stability in the late Holocene in San Francisco Bay, though this is not the conclusion of Lajoie and the other authors of this USGS study. #76. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3270 BC: New England; Elm collapse New England elm collapse: 4650 BP-1950+570= 3270 BC Cause remains controversial. #10. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: ; #328. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: Florida; Pine bursts Iceburg-triggered Florida pine bursts events occur every 5709 years, based on a sequence beginning about 35 thousand years ago. The last pine burst was about 4650 years BP, or 3250 BC if we correct carbon dates. The one before that is 12,000 years ago, corresponding to the disastrous Younger Dryas period. That suggests that something may be about to happen. (Science, 7/9/93). #12. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: Global; Atmospheric methane Atmospheric methane from GRIP ice core with lowest value 580 ppbv at 5.2K yrs. BP followed by rapid increase of 40 ppbv over 200 years; variously attributed to clathrate or permafrost outgassing, decrease in tropospheric oxidation, or abrupt increase in low-latitude wetlands. Blunier, T, et al, Nature, 374 47 (1995). #69. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: Global; Sulfate in GISP2 Sulfate in GISP2 ice core; curve is a low-tension robust spline of sulfate concentrations with average about 30 ppb. The cause of the 150 year peak at 5.2K yrs BP is not known, but the authors suggest the possibility of an anomalous nearby temporary body of open water (polynya) which generated marine biogenic sulfate. Zielinski, GA et al, Nature, 264 948 (1994). #68. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: California; Santa Barbara basin off the coast paleoclimatic data from sediment cores in the Santa Barbara basin off the coast of California, sediment bioturbidity and snail form, also indicating a discontinuity, possibly abrupt cooling, at 5.2k yrs BP. Kennett, JP and Ingram, BL, "A 20,000 yr record of ocean circulation and climate change from the Santa Barbara basin" Nature v 377 p 510, 12 Oct 1995. #74. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: Europe; Piora oscillation, Europe Piora oscillation, named after Piora Valley in Europe where climatic irregularites were first noted. A major break in the climatic regime which resulted in a readvance of Alpine glaciers, a retreat of forests. Elms and linden trees declined in Europe and North America. In northern Europe the oak and hazel declined or disappeared. Changes occurred as far away as the Andes, Alaska, and the Kenyan highlands, so the disturbance was evidentally of global magnitude extended throughout the world. 3500 to 3000 BC. Lamb p.120; Lamb notes that this is the time of the rapid spread of New Stone Age cultures in Europe; meanwhile there seems to have been a sudden stimulus to the growth of organized civilization, to deliberate cultivation along with development of the tools necessary for such activities. In Mesopotamia, and in the arid areas of the middle east in general, a period of wet years in which oases would have expanded and wild fruits and nuts abounded would have been followed by a growing dryier and less hospitable climate in which perhaps organized civilization would have been necessary for continued survival. Flourishing of civilizations in the Indus valley, notably at the city of Harappa, starting about 3000 BC with lands under cultivation that exceeded the areas of Mesopotamia and Egypt occurred up until about shortly after 2000 BC when drought brought an end of this culture. As the 3rd millenium progressed the flooding became erratic and finally disappeared, giving way to a period of calm in which travel by sea and over high mountain passes encouraged northerly migration and trade and exchange of metallic and monument building technologies that we now know as the Bronze Age. Production of great funerary megaliths in northern Europe and the growth of prestige- oriented Beaker culture spelled the end of thousands of years of hunter-gatherer cultures, and the rise of centralized heirarchical civilization. #13. http://www.usl.edu/~aa/indus_valley.txt Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: Egypt; Egypt Nile delta A core (5-44) taken at the south margin of one of the coastal lagoons at the north end of the Nile delta showed a layer of potsherds 25 ft. below sea level dated at 3,500 to 4,500 CYBP. The layer was underlain by 20 ft. of lagoon mud which would have compressed about 3 feet so the corrected depth would be close to 22 ft. below present sea level. Accounting for deep subsidence (6 ft., according to Stanley et al) would place the "buried civilization" at 16 ft. below sea level. Boring 5-7 drilled south of the coastal Lake Manzala, Egypt, about 40 km from today's shoreline shows a layer of delta front sand from 4 to 5 meters below ground surface deposited at about 4,600 BP (interpolated from lower date of 5,720 RCYBP) (Coutellier and Stanley). #15. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: California; San Francisquito history Historical geomorphology of San Francisquito Creek at here #157. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: Global; Stormy weather Beginning of 1000 yrs wet, stormy weather. A neoglacial period characterized by wetter, stormier conditions; starting between 5000 and 4000 years BP and extending to about 3500 yrs BP (Enzel, Quat R 1992) #16. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: Europe; Newgrange start Occupation of Irish tomb sites. Charcoal from the Newgrange and Knowth tombs in Ireland yield dates ranging from 2800 to 3250 B.C. #11. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: New England; Hemlock decline New England Decline in hemlock pollen in 45 New England lakes. The date of the disappearance is 4650 yrs BP with a standard deviation of 300 years. #14. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3250 BC: Peru; Huascaran glacier Peru Ice. We have seen elsewhere (see methane) how atmospheric concentrations of methane (swamp gas) during the Holocene (last 10,000 years) are related to the extent of wetlands especially at low (tropical) latitudes. Here in the lowermost graph we see oxygen isotope ratios and nitrate for the Huascaran glacier in Peru, showing an abrupt cooling at about 5200 BP.Compare this with the graph of methane; the two are mirror images. For other climatic indicators see the  paleoclimatic page. Thompson et al "Late Glacial Stage and Holocene Tropical Ice Core Records from Huascaran", Peru Science v 269 7 July 1995. #73. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3212 BC: Europe; French coastal megaliths French coastal sites. In 1971 at Pointe aux Oies, France, near Wimereux, the French geologist Mariette (1971) discovered several Neolithic sites in brackish water, one meter below sea level. He dates them by radiocarbon at 4500 BP and believes the sea level stood at -4 m at the time of their habitation. He says that there are other "menhirs" and passage graves in the intertidal zone dating from the same period of 5000-4500 BP. Another French paper indicates various sites at 4 to 5 meters beow sea level in the Seine and Somme valleys and estuaries. At Abbeville this interface is indicated as corresponding to an "emergence" (which seems to be a temporary lowered sea level) at the end of the Neolithic and beginning of the Bronze Ages, between 4600 and 3500 BP, the temporary lowering bottoming at 8 m below msl. At Montmartin, Calvados, a layer of shells dated at 4700 BP is at -2 m and is thought to have been deposited when msl was -4.7m;(Giresse 1969); at Briere, peats dated a 4630, 4480, and 4260 overlie brackish water clay at -1.3 m implying a sea level below - 4.5 at that time. (Giot, 1968) 4550 BP-1988= 3212 BC #30. Stanford "3000 BC" notes

3200 BC to 3100 BC

3200 BC: Global; GISP2 team, the latest from Most recent studies form the GISP2 team, 1995. #150. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3200 BC: Ireland; Cessair 3200 BC: Cessair and followers; 2500 BC: Partholan; 2000 BC: first Nemed invasion; 1500 BC: Fir Bolg (possibly the Belgae of NW Gaul, per Julius Caesar); 1000 BC: Tuatha de Danann; 300 BC: Sons of Mil (Celts, from Spain [possibly Helvetians who had migrated from what is now Switzerland to Northern Spain]); #81. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3200 BC: Mesopotamia; Tigris-Euphratres Sharp reduction of Tigris-Euphratres streamflow at 5200 cal yrs BP; also Iranian Plateau changes from humid to arid at same time. Johnson and Kay, Climatic Change, 3 (1981) p 251 #61. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3200 BC: Mesopotamia; Mesopotamia delta Stratigraphic relations showing the rapid development of a rich, fertile delta are compared in Mesopotamia with the generic model of delta formation suggested by Stanley, who demonstrates that development of these potting grounds for civilization would have appeared only after 6000 BC. Significantly, no comparable environmental condition existed in any great river valley for more than 100,000 years. #83. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3200 BC: Missouri; Pomme de Terre River By 4600 BP Missouri"s Pomme de Terre River has undergone a major change in its regime, downcutting a channel about 15 ft deep. This is the largest record of change in the river"s behavior since 10,000 BP and is interpreted as having been caused by an abrupt climatic change toward wetting. 3200 Temporary French coastal emergence starting at 3200BC #18. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3200 BC: ; Paleoclimate Data Page #144. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3199 BC: Europe; Irish oaks Tree rings in Northern Ireland are narrow in 1153 BC 1628 BC 3199 BC and 4377 BC. The 3199 BC value is associated with an acidity peak in Camp Century ice cores dated at 3150 BC demonstrating unquestionably that adverse weather conditions, probably due either to volcanic eruption or meteoric impact, occurred at this time. Other narrow years are associated with frost rings observed in California bristlecone pines and with eruptions of Icelandic (Hekla 3 in 1159 BC) and Aegean (Santorini in 1628 BC) volcanoes. Baillie,Nature, 3/24/88 #19. Sacred Woods and the Lore of Trees Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3190 BC: Global; Heckla eruption, Iceland Heckla eruption: 4570 BP-1950+570= 3190 BC #20. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3160 BC: California; Sunnyvale girl Skull, Sunnyvale girl: 4500 bp-1950+570=3120 BC; corrected 8/8/96 at Ken Lajoie's office:: 4460-1950+650=3160 BC #23. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3150 BC: Global; Sulphate spike Sulphate spike in Greenland GISP2 core. #87. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3150 BC: Turkey; Lake Van Oscillation Abrupt change in sedimentation rate of Lake Van in Turkey indicative of rapid climatic fluctuation at (varve) dates of 5200 BP (3150 BC) (Palaeo, 122 (1996) p 107) #58. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3150 BC: Global; Paleoclimatic flood, global Climatic conditions at time of Mesopotamian flood, from several scientific sources of paleoclimatic data. See here. #21. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3150 BC: Greenland; Camp Century, Greenland Camp Century ice core acidity peak 3150 BC #22. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3150 BC: USA, SW; SW US flood peak 3000 SW US flood peak. According to Victor Baker of the University of Arizona, a period of flooding began in the southwest starting at about 5000 BP and ending at 3600 BP, with a sharp peak at about 4400 BP. (Starts at 3500 BC and peaks at 3150 BC) #43. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3150 BC: Ireland; Irish elm decline Decline, 4000 to 3250 BC #170. Iceman Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3150 BC: Europe; Iceman of the Alps On September 19, 1991, two German hikers, Helmut and Erika Simon, noticed what appeared to be a body sticking out of the glacial ice at an altitude of 3200 meters in the Alps -- just over the border in Italy, as it would later turn out. Within a few days the find had attracted the attention of scientists as well as police authorities and the corpse was hacked from the pocket of ice where it had been frozen, some considerable time before, as it turns out, for among the items the frozen man had been carrying were a copper axe and 14 arrows, and a dagger, all of apparent neolithic style. Radiocarbon dating of bits of tissue and bone yileded dates of 4525 and 4575 BP, or 3150 BC with subsequent dating of grass from the man's boots dated at another lab within a few years of the body. Among the many mysteries that surrounded the find was the fact that the body was naked and apparently mummified. Clothing was found nearby, and it has been surmised that the man may have have died of hypothermia, it being known that those suffering from this condition often remove all their clothing as death approaches. As for the mummification, it was suggested that the man may have been dried by the autumn dry winds, the foehn, that affect the Alps, though rarely at this altitude. A further mystery was the absence of genitals, a fact that once released seemed to give rise to lurid rumors, one of which, perpetrated by some a British magazine aimed at homosexual readership..., was that the corpse's anal passage contained sperm, and that this "fact" was being suppressed by the scientists conducting the investigations. Mean while, lawyers, diplomats, scientiests, and the media were engaged in a dispute over the ownership of the body and it's associated artifacts, with the Italians claiming that the Austrians had kidnapped the body from italian terrritory. "Sometimes I think," said the weary rector of Innsbruck University, were the iceman was being kept under refrigeration pending resolution of disputes, "Let's get a shovel, and then we can bury him again. (1992 Horizon/Nova documentary; Nature, 4 March 1993.) #17. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3150 BC: Mesopotamia; The Flood The Flood 3150 BC(?). Abrupt cooling at higher latitudes, possibly related to oceanic effects, especially in Northern Europe, corresponding to peak of megalith cultures. Probable oscillation in sea level shortly before 3000 BC followed by 10-15 ft. alluvial deposition in river valleys. #486. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3113 BC: Mexico; Mayan recreation Last Mayan date of recreation of the world following The Flood , Aug 12, 3113 BC. #24. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3110 BC: China; Yangtze River Dating of sediments in the Yangtze river delta suggests a sedimentation rate so high between 5060 and 4460 BP, accompanied by a major change of flow into a new subdelta, and followed by a period of deep water with clay deposition, that the authors are inclined to think that their date of 4460 BP must be mistaken. (Kam-biu Liu, Quat Res 1992) #25. Stanford "3000 BC" notes

3100 BC to 3050 BC

3,100 - 2,700 BC: Old Kingdom Egypt [David W. Koeller] 3150-2890 B.C.: First Dynasty Egypt. The kings were: Principal Kings of Egypt 3100 BC: Boston; Sticks from fish wier Sticks from Boston"s submerged "fish Weir" carbon dated at 4450, 4860, and 4800 years BP. This fixed the weir construction date at a little earlier than 3000 B.C. . It showed that the wattles from the famous fish weir had been carbon dated at 4800 years BP 4500 BP, altitude -27 MHW when sea level was -19 MHW or 14 ft below present sea level. Other dates 4450, 4860 BP.: "When sound wood is permanently submerged in fresh, brackish, or salt water or is buried at some depth in sand, gravel, clay, mud, or silt, the rate of decomposition is in general relatively slow," First as to sea level, the top of the 3 foot high weir was noted to be at 12 feet 10.9 inches below present sea level. Allowing for subsidence due to the 18 feet of fill that had been placed in Back Bay in the nineteenth century, (18 x 40 = 720 = 12") and assuming that the top of the weir was at mean sea level, mean sea level at the time would have been 17 feet 6 inches below present. (This might be on the high side since rebound of the earth's crust has also occurred in the Boston area). A study of pollen analysis of the organic peat at the site by the great palynologist Arthur Knox show a significant absence of hemlock pollen at the weir level, (only one of 144 specimens of wood extracted from the weir proved to be Tsuga (anadiensis) and a sequence of botanical changes correlative with pollen profiles in the nearby Wellington Marsh, which in combination suggest that the weir "was in use during a long dry period during which the Wellington Marsh in nearby Medford gradually dried up until shrubs and possibly trees began to grow upon the surface. This period of dryness was apparently terminated rather suddenly by an increase in rainfall and which occurred about the time the Fishweir was abandoned." The balmy period had lasted, the scholars concurred, from about 7000 to 5000 years before the present. At the time the experts concluded that the fishweir had been in use up about 1500 B.C.; though it was later shown that this date was much too recent. Curious too, the conditions that prevailed during the use of the weir, which had been covered with oysters, there prevailed a golden age in which the climate was as mild and balmy as Chesapeake Bay, an era of abundance abruptly terminated by a change in climate to wet, stormy, and colder conditions. The picture that emerged was this - a farflung community of native Americans existing for two thousand balmy years on the edge of a freshly flooded bay of .... Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3100 BC: Nebraska; Republican River, The Republican River in Nebraska shows a period of rapid downcutting dated at about 4500 BP, attributed to moister conditions. #31. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3100 BC: USA; End of alluvial period End of alluvial period; From 6000 to 4500 BP there is a period of active alluviation in many parts of the US. Wetter conditions improved vegetal cover and resutled in less sediment yield and consequent downcutting #29. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3100 BC: ; Sticks in Boston #141. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3100 BC: Egypt; Egypt, Unification Egypt, Unification #26. Pharaoh's Heart Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3100 BC: Greenland; GISP ice core 3100 BC rapid climatic change shown on GISP ice core. Science 12/22/95. #62. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3100 BC: Europe; Stonehenge (start) Earliest c14 dates on digging implements at Stonehenge #27. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3100 BC: California; Sierra cooling Cooling 4500 BP. In the California Sierra, warm temperatures from 7350 to 6000 BP are giving way to cooling with lake levels returning to the highs of early Holocene. #28. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3090 BC: Egypt; Egypt, Nile Earliest recorded flood recorded on a "Nilometer" in 3090 BC during the riegn of King Djer of the Early Dynastic period. #33. #28. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3075 BC: Ireland; Newgrange Megalithic Tomb Newgrange Megalithic Tomb 4425+/- 45 BP; 4415+/- 40 BP burnt soil from roof caulking of Newgrange; 4480+/- 60 BP vegetation from turf beneath main monument; 4399+/- 67 BP from site 16 near Knowth tomb site (O'Kelly, Early Ireland). (BP = uncalibrated radiocarbon date.) #82. Geniet: Knowth #28. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3075 BC: Ireland; Newgrange Megalithic Tomb Newgrange Megalithic Tomb radiocarbon dates #164. #28. Stanford "3000 BC" notes

3,050 BC to 3,000 BC

3050 BC: Europe; Brittany coast emerges Brittany coast emerges #35. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3050 BC: Canada; Devon Island 3050 Maximum oxygen 18 ratio for ice core taken from Devon Island ice cap in arctic Canada (Science, 19 Aug 1994, p1060) #34. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3050 BC: Greenland; Methane peak, Methane peak See 3020 BC: ; The Skull A human skull found in a California creek may tell us the story of the biblical flood #127. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3020 BC: California; Stanford Man II Stanford Man: 4350-1950+570= 2970 BC or #37. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3001 BC: Israel; Mt. Sedom Israel's Mt. Sedom is a salt diapir and changes in precipitation on the mountain can be measured by observing the width of caves formed by salt dissolution. The cave widths can in turn be compared with glacial advances (bigger caves = more rain = more glaciers) and with sea levels of the Dead Sea. The largest - by far - increase in cave. Mount Sedom-- otherwise known as Mt. Sodom, said to be the site of the famous biblical event -- is a salt formation (a diapir) bordering on the Dead Sea. Recent studies by Amos Nur at Stanford University suggest that the area was affected by an earthquake in xxx BC. This seems to correspond witht he biblical event. Changes in precipitation on the mountain can be measured by observing the width of caves formed by salt dissolution. The cave widths can in turn be compared with glacial advances (bigger caves = more rain = more glaciers) and with sea levels of the Dead Sea. The Wide caves on the face of the "mountain" located some 300 feet above the present sea level indicate an extremely wet period a millenium before this, in the early xxx age. Oak twigs and driftwood found in the caves must have been transported by floodwaters from some other part of the shore many miles away since oak trees do not grow in salt. Evidently the water level was some 300 feet higher at this time, implying heavy flooding on the Jordon River and lower evaporation rates due to cooler weather. No other event in the last ten thousand years matches this. The oak twigs have been dated by radiocarbon technique at 4350 + or - 75 RCYBP. Frumkin, A., "The Holocene climatic record..."1991 The Holocene 1, 3 pp. 191-200. #42. Stanford "3000 BC" notes INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE AND CULTURE AT 3000 BC University of Maine; Orono, Maine October 7-11, 1998 "Around 3000 BC, great changes befell climate and culture throughout the world. In the Pacific Basin, El Nino started up after a long hiatus, shifting from a permanent, stable condition to an irregular cycle that periodically throws climate into chaos. As a result, environmental conditions in the region became much less predictable from year to year, with 'anomalous' droughts in Australia, floods in Peru, and other effects of El Nino fluctuation occurring more frequently. In the Northern Hemisphere, warmer temperatures of the preceding 3,000 years cooled down to about what they are now; new evidence suggests that the Southern Hemisphere experienced a similar change in temperature. Desertification increased in Mesopotamia and Northern Africa." "In Peru, coastal cultures soon turned from nomadic fishing, hunting and gathering to living in bigger, permanent settlements and building large mud brick platforms - the precursors to the great adobe pyramids of the Moche, the Tucume and others. Pyramid building in Egypt also started around this time, when all the great civilizations of the ancient Middle East show major change. The Maya calendar has a zero date of 3113 BC, which is only a few years different from two of the zero years in Hindu calendars - and within the period of global environmental transformation centered at 3000 BC." "What drove the changes in climate? How extensive and intensive were they? In each region, how closely in time are the cultural and climatic changes linked? What role did the climate play in pushing prehistoric people to change their behavior and thus the course of human history?" In October of [1998], FERCO brought top scholars from the fields of archaeology and paleoclimatology together at the University of Maine to address these questions and compare notes. Often, scientists in these two areas of study do not have the personal contact necessary to recognize links and draw connections; this conference was a unique and timely opportunity to change that situation and assess current knowledge of culture and climate at 3000 BC." "This is not simply an simply an exercise in dusty history - the changes discussed took place at a time of warmer-than-present global temperature, similar to conditions predicted within the next century under models of global warming. Questions such as whether El Nino was stuck in a permanent on-phase when the world was warmer and what that meant for people may be relevant to understanding and planning for our own near future. The outcome of the conference will be a book written by the attending scientists and aimed at a general educated public as well as a scientific audience."

3,000 BC to 2,900 BC

Cuneiform writing is developed by the Sumerians as an outgrowth of their method of recording numbers [Hellemans p.10] Chapter 4 of John Heise's 'Akkadian language' on the origin and development of cuneiform. The Babylonians predict eclipses. [Hellemans p.10] Donkeys and mules are domesticated in what is now Israel. [Hellemans p.11] Cotton is cultivated in India. [Hellemans p.10] Tooth filling occurs in Sumer. [Hellemans p.10] Impressions of clay tokens used in Sumeria for showing measures of grain become standardized as the first numerals; a small measure of grain becomes 1, while a larger measure becomes 10; around the same time symbols are introduced for 60 and 360. [Hellemans p.11] c. 3,000 BC: Near modern Baghdad stood the city of Kish, which became one of the major cities of Sumer during the reign of King Etana. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788] 3,000-1,500 BC: In the Indus valley of Northern India, there were two great civilizations: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, both with architecture of court-yard houses, and both with modern drainage technology. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788] ca.3000 BC: There were, at this time, 12 city-states in Sumer:Sumerian King List (one of the earliest historical documents) claims that eight kings of Sumer reigned before the famous flood [see 5000 BC]. After that, it claims, the city-states vied for the temporary seat of power until roughly 2800 BC, when King Etana of Kish united them under his power. After Etana, the city-states warred for power; thus weakened the Sumerian Empire, ripening it for conquest, by the Elamites, and then by the Akkadians. Babylonia and Assyria according to Compton's Encyclopedia 3000 BC: Oregon; Diamond Pond, 3000 climate of the great basin, eastern Oregon. "By 4400 BP the water table was within 10 m of its present level. Rising water table at Diamond Pond suggests that midHolocene drought had given way to effectively moister conditions. Resultant higher regional water tables would enable the Malheur Marshes to expand into areas formerly occupoed by greasewood. This, together with the invasion of other saltbush and sagebrush communities into the upper reaches of greasewood-dominated areas, may explain the sudden drop in Sarcobatus pollen values." Peter Wigand, "Diamond Pond, Harney County, Oregon. Vegetation History and Water Table in the Eastern Oregon Desert." Great Basin Naturalist,47(3):427-458 (1987) #38. The Paleolimnology Home Page Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Jordon; Jawa: Lost City of the Black Desert The desert ruins of Jawa, best preserved of the Near Eastern Bronze Age cities, date to about 3000 BC when the rainfall was higher in the region. #485. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Europe; Carnac Megaliths Carnac Musee de Prehistoire. Aubrey Burl, archeologist. New York Times 7/14/96 #57. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: California; Bristlecone pines Coldest time (bristlecone pines) #40. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Louisiana; Native American mounds Native American built mounds at Baton Rouge (Louisiana State University), nearby Mount Sano, and Frenchman's Bend, at Stelly, in South central Louisiana; coastal sites including Banana Bayou and Avery Island, date at 3000 BC to 2500 BC. Joe Saaunders, Jon Gibson, Northeast La State University. Roger Kennedy, Hidden Cities. #54. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Global; Radiocarbon base has tripled Wendland and Bryce report that the radiocarbon base has tripled since their 1974 study. Wendland now places discontinuities in the years 4200 and 4800 rcbp (very close to the 4150, 4500, and 4750 of the original paper). Volcanic eruptions are at 4450 and 4700 BP. Statistical studies of climate and cultural discontinuities show a minor botanical and cultural discontinuity at 4240 and 4230 BP respectively #44. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: USA, W; General wetting Western U.S Transition at 3000 BC from early to middle Holocene, general wetting and deposition of alluvium in Western U.S. #46. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Mesopotamia; Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Civilisations: Archaeological, Geological and Astronomical Perspectives. (Upcoming Conference) See also Exploring the role of catastrophe in the recent history of the solar system and in the formative phases of ancient civilizations PLACE: Red Lion Hotel-Jantzen Beach, Portland, Oregon DATES: January 3-5, 1997 #67. SIS Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Europe; Wooden tracks 3000 In England, wooden tracks are built across marshy areas to maintain communications and travel; 3500-2500 BC #41. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Israel; Ancient Egyptians in Palestine Tomb in northern Negev desert reveals skeleton of a young woman indicating presence of ancient Egyptians at Halif Terrace in ancient Palestine around 3000 BC. Thoms Levy UC San Diego. Science 10/18/96 p 349. #56. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Wyoming; Ancient French Trapper George Gill of University of Wyoming discovers a 5000 yr old skeleton in Great Plains, exhibiting a skull that has teeth and shape "like a Frenchtrapper." (Economist, 10/19/96 p 84) #55. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Mesopotamia; Sumerians in Mesopotamia 3000 Sumerians in Mesopotamia By late fourth millenium a network of Sumerian towns has developed in lower Mesopotamia of which perhaps the best known is Uruk, some xx northwest of Ur, though even the detailed excavations by German archeologists of the temple of Anu and the nearby Eanna complex in the xxx did not extend any deeper than 3500 BC or roughly to the level of the flood. The city of Susa, xxx miles east on the foothills of the Zagros Mountains (now Iran) was the center of the Elamite civilization which was generally at war with the Sumerian valley occupants. The first known written documents appear at Uruk's Level IV along with representations of priestly figures. Absence of ideograms associated with war, king, and palace along with other evidence suggest a democratic and peaceable society engaged in trade to cities in the upper Euphrates, enjoying the pleasures of beer, fish, and sex, advised by sages and teachers and making exquisite pottery and engaging in diplomacy with neighboring cities. Evidently this changed sometime around 3000 BC with the arrival of strong social stratification, kings, and armies. Sumerians have moved from Eastern Anatolia bringing a new language and advanced culture to the existing Ubaidian peoples who have already started developing population centres in the lower Tigris Euphrates. #39. Rise and Fall of Ancient Sumer Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Global; Sea level stillstands Stillstands (such as we have experienced for the past millenium) or reversals of sea level rise produce seaward delta buildup and static contemporarily lowered groundwater levels, leading to desiccation and subaerial weathering with profiles, often littered with cultural remains, in lower river valleys as shown in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta profiles below. Our late holocene civilization is currently producing such a soil horizon. Many lower river valleys such as the Rhine show a depositional surface at about 15 ft depth corresponding to the probable profile of thelower Rhine valley at about 3000 BC. #71. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Egypt; Sumerian influences on Egypt Sumerian influences on Egypt at 3000 BC Sumerian influences on Egypt • #66. Sumerian Influence on Egypt Sumerian Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: China; Tibet, Sumxi Lake In Tibet, Sumxi Lake rose during a wet period at about 5000 BP then, experiencing an "abrupt disequilibrium," fell into a great drought in 4300 BP (The Holocene, June 1993) #48. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Peru; Onset of ENSO 5000 yrs B.P. Onset of ENSO in Peru following 3000 yrs of warm stable climate. Science 9/13/96 p 1531. Probable world-wide beginning of climatic irregularity. (e.g. California, Africa, etc.) #59. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: California; California hunter-gatherer transition Hunter-gatherer transition #45. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 3000 BC: Sahara; Canoes and elephants In prehistory the Sahara was different, raining all the time, full of canoes and elephants, Lake Chad one hundred feet higher. For12,000 years the desert had supported game allowing hunting and herding or nomadic pastoralism, but then the land began to dry up. One reference says that between 6000 and 4000 BC the Nile had been subject to flooding and lake leves at Fayum were high until a drier period at about 3500 BC followed by a wet spike at about3200 BC. This is supposed to be at the time corresponding to the predynastic Nagada (Naqadah?) cultures (Brewer, D.J., The Holocene, 1992) . #72. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 2970 BC: Europe; Floods in Netherlands Floods in the Southern Netherlands a series of inundations occur 4,350 to 4,075 years BP corresponding an alteration of wet and dry periods (Beyens 1982) #47. Stanford "3000 BC" notes -------------------------------------------------- |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |4th Millennium BC: YOU ARE HERE |3rd Millennium BC: Cheops, Gilgamesh, Sargon |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: {name to be added here} |1st Century: {name to be added here} |2nd Century: {name to be added here} |3rd Century: {name to be added here} |4th Century: {name to be added here} |5th Century: {name to be added here} |6th Century: {name to be added here} |7th Century: name to be added here |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

Where to Go for More

Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. {more to be done}
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