TIMELINE 5th MILLENNIUM B.C.


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TIMELINE 5th MILLENNIUM B.C.

Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 48 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 29 July 2003 [from 13 to 19 Kilobytes].
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5th MILLENNIUM B.C.: Executive Summary

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Fiction About the 5th MILLENNIUM B.C.

5000 B.C. and Other Philosophical Fantasies A Universal Philosophical Refutation ------------------------------------ A philosopher once had the following dream. First Aristotle appeared, and the philosopher said to him, "Could you give me a fifteen-minute capsule sketch of your entire philosophy?" To the philosopher's surprise, Aristotle gave him an excellent exposition in which he compressed an enormous amount of material into a mere fifteen minutes. But then the philosopher raised a certain objection which Aristotle couldn't answer. Confounded, Aristotle disappeared. Then Plato appeared. The same thing happened again, and the philosophers' objection to Plato was the same as his objection to Aristotle. Plato also couldn't answer it and disappeared. Then all the famous philosophers of history appeared one-by-one and our philosopher refuted every one with the same objection. After the last philosopher vanished, our philosopher said to himself, "I know I'm asleep and dreaming all this. Yet I've found a universal refutation for all philosophical systems! Tomorrow when I wake up, I will probably have forgotten it, and the world will really miss something!" With an iron effort, the philosopher forced himself to wake up, rush over to his desk, and write down his universal refutation. Then he jumped back into bed with a sigh of relief. The next morning when he awoke, he went over to the desk to see what he had written. It was, "That's what you say." [From Raymond Smullyan, 5000 B.C. and Other Philosophical Fantasies. St.Martin's Press, 1983] A Universal Philosophical Refutation Jump to Century-by-Century Chronology of 5th MILLENNIUM B.C.: 5,000 BC to 4,900 BC 4,900 BC to 4,800 BC 4,800 BC to 4,700 BC 4,700 BC to 4,600 BC 4,600 BC to 4,500 BC 4,500 BC to 4,400 BC 4,400 BC to 4,300 BC 4,300 BC to 4,200 BC 4,200 BC to 4,100 BC 4,100 BC to 4,050 BC 4,050 BC to 4,000 BC 4,000 BC to 3,900 BC

5000 BC to 4900 BC

5000+ BC: Flax is cultivated and made into fabric. Flax is generally considered to be the oldest natural textile fiber. Fine linen was used as burial shrouds for the Egyptian pharaohs Largest producer: Soviet States; other large producers include Poland, Germany, Belgium and France. Largest exporters are Northern Ireland and Belgium. FABRIC HISTORY 5000 BC: Earliest evidence of human culture in Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Timeline "In Egypt, intensified agricultural exploitation apparently did not take place until domesticated animals from the Middle East were introduced. By the first quarter of the 5th millennium BC in al-Fayyum, there existed villages that kept sheep, goats, and swine and cultivated wheat (emmer), barley, cotton, and flax, which was woven into linen. In this dry climate, village silos consisted of pits lined with coiled basketry; crops were harvested with reaping knives slotted with sharp flints. Elsewhere, at al-Badari in Upper Egypt, animals were also kept; the fact that dead domesticated animals were wrapped in linen and then buried close to villages perhaps indicates that agriculture was closely associated with some form of religious belief." Encyclopedia Britannica: agriculture, history of 4950-4440 BC: Agriculture arose independently in New Guinea, "at least 6950-6440 calibrated years before present." ["Origins of Agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of New Guinea", T. P. Denham et al., Science, July 2003]

4,900 BC to 4,800 BC

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4,800 BC to 4,700 BC

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4,700 BC to 4,600 BC

~4700 BC: Hassunah period: earliest pottery making culture in Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Timeline

4,600 BC to 4,500 BC

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4,500 BC to 4,400 BC

7000-4500 BC: Neolithic IA (in Cyprus) Known as the Aceramic. The settlement of Chirokitia dates from this period, also Kalvassos and Frenaros. The History of Cyprus in 90 Centuries 4500-3900 BC: Neolithic IB (in Cyprus) Also known as early ceramic. The first examples of ceramic art date from this period. Examples of settlements are found at Idalion and Troulloi. The History of Cyprus in 90 Centuries 4500-3900 BC: Neolithic II (in Cyprus) This is the ceramic period - ceramics display a distinctive combed decoration. Excavations at Sotira and Kalavassos suggest migrations from Syria, Palestine or Asia Minor. The History of Cyprus in 90 Centuries 4500 BC: Baluchistan "A recent survey has found lots of sites there. Relationship with surrounding areas, and with Mesopotamia. Look at the map: mountains to the west (Baluchistan) contain minerals, metals, are good for pasturing herds; occupied by nomadic herders and settled farmers desert to east limits contact with rest of Asia. Himalayas to north also enclose the region; trade contact by land through mountains of Baluchistan; sea routes to head of Persian gulf. Did significant contact with Mesopotamia actually occur? When? If yes, did it affect society in the Indus very much? * Subsistence: a regional variant of the familiar Southwest Asian pattern animals domesticated in the mountainous margins both northwest and southeast of the region, as early as 4000 - 4500 BC (Baluchistan) (according to Wenke, by 7000 BC) * sheep, goats (maybe introduced from elsewhere) * species domesticated locally: humped cattle, buffalo, pig * evidence in pollen cores of frequent large burning starts around 8000 BC, may indicate burning grass to improve pasture (by analogy to modern practices) Emergence of Civilizations in the Indus valley: Early Indus period 4500 BC: Mehrgarh III, 4500 - 3800 BC * box buildings continued to be used * trade in turquoise, lapis, conch, other stones increased * use of copper increased * greater variety of crops used * Mehrgarh up to this time is generally considered to be representative of the roots of the societies that developed out on the Indus plain * Further out onto the Indus plain... people probably first settled out on the plain around the time of MehrgarhIII (say 4500 BC), but this still poorly known Wenke cites earlier dates (which I suspect are in error) he has settlements on the Indus plain by 6000 BC, already showing variable sizes suggesting some complexity he says that by 5000 BC, some sites had large structures possibly for communal activities and that by 4000 BC, fortified, planned communities were trading, suggesting competing political groups This sounds to me like an earlier dating of the Early Indus period or possibly a confusion with Baluchistan sites Emergence of Civilizations in the Indus valley: Early Indus period

4,400 BC to 4,300 BC

~4400 BC: Halaf period: pottery culture with knowledge of metal in Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Timeline

4,300 BC to 4,200 BC

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4200 BC to 4100 BC

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4100 BC to 4050 BC

4000 BC: Domestication of the Horse "The land in Sumer] was plowed by teams of oxen pulling light unwheeled plows, and the grain was harvested with sickles in the spring. Wagons had solid wheels with leather tires held in position by copper nails. They were drawn by oxen or the now-extinct Syrian onager (wild ass), harnessed by collars, yokes, and headstalls, and controlled by reins and a ring through the nose or upper lip and a strap under the jaw. As many as four animals, harnessed abreast to a central pole, pulled a wagon. The horse, which was probably domesticated about 4000 BC by pastoral nomads in the Ukraine, did not in fact displace the onager as a draft animal in Mesopotamia until about 2000 BC." Encyclopedia Britannica: agriculture, history of 4000 BC: Global; Holocene delta development worldwide Holocene delta development worldwide transgressive sequence of deltaic deposits #160. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Mesopotamia; Mesopotamia delta Stratigraphic relations by the authorshowing the rapid development of a rich, fertile delta in Mesopotamia #165. Contents: Late Quaternary Chronology Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Europe; Atlantic hypsithermal Atlantic hypsithermal "Eden"; wet warm conditions in Near East, time of plenty. #2. Ice Core Evidence Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Ireland; Irish elm decline Irish elm decline, 4000 to 3250 BC #88. Iceman Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Global; Valleys in the Holocene #142. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: USA; On Mississippi at 6000 BP, slowing sea level rise at 10-15 below present level, beginning of meander belts. Development of Pine Island Beach trend, a linear sand shoal developed when sea level slowed 10-15 ft. below present level at mouth of Mississippi (currently beneath Lake Pontchartrain). Transition from Middle to Late Archaic period. Alternative view (Penland) that sea level rose to above present level at this time. See Sancier Geomorphology and Quaternary Geologic History of the Lower Mississippi Valley, 1994 (1.4525). #492. Stanford "3000 BC" notes 4000 BC: Mesopotamia; Sea level, Persian Gulf Recent (1996) reviews of Persian Gulf paleosealevel indicates that levels were up to 2 meters higher than at present during the period 6000-4000 BP (Earth and Plan Sci Letters 142 (1996) 43-57. #64. Stanford "3000 BC" notes -------------------------------------------------- |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: When the Goddess Ruled |5th Millennium BC: Mesopotamia, Egypt [you are here] |4th Millennium BC: Iceman of the Alps, Old Kingdom Egypt |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: Homer, Buddha, Confucius, Euclid |1st Century: Jesus, Cymbeline, Caligula, Pliny |2nd Century: Hero, Ptolemy, Nichomachus |3rd Century: 3 Kingdoms China, Legendary Japan |4th Century: Constantine, Hypatia, Ausonius |5th Century: Rome in Crisis, Dark Ages start |6th Century: Boethius, Taliesin, Mohammed |7th Century: Bede, Brahmagupta, Isidorus |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

Where to Go for More

Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. {more to be done}
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Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.