TIMELINE 6th MILLENNIUM B.C.


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TIMELINE 6th MILLENNIUM B.C.

Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.
We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 48 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 29 July 2003 [from 27 to 29 Kilobytes].
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6th MILLENNIUM B.C.: Executive Summary

The 6th Millennium B.C., from 6000 to 5000 BC, was the Neolithic Period in which cattle were domesticated, many new food plants were cultivated, the earliest settlements of southern Mesopotamia were founded, wine was fermented, and (maybe) women ruled the cultures of the Middle East and beyond. The age of wine, women, and song? More {to be done} Fiction About the 6th MILLENNIUM B.C. {to be done} Jump to Century-by-Century Chronology of 6th MILLENNIUM B.C.: 6,000 BC to 5,900 BC 5,900 BC to 5,800 BC 5,800 BC to 5,700 BC 5,700 BC to 5,600 BC 5,600 BC to 5,500 BC 5,500 BC to 5,500 BC 5,500 BC to 5,300 BC 5,300 BC to 5,200 BC 5,200 BC to 5,100 BC 5,100 BC to 5,050 BC 5,050 BC to 5,000 BC 5,000 BC to 4,900 BC

6000 BC to 5900 BC

6000 BC: "The earliest known domesticated cattle date from about 6000 BC, at Argissa and Nea Nikomedeia, in Greece, in association with cultivated einkorn, emmer wheat, and lentils (Lens culinaris); and at Knossos on Crete in association with bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), emmer, and barley. Hoes or digging sticks were still used to break the ground where necessary. Seeding by treading in with flocks and herds was probably employed at this time. Techniques of food storage, a practice that man shares with many other animals, grew in sophistication; there were pit silos and granaries, sometimes of quite substantial nature. In drier areas, crop irrigation, which greatly increased yield, was developed; and, with the increasing population, more labour was available to carry out wider irrigation projects." "Nitrogen-fixing (fertilizing) crops were also grown; a form of crop rotation came into use either by accident or by design. By this particular means, soil fertility was maintained, and thus additional plant protein was added to the diet." Encyclopedia Britannica: agriculture, history of 6000 BC: maize & spelt grain domesticated and eaten The Food Timeline 6000 BC: broccoli domesticated and eaten The Food Timeline 6000 B.C.: WHEN THE GODDESSES RULED - CATAL HOYUK "Around 6000 B.C., in Europe and in particular Anatolia, it is purported that women reigned supreme in religion, law and custom. Female sovereignity is thought to have ended with the development of using metals for the making of weapons." "Is this possible? Is it likely that during a period of history that is not well known that women were once the sovereigns? Lithuanian-American historian, Marija Gimbutas, says "yes". According to Marija, prior to today's male dominated society, especially during 6000 B.C., it was likely that a society where women were the dominant sex existed. That period was perhaps one where Mother Goddess' ruled. In the world of archeology and ethnology, there is no evidence to suggest that humankind ever experienced this kind of period. Despite this, Marija Gimbutas is adamant that period existed. In her 1989 text, Goddess' Language, Marija attempts to prove this." "During prehistoric times, it is known that the female form was prefered far more in the making of statues. This is also true of the Palaeolithic, and later, periods. In archaeology, innumerable Venus statues have been found while only a handful of Adonis statues have been found. 30,000 year old cave paintings depict female genitalia. The primary object of Neolithic art was also the female form. In Anatolia and Europe - the cradle of civilisation - statues and paintings of women have been found. Men appear to have been pushed aside, perhaps planning their dominance over the world." "In an excavation project that Marija Gimbutas participated in, she describes how they discovered a temple which contained groups of fifteen fired clay statues, from 6000 B.C., of women. In the west of Ukrania, a temple from 5000 B.C. was found with thirty-two female statues. Also, in Moldivia, a statue, belonging to 4000 B.C., of a pregnant woman clasping her belly was discovered. The most important support for Marija Gimbutas' thesis came from a finding in Catal Hoyuk. On the hills of Catal Hoyuk, an alter and temple from 7000 - 6000 B.C. were discovered. On the walls are paintings depicting hunting and burial scenes. The paintings also show large vultures observing a group of headless men. In the alter and temple a number of statues of overweight women were found. In one of the temples a grain container yielded a 12 cm statue of a large woman sitting on a throne with two leopards on either side of her. The statue depicts the woman giving birth, with the head of the baby visible. Apart from leopards and vultures, bulls also are found at the side of the Mother Goddess. On wall paintings only the heads of bulls are depicted." ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- WHEN THE GODDESSES RULED - CATAL HOYUK Copyright 1996 Focus Multimedia. All Rights Reserved. ~6000 BC: "The Agricultural Revolution is the term used to describe the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering societies to settled agrarian societies. The description deserves some qualification. Taken as a whole, from start to finish, the transition certainly was a revolution in the entirety of changes it brought in the way people lived. Considered over the entire 250,000 year span of human existence, the several thousand years it took was relatively sudden. Still, it did take several thousands of years and it was a gradual and incremental process. The changes in any given lifetime were imperceptible. Cumulatively, over time, they were enormous. For generation after generation, the people who lived through the Agricultural Revolution and made it happen had no idea they were part of anything like a revolution." Agricultural Revolution - China 6,000 BC "Neither was the Agricultural Revolution a singular event. Since the last ice age, the transition from nomadic foraging to settled agriculture has occured independently in at least four, possibly six, separate geographic areas. The transition takes place where both the paleolithic hunting and gathering and neolithic gardening ways of life can co-exist simultaneously. Typically, it is the women who know where and when to gather the local domesticates. Repeated harvestings engage collector and collected in a positive feedback-natural selection process that changes the domesticate species genetically to favour its selection and reproduction. Over time, passive gathering becomes active planting, tending and harvesting." Agricultural Revolution - China 6,000 BC "All the while, as the women acquire the arts of gardening, the men continue to lead the group on their seasonal hunting and fishing migrations. Slowly, as the garden reliably begins to produce a larger and larger portion of the food supply, there is less wandering in pursuit of game and more gardening. The transition to horticulture results in the settlement of villages around the garden plots with hunting expeditions reduced to limited forays from the settled home base. Horticultural villages usually move every few years when the garden soil is exhausted and fresh new plots are cleared." Agricultural Revolution - China 6,000 BC "The central role of women in horticultural societies tends to have political and sociological consequences. It is the women who own and manage their garden plots and pass them on to the next generation. It is the women who decide when their soil is depleted and where the village should move to clear more fertile ground. One of the more interesting aspects of horticultural societies is that it is often women who exercize political power and authority in their society. Anthropologists and travellers alike call attention to the special standing and respect that women enjoy in Austronesian cultures generally and the Philippines in particular. The honoured position of women in Austronesian and Philippine society, more than likely, remains a legacy from their, not so distant, horticultural prehistory." Agricultural Revolution - China 6,000 BC "Horticulture is the critical intermediate step between hunting and gathering and fully developed agriculture. A later shift from small plot horticulture to large field crop agriculture occurs with the introduction of domestic animal power as well as metal working technologies. It is at this stage that agriculturalists can afford to abandon their former hunting ranges altogether and settle permanently in the prime agricultural lands of river valleys with their rich alluvial soils. It is also at this stage, with its heavier field work and animal husbandry, that men take control of the land and animals and resume their dominant position in society over women." Agricultural Revolution - China 6,000 BC "The huge evolutionary advantage of horticulture over foraging as a cultural adaptation is the much increased reliability and abundance of the society's food supply. Horticulture can support a much larger population on the same land as hunting and gathering. Whereas a typical population density for a hunting and gathering society is about one person for every ten square kilometres; subsistence horticulture easily supports five people per square kilometre. That horticulturalists can outnumber hunters and gatherers by a factor of 50:1 has important implications for contact between the two societies. Simply put, in competition for land, horticulturalists invariably eliminate or displace hunters and gatherers." Agricultural Revolution - China 6,000 BC "The distinctively East Asian set of domestic plants and animals, i.e., rice, millet, chickens, geese, dogs and pigs, attest to an independent origin of agriculture in China. Chinese agriculture may have begun in two separate areas. Millet is native to the cooler, drier climate of the Huangho River in northern China while rice grows naturally in the warmer, wetter climate of the Yangtze River in southern China. Whether it started in one area or two, agriculture in China was firmly established by 6,000 BC." Agricultural Revolution - China 6,000 BC 6000 BC: Following 6000 B.C. a cultural phase known as the Hassunan emerged. This phenomenon was represented by a distinct style of pottery and an assemblage of stone tools. With the elaboration of pottery styles, a new phase is recognized by 5600 B.C., the Samarran. It is at this time that stamp seals can be found. Stamp seals suggest private ownership. It is clear that craft specialists also are emerging as a well established part of Samarran lifeways. Shortly thereafter, a new phase known as the Halafian became more widespread. Construction techniques improved in buildings and cobbled streets between houses were constructed. A SCENARIO FOR THE BIRTH OF CIVILIZATION 9000-6000 BC: Old World Cultures and Sites Jericho (West Bank) - continues to grow as major Neolithic settlement Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) - earliest agricultural people of the Levant. Building of first wall and tower at Jericho ca. 9000 BC Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) - widespread agricultural societies in the Levant. Plastered skull cult and more substantial architecture ca. 8000 - 6000 BC. Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Beidha (Jordan) - evidence for emergence of Neolithic house pattern from round Natufian pithouses to PPNB complex of rectangular dwellings Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Cayonu Tepesi (Turkey) - pre-agricultural permanent settlement excavated by Braidwood in "nuclear zone" (7400-6000 BC) Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Ganj Dareh (Iraq) - goat hoofprints in mud brick suggest beginning of domestication around 8500 BC; earliest evidence for pottery Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Ali Kosh (Iran) - evidence for domestication of goats and other species in "marginal zone" 8000-6000 BC Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Hacilar (Turkey) - Neolithic village which predates Catal Huyuk at 6700 BP (6000 - 5000 BC) Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Catal Huyuk (Turkey) - pueblo-like developed Neolithic village; shrines decorated with skulls of cattle; evidence for obsidian trade; pottery. Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Umm Dabaghiyah (Iraq) - settlement with specialized storage facilities in northern Mesopotamia Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Hassuna (Iraq) - village with painted pottery in northern Mesopotamia (6000 BC) Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Hassuna - developed villages in northern Mesopotamia, widespread painted pottery styles (6000 BC) Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Tell es-Sawwan - Samarran site with large houses and rich goods in burials Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World Choga Mami - Samarran site with large irrigation canal Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World

5,900 BC to 5,800 BC

{to be done}

5,800 BC to 5,700 BC

{to be done}

5,700 BC to 5,600 BC

5700-5600 BC: The Hacilar Settlement, in Turkey The Hacilar Settlement, brought to the daylight by James Mellart, located on the 25 km southwest of Burdur, is dated back to 5700-5600 BC. The walls and the floors of Hacilar houses which are made of mud-brick on stone foundations are lime mortared and red painted. Wooden poles for supporting flat roofs and ladders to suggest that some structures had two stories are discovered. In every house, there are goddess figurines made of clay, in standing and sitting postures. Different from other settlement areas, the dead are buried outside the cities. The pottery in Hacilar is well fired and comes in red, brown and yellow colors. Turkey: Neolithic Age (8000 BC-5000 BC)

5,600 BC to 5,500 BC

5600 BC: With the elaboration of pottery styles, a new phase is recognized by 5600 B.C., the Samarran. It is at this time that stamp seals can be found. Stamp seals suggest private ownership. It is clear that craft specialists also are emerging as a well established part of Samarran lifeways. Shortly thereafter, a new phase known as the Halafian became more widespread. Construction techniques improved in buildings and cobbled streets between houses were constructed. A SCENARIO FOR THE BIRTH OF CIVILIZATION

5,500 BC to 5,400 BC

5500-3000 BC: Chalcholithic Age (Copper Age) [in Turkey] In this period, in addition to stone tools, copper pieces also come into sight. The need to change valuable goods (ceramics, textile) for both raw and shaped mines helped the trade develop, and this brought the exchange between peoples and the preparation of inventory listings with the beginning of communication. Symbols, hieroglyphs, writing with pictures, came into use. By the end of the 4000 BC cities emerged and the first steps of the human civilization were made. 5500 BC: Metal objects in Burdur-Hacilar level 5 in Anatolia Burdur-Hacilar level 5 (5500 BC) is the oldest site in Anatolia where metal objects are discovered. Regarding technique and forms; the handmade pottery production reached to an advanced level here and the single-colored, polished, ceramic pots were produced as an alternative to the metallic pots which were respectively more valuable. The surface of the pots is finely polished with a special technique to create a metallic effect. Turkey: Chalcholithic Age 5500 BC: Halaf - advanced Neolithic village culture of northern Mesopotamia, 5500 BC Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World 5500 BC: Tell Es-Sawaan (Iraq) - Samarran community with defensive wall, large houses, differentiation in burial goods (5500 BC) Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World 5500 BC: Samarra - overlaps Halaf and Hassuna in time. Earliest irrigation in northern Mesopotamia. Walled towns and large houses (5500 BC) Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World

5,400 BC to 5,300 BC

5400-3600 BC: Eridu - early settlement in southern Mesopotamia (5400-3600 BC). Evidence for early importance of temple. Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World

5,300 BC to 5,200 BC

5300-3600 BC: Ubaid - earliest settlement of southern Mesopotamia, 5300-3600 BC. Best known from site of Eridu, where a succession of temples and clay figurines were found Anthropology 110/310: Introduction to Archaeology Study Guide - Domestication and the Neolithic Period in the Old World

5200 BC to 5100 BC

{to be done}

5100 BC to 5050 BC

ca. 5000 BC: the 7,000-year-old chemical signature of wine has been analyzed in pottery from the Hajji Firuz Tepe dig in Iran. [Science, 11 July 2003, p.147] -------------------------------------------------- |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: YOU ARE HERE |5th Millennium BC: {name to be added here} |4th Millennium BC: {name to be added here} |3rd Millennium BC: Cheops, Gilgamesh, Sargon |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: {name to be added here} |1st Century: Jesus, Cymbeline, Caligula, Pliny |2nd Century: Hero, Ptolemy, Nichomachus [you are here] |3rd Century: 3 Kingdoms China, Legendary Japan |4th Century: Constantine, Hypatia, Ausonius |5th Century: Rome in Crisis, Dark Ages start |6th Century: Boethius, Taliesin, Mohammed |7th Century: name to be added here |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

Where to Go for More

Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. {more to be done}
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Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.