TIMELINE 7th CENTURY


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TIMELINE 7th CENTURY

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We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 131 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide or beyond. Most recently updated: 16 May 2003 [from 59 to 101 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D. E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Additional facts are from: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle : Seventh Century, This is part of the wonderful translations in Avalon Project at Yale Law School, and facts from it are cited as "[ASC]". Facts are also drawn from the 1911 Encyclopedia Brittanica, and the Wikipedia. Executive Summary of the 7th Century Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the Century Isidorus of Seville The Venerable Bede Bishop Severus Sebokht of Mesopotamia Wang Hs'iao-t'ung of China Prince Shotoku Taishi of Japan Brahmagupta of India Fiction About the 7th Century Non-Fiction About the 7th Century Major Books and Events of the Decade 600-610 Major Books and Events of the Decade 610-620 Major Books and Events of the Decade 620-630 Major Books and Events of the Decade 630-640 Major Books and Events of the Decade 640-650 Major Books and Events of the Decade 650-660 Major Books and Events of the Decade 660-670 Major Books and Events of the Decade 670-680 Major Books and Events of the Decade 680-690 Major Books and Events of the Decade 690-700 Other Key Dates and Stories of this 7th Century Major Writers Born this 7th Century Major Writers Died this 7th Century Decade by Decade 7th Century Science Background Decade by Decade 7th Century Mundane Background Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology

Executive Summary of the 7th Century

This century had the Fall of the Roman Empire (Visigoths conquered Spain, for example), the exciting rise of Islam, the dreadful loss of the burning of the Library of Alexandria [642], political ferment in the Byzantine Empire, great learning in Japan, China, and India, but little beyond Isidorus and Bede of literary or scientific consequence in the dimmest of the Dark Ages of Christian Europe. Of the 7th Century and the times just before and afterwards, according to D.E. Smith, "In the 6th century there seems to have been written the Codex Arcerianus, so called from the fact that it belonged at one time [1566-1604] to one Johannes Arcerius in Groningen. While it relates largely to legal matters of a rural nature, it contains considerable information concerning the Roman surveyors. There is little else to say for the century. It represents the lowest point in the curve of intellectual progress in Europe. The ecclesiastical element was unable to overcome the general ignorance of the masses, and aside from a faint light in the Irish monasteries, Europe was in darkness.... The centuries immediately following the death of Boethius [c.475-524] saw little interest in the literature and science of the classical period. Even as eminent a man as St.Ouen [c.609-683] spoke of the works of Homer and Vergil as the trifling songs of impious poets and made two personages of Tullius and Cicero; while Gregory of Tours [538-594] uttered the lament: 'unhappy our days, for the study of letters is dead in our midst, and there is to be found no man able to record the history of these times.' So debased was civilization that the few who stood for even the remnants of the old Latin cult resorted to doggerel verse, as Capella had done, or diluted their learning in the form of encyclopedias." [p.183]

Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical/Literary People of the Seventh Century

  1. Stephen of Alexandria
  2. (550-620) see: [610]
  3. Asclepius of Tralles
  4. see: 635
  5. Venerable Bede
  6. (c.673-735) see: Executive Summary, 710
  7. Brahmagupta
  8. (598-668) see: Executive Summary, [598], [628], [660-669]
  9. Callincus
  10. see: (c.620-???), see: [c.620], [650-659]
  11. Chen Ch'uan
  12. (???-643), see: [643]
  13. Li Ch'un
  14. see: 610-619
  15. Huan-tsang
  16. see: 629
  17. Isadorus of Seville
  18. (c.570-636) see: [570] Executive Summary, [610], [636]
  19. Joannes Philoponus
  20. see: 640
  21. Severus Sebokht
  22. (???-667), see: Executive Summary, [650], [662]
  23. Prince Shotoku Taishi
  24. see: Executive Summary, 600
  25. Wang Hs'iao-t'ung
  26. see: Executive Summary, 625
  27. Zu Chong-Zhi and Zu Geng-Shi
  28. see: 600-609
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Isidorus of Seville

Isidorus of Seville [born in Seville c.570, died 4 April 636] was one of the more remarkable statesmen of the Middle Ages. At his funeral, the oration by St.Martin pictures this bishop, grammarian, historian, orator, scholar, and theologian as "generous in his giving, affable in his entertaining, sober in his affections, free in his sentiments, equitable in his judgments, indefatigable in his ministrations," and celebrated for his integrity. [D.E. Smith, p.183] Isidorus was born into a fortunate and well-connected family, which gave him a jump-start to his great career, in which he became the best-educated man in Christian Europe, in some ways similar in result (although opposite in birth-advantage) to Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II) of the 10th Century. Not long after he died, Isidorus was praised by the Council of Toledo [653] as "the extraordinary doctor, the latest ornament of the Catholic Church, the most learned man of the latter ages, always to be named with reverence." Isidorus wrote an encyclopedia on the Trivium and the Quadrivium [the seven liberal arts] which he named the Origines but is better known as the Etymologies, in 20 volumes. Volume 3 is on mathematics: "the treatment, however, is trivial, the arithmetic being simply a brief condensation of Boethius, and the rest of the work being of as little scientific value." [D.E. Smith, p.183] His encyclopedia has been described as "a first attempt at a general synthesis of pre-Christian learning; drawing heavily on Pliny the Elder; it is filled with legends; it is immensely popular in its time and about 1000 manuscripts survive.... Isidore of Seville [was a] scholar who was influential in preserving some Greek writings and in keeping astrology popular despite prohibitions of astrology in the bible." [Hellemans, p.64] For the above reasons (legends, the stars, general synthesis) I consider it an early precursor to the modern best-selling works of Isaac Asimov, in combining fiction, science, a comprehensive view of the cosmos, awareness of history, and profound scholarship disguised as merely popular writing.

The Venerable Bede

Late in the 7th Century, roughly a century after Isidorus, one of the great Church scolars of the Middle Ages was born in Monkton, Northumberland: Baeda [c.673-735] usually known as Beda Venerabilis, or the Venerable Bede. [Hellemans, p.64, says that Bede was born in Jarrow, Durham, England] Burke called him "the father of English learning", and Hallam stated that Bede "surpasses every other name of our ancient literary annals; and, though little more than a diligent compiler from older writers, may perhaps be recokoned superior to any man in the world (so low had the East sunk like the West) then possessed." In 731 he made a list of the 37 works he had so far written, and added this epilogue: "I have spent my whole life in the same monastery, and while attentive to the rule of my order and the service of the Church, my constant pleasure lay in learning, or teaching, or writing." [in Latin: "Semper aut discere aut docere aut scribere dulce habui."] His teachers included: * Aldhelm of Canterbury * John of Beverley [at Canterbury] * Archbishop Theodore of Tarsus * Abbot Adrian His mathematical interests and writings included: * ancient number theory * the ecclesiastical calendar (the best on this in the Dark Ages] * finger symbolism of numbers ["digital notation", literally!] * mathematical recreations [doubtful attribution]

Bishop Severus Sebokht of Mesopotamia

Before the Mohammeddan Arabs seized power in the Near East, there were Christian centers of learning spread across the region. The most notable scholar in such centers was Severus Sebokht, titularly a Bishop at the Kenneshre convent on the Euphrates river, (also known as Qinnesrin, or Keneshra) during the reign of the Patriarch Athanasius Gammala [died 631] and Patriarch John. [D.E. Smith, p.166] He wrote about: * Astronomy * the Astrolabe * Geography * Hindu numerals * Mathematics * Philosophy * Theology While he taught there, Kenneshre became the capital of the Greek intellectual tradition in western Syria. He defended the honor of the region, which seems to have been defamed some mainstream Greek scholars, and he rebutted their arguments by insisting that the Syrians had invented Astronomy, that the Greeks merely followed in the tradition of the Chaldeans of Babylon, and then concluded by identifying those Chaldeans with Syria. He steps back from the squabble by preaching that science is universal, accessible to seekers of the truth from any nation, and is not the monopoly of any nation. This argument is central to both modern Science and to the universality of Science Fiction as the global literature of science and technology in the modern world.

Wang Hs'iao-t'ung of China

The major Chinese 7th century mathematician was Wang Hs'iao-t'ung, whom we know to have been alive in 623-626. He was a noted expert on the calendar, and among the first in the orient to write about Cubic Equations. Much of his writing, the Ch'i-ku Suan-king, is extant. In includes 20 problems of mensuration, and cubic equations (those in which the unknown is raised to the 3rd power). He does not give, however, any way to solve those equations. If he knew how, he kept it a trade secret. [D.E. Smith, pp.150-151]

Prince Shotoku Taishi of Japan

In 552 Buddhism was introduced from China to Japan by Szu-ma Ta (in Japan: "Shiba Tatsu"), and in 554 two Korean scholars [Wang Pao-san and Wang Pao-liang] brought the Chinese system of chronology to Japan. The overseas trade in mathematics, theology, music, and art continued. Roughly 600 A.D. saw the Korean priest Kanroku present a set of astrology and calendrical books to the Empress of Japan. Prince Shotoku Taishi (574-622) became very interested in this, was prodigious in his ability to calculate, and he is traditionally considred the father of arithmetic in Japan. Japan followed in the mathematical footsteps of China, with the founding circa 670 of both an observatory and a school of arithmetic. In 701 a University system was established, with 9 Chinese works required for math students. These were the classics that directed Japanese mathematics and its scientific application of centuries to come. They were: * Chou-pei Suan-king [extant] * Sun-tzi Suan-king [extant] * Liu-chang [lost] * Sun-k'ai Chung-ch'a [lost] * Wu-ts'ao Suan-shu [extant] * Hai-tau Suan-shu [extant] * Kiu-szu [lost] * Kiu-ch'ang [extant] * Kiu-shu [extant]

Brahmagupta of India

Brahmagupta (598-668) was the closest to being the great Mathematician of the 7th Century, the way Fibonacci was to the 13th century. But he lived in India, and had little immediate impact on China, Japan, the Arab world, or Europe. The son of Jishnu, from the town of Bhillamala, he moved to and worked at the center of Indian astronomy and science: Ujjain (Ujjayini) in the Central Indian state of Gwalior. This was reputeduly the vice-regal seat of Prince Asoka when his father, the King, reigned at Patna. Great scientists working at the observatory included Varamihira. At a mere 30 years of age, Brahmagupta wrote a 21-chapter work on Astronomy called Brahmasiddhanta. It has two particularly interesting chapters: * Ganitad'haya, which defines addition, the 20 logistics, and the 8 determinaions, including measurement by shadow, which define a mathematical astronomer of the day * Kutakhadyaka, literally "sweetmeat", on algebra of linear equations He could find at least one root of many quadratic equations, dealt with negative numbers, understood something of the areas of triangles and cyclic quadrilaterals. wrestled with what we call the Pell Equation (not solved in India until Bhaskara in the 12th century), Diophantine Equations, and sets of solutions to Pythagorean triangles. His mathematical research shows a distinctly Greek influence. [D.E. Smith, pp.157-160]

Fiction About the 7th Century

As usual, all book reviews on this page are by Your Humble Webmaster, and included in the copyright notice. Novels listed below, in alphabetical order by author, include those by these 13 authors: * John Elray * Lillian Faderman * Alan Fisk * Robert van Gulik * Barry Hughart * Diana M. Johnson * Kanan Makiya * Annette Motley * Terry Sheils * Rosemary Sutcliff * Peter Tremayne * H. N. Turtletaub [pseudonym of Harry Turtledove] * Linda Windsor John Elray, "Khalifa: A Novel of Conquest and Personal Triumph", [Aardwolfe Books, 2002] Trade Paperback, ISBN 0-970-77762-0 This vivid, action-packed, strongly characterized novel demystifies the early days of Islam through the viewpoint of Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, a convert to islam who rises to the very top of power. Besides the intensity and colorful nature of the setting, these is also romance and political insight. Lillian Faderman, editor, "Chloe Plus Olivia: An Anthology of Lesbian Literature from the Seventh Century to the Present" [July 1994] hardcover; [Penguin USA, Nov 1995] paperback, 848 pages Alan Fisk, "The Summer Stars", Court bard Taliesin writes and sings the oldest British poetry, while he witnesses the strange new culture evolving within the wreckage of the Roman Empire. Robert van Gulik, full name Robert Hans van Gulik (1910-1967): Linguist, diplomat, orientalist, scholar of the Netherlands; best known for his novel series featuring a fictionalized version of the historic ancient Chinese magistrate "Judge Dee" (Judge Jen-Djieh Dee) and Hoong Liang Robert van Gulik * The Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee, T'ang Dynasty (7th Century) China: * Dee Goong An [1949] * Chinese Bell Murders [1951,1958] recommended * Chinese Gold Murders [1959] recommended * Chinese Lake Murders [1953,1960] * Haunted Monastery [1961] * Chinese Nail Murders [1957,1961] * The Emporer's Pearl [1963] * New Year's Eve in Lan-Fang [1964] * The Willow Pattern [1965] * Monkey and the Tiger [1965] * Murder in the Canton [1966] recommended * Phantom of the Temple [1966] * Necklace and Calabash [1967] * Judge Dee at Work [1967] * The Red Tape Murder [1967] * Red Pavilion [1961,1968] * Poets and Murder [1968] * Lacquer Screen [1962,1970] Barry Hughart, "Eight Skilled Gentlemen" [1991]; [New York: Doubleday, Dec 2001], 428 pages This is the latest Historical Fantasy novel in the series which began dramatically with "Bridge of Birds" [St.Martin's Press, 1983], and is a direct sequel to "The Story of the Stone." Continuous adventures are encountered by Master Li and his loyal sidekick Number Ten Ox. The setting is a mythical version of seventh century China. Yet this is no juvenile Fantasy, but, rather, a idiosyncratic and stylish blend of history, magic, sex, violence, adult language, humor, and eerie beauty. Barry Hughart is widely regarded as one of this generation's leading Fantasy authors. Diana M. Johnson, "Destiny's Godchild", Harpist/juggler Egar becomes friends with Frankish court tutor Pepin the Vain, anre both perplexed by the prophecy that they will change the very direction of History. Diana M. Johnson, "Pepin's Bastard", Continues the saga with the story of Charles Martel. Diana M. Johnson, "Quest for the Crown", Continues the saga into the 8th Century. Kanan Makiya: "The Rock: A Tale of Seventh Century Jerusalem" [Pantheon, Nov 2001] 368 pages, illustrated, $26.00, ISBN 0-375-40087-7. Kanan Makiya has been called "the Solzhenitsyn of Saddam's Iraq" [London: Sunday Observer, 12 May 2002]. Is that accurate? Once upon a time a person could be both a Jew and a Muslim. One could fully believe in both the Hebrew Scriptures and the Prophet Mohammed. This novel centers on Ka'b al-Akbar, a Yemenite Jew who converted to Islam and became the advisor to Caliph Umar, the conquerer of Jerusalem [in 635]. Umar was the fourth Caliph of the Islamic Empire. The narrator of this compelling, fascinating novel is Ka'b al-Akbar's son Ishraq. The father explains the importance of Jewish holy sites in the light of the Islamic conquest, particularly the Rock on the mountain where three major events took place: * Abraham took Isaac to be sacrificed * Jesus overturned the money-counters' tables * Mohammed ascended to heaven so Ishraq designs "Mount Zion" -- a mosque at that site which evolved into "The Dome of the Rock." For almost 1300 years that location has been a lightening rod for religious/secular conflict. Most recently, this is where israeli Prime Minister Sharon stood, sparking a riot and a renewed Intifada of Palestinians against Israel. To understand the roots of that conflict, one could do no better than to read "The Rock: A Tale of Seventh Century Jerusalem," a brilliant historical novel that sensitively and excitingly plunges you into the seventh century, and all the events and histories that make it alive today. Annette Motley, "Green Dragon, White Tiger" , [Macmillan, Aug 1986] 557 pages. Not to be confused with the wonderful trilogy and film "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon", this novel starts with an astrologer predicting that the second daughter of General Wu will someday rule all of China from the Dragon Throne. Indeed, the girl "Black Jade" rises from concubine to the infamous Empress Wu, the only woman ever to reign over China. Set in the seventh century Tang Dynasty, this fine novel shows both dlicate exquisite beauty and the vsciously rigid social structure of that era's China, through a blend of History, Drama, and Character. Terry Sheils, "Butterfly House" [Horror eBook from LTDbooks]. This theological horror eBook centers on "the arcane seventh century teachings of Aggripolus the Left Handed, notably his major work The Chronomicon Novum." Through this imaginary author and book, humans have a chance to escpae being bound in Time as we have been since the moment of Original Sin, and to penetrate the Vast Unknowable. In our era, a sportswriting man and a occultist woman buy a reputedly haunted house. This enmeshes them in the history of the family who built the house as a place to experiment with Time. Soon they are immersed in the house's apparent personality, which they discover too late is that of the evil defrocked 7th century monk and his weird philosphy of Eternity and Sin. Rosemary Sutcliff, "The Shining Company", [London: Bodley Head, 1990] hardcover; [Red Fox, June 1991] paperback; [Farrar Strauss & Giroux, July 1992] paperback; [Red Fox, June 2003] paperback ISBN 0-934-39557. Based on the actual Seventh Century story "The 300 Companions", originally recorded in The Goddodin" by the poet Aneirin, this is a fascinating novel. Although marketed as a "Young Adult" novel, there is considerable appeal for older adults as well. The story is told from the viewpoint of Prosper, a shield bearer in northern Britain in the year 600. The 300 Companions are a unique army consisting of the younger sons of minor kings. Together, they stood against the invading Saxons in a strikingly observed Seventh Century. Peter Tremayne, The "Sister Fidelma" Historical Mystery novel series, featuring the eponymous intelligent strong woman, who has mastered the ancient Irish code of law. Under religious protection, she solves crimes so satisfyingly as to open her world to wide-spread critical acclaim. * Absolution by Murder * Act of Mercy * Hemlock at Vespers * The Monk Who Vanished * Our Lady of Darkness * Shroud for the Archbishop * The Spider's Web * The Subtle Serpent * Suffer Little Children * Valley of the Shadows Booklist compares this character to these other protagonists: * Sharan Newman's "Catherine LeVendeur" * Kathy Lynn Emerson's "Lady Susanna Appleton" See: "http://www.sisterfidelma.com/books.html", a web site with interesting information on the character and setting, plus cover art and reviews of each novel in the series. However, its Java-intense annoying pop-up ads keep crashing my old Macintosh, so I cannot quote from this fan society's material. H. N. Turtletaub [pseudonym of Harry Turtledove], "Over the Wine Dark Sea" [July 2001] hardcover; [New York: Forge, 2001] ISBN 0-312-87660-2 Menendemos (seaman) and Sostratos (Philospher), two seventh century cousins, sail from their home in Rhodes to the town of Rome... Harry Turtledove, today's king of "alternate history" novels, earned a Ph.D. in Byzantine History after he and I attended Caltech. The focus here is on the monstrously tyrranical Roman Emperor Justinian II, and tries to make us sympathetic with even his most brutal and murderous actions. Critics differ on how well this novel brings the seventh century alive, perhaps because it is so deeply researched that the historical insights sometimes make minoe characters pale by comparison. Still, a novel of the Byzantine Empire by an expert historian who has also been a best-selling story-teller is a unique experience. By the same author: "Justinian". Linda Windsor, "Deirdre", Saxon pirate kidnaps and marries deeply Christian Irish princess.

Non-Fiction About the 7th Century

Asclepius of Tralles' Treatise on Nicomachus' Introduction to Arithmetic, edited and with an introduction by Leonardo Taran [Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1969] 89 pages. [much more] {to be done}

Major Books and Events of the Decade 600-610

591-628 Chosroes II, Shah of Persia, established by Emperor Maurice The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century c.598 Birth of Indian Astronomer/Mathematician Brahmagupta. [Hellemans, p.65] See: Executive Summary, above. 600s Avars invade Macedonia and Thrace The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 600 the Korean priest Kanroku present a set of astrology and calendrical books to the Empress of Japan. Prince Shotoku Taishi became very interested in this, was prodigious in his ability to calculate, and he is traditionally considered the father of arithmetic in Japan. Prince Shotoku Taishi writes on Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 600-609 India has mathematicians using Decimal Notation. [Hellemans, p.63] 600-609 Zu Chong-Zhi and his son, Zu Geng-Shi of China calculate that Pi is greater than 3.1415926 and less than 3.1415927 [Hellemans, p.63] 600-609 Entire pages are printed by woodblock in China, although none from the 7th Century survive today (the earliest we have are from the 8th Century). [Hellemans, p.63] 600-609 The first known windmills are in use in Persia, using horizontal sails, a vertical shaft, and used to grind grain. [Hellemans, p.63] 601 "...Pope Gregory sent the pall to Archbishop Augustine in Britain, with very many learned doctors to assist him; and Bishop Paulinus converted Edwin, king of the Northumbrians, to baptism." [ASC] 602 Korean priests bring works on the calendar to Japan. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 602 Military revolt on Danube, troops proclaim Phokas, march on Constantinople and murder Maurice The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 602-10 Emperor Phokas The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 603 onwards Persians invade eastern provinces The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 603 "...Aeden, king of the Scots, fought with the Dalreathians, and with Ethelfrith, king of the Northumbrians, at Theakstone; where he lost almost all his army. Theobald also, brother of Ethelfrith, with his whole armament, was slain. None of the Scottish kings durst afterwards bring an army against this nation. Hering, the son of Hussa, led the army thither." [ASC] [The King of Scots might have been named Aethan] 604 "...[Archbishop] Augustine consecrated two bishops, Mellitus and Justus. Mellitus he sent to preach baptism to the East-Saxons. Their king was called Seabert, the son of Ricola, Ethelbert's sister, whom Ethelbert placed there as king. Ethelbert also gave Mellitus the bishopric of London; and to Justus he gave the bishopric of Rochester, which is twenty-four miles from Canterbury." [ASC] 605: The Holy Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba. Islamic History of the 7th Century 606 Death of Pope "...Gregory; about ten years since he sent us baptism. His father was called Gordianus, and his mother Silvia." [ASC] 607 "...Ceolwulf fought with the South-Saxons. And Ethelfrith led his army to Chester; where he slew an innumerable host of the Welsh; and so was fulfilled the prophecy of [Archbishop] Augustine, wherein he saith 'If the Welsh will not have peace with us, they shall perish at the hands of the Saxons.' There were also slain two hundred priests, who came thither to pray for the army of the Welsh. Their leader was called Brocmail, who with some fifty men escaped thence." [ASC]

Major Books and Events of the Decade 610-620

610: The first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. The Holy Prophet is commissioned as the Messenger of God. Islamic History of the 7th Century 610 [Roman] Senate secretly invites Exarch of Carthage to revolt The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 610 Stephen of Alexandria writes on Astronomy and general mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 610 Isadorus writes an Encyclopedia. [D.E. Smith, p.555] [see Executive Summary, near the top of this web page] 610-619 The first known segmental arch bridge (still extant) was built: the Great Stone Bridge, built over the Chiao Shui River by Li Ch'un of China. [Hellemans, p.65] 610-41 Emperor Herakleios The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 610-38 Patriarch Sergios of Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 611 "...Cynegils succeeded to the government in Wessex, and held it [31 years]. Cynegils was the son of Ceol, Ceol of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric." [ASC] 613 Persians capture Antioch The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 613: Declaration at Mt. Sara inviting the general public to Islam. Islamic History of the 7th Century 614 Persians capture Jerusalem, Patriarch Zacharias and Christian population with True Cross sent as prisoners to Persia The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 614: Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam. Islamic History of the 7th Century 614 "...Cynegils and Cwichelm fought at Bampton, and slew two thousand and forty-six of the Welsh." [ASC] 615: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for Abyssinia. Islamic History of the 7th Century 615 Arab ambassadors visit China. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 616 The Roman Empire loses Spain to the Visigoths. [Hellemans, p.64] 616: Second Hijrah to Abyssinia. Islamic History of the 7th Century 616 Death of "...Ethelbert, king of Kent, the first of English kings that received baptism: he was the son of Ermenric. He reigned [56 years], and was succeeded by his son Eadbald.... Eadbald renounced his baptism, and lived in a heathen manner; so that he took to wife the relict of his father. Then Laurentius, who was archbishop in Kent, meant to depart southward over sea, and abandon everything. But there came to him in the night the apostle Peter, and severely chastised him, because he would so desert the flock of God. And he charged him to go to the king, and teach him the right belief. And he did so; and the king returned to the right belief. In this king's days the same Laurentius, who was archbishop in Kent after Augustine, departed this life on the second of February, and was buried near Augustine. The holy Augustine in his lifetime invested him bishop, to the end that the church of Christ, which yet was new in England, should at no time after his decease be without an archbishop. After him Mellitus, who was first Bishop of London, succeeded to the archbishopric. The people of London, where Mellitus was before, were then heathens: and within five winters of this time, during the reign of Eadbald, Mellitus died. To him succeeded Justus, who was Bishop of Rochester, whereto he consecrated Romanus bishop." [ASC] 617: Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Holy Prophet by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah. Islamic History of the 7th Century 617 Death of "... Ethelfrith, king of the Northumbrians, slain by Redwald, king of the East-Angles; and Edwin, the son of Ella, having succeeded to the kingdom, subdued all Britain, except the men of Kent alone, and drove out the Ethelings, the sons of Ethelfrith, namely, Enfrid. Oswald, Oswy, Oslac, Oswood. Oslaf, and Offa." c.618 Chinese embassy to Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 619-29 Persian occupation of Egypt The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadija. Year of sorrow. Islamic History of the 7th Century

Major Books and Events of the Decade 620-630

c.620 Callincus is born c.620 in Heliopolis, Egypt] in 650-659 he invents a mysterious substance (whose composition is debated today) that burns in water, and can be a potent weapon against wooden ships. It comes to be called Greek Fire. [Hellemans, p.65] 620: Journey to Taif. Ascension to the heavens. Islamic History of the 7th Century 621: First pledge at Aqaba. Islamic History of the 7th Century 622: Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib. Islamic History of the 7th Century 622 Flight of Muhammad to Medina (Hijri) The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 622-3 Herakleios begins campaign against Persians, lands of the themata (themes) mentioned in Chronographia of Theophanes (at the year Anno Mundi 6113 = AD 620/1) The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 623: Nakhla expedition. Islamic History of the 7th Century 624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Madina. Islamic History of the 7th Century 624 Death of Archbishop Mellitus. [ASC] 625 "... Paulinus was invested bishop of the Northumbrians, by Archbishop Justus, on the twelfth day before the calends of August." [ASC] 625: Battle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr. Islamic History of the 7th Century 625 Wang Hs'iao-t'ung writes on numerical cubic equations. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 626 Combined Avar/Persian siege of Constantinople defeated The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 626: Expedition of Banu Mustaliq. Islamic History of the 7th Century 626 "This year came Eamer from Cwichelm, king of the West-Saxons, with a design to assassinate King Edwin; but he killed Lilla his thane, and Forthere, and wounded the king. The same night a daughter was born to Edwin, whose name was Eanfleda. Then promised the king to Paulinus, that he would devote his daughter to God, if he would procure at the hand of God, that he might destroy his enemy, who had sent the assassin to him. He then advanced against the West-Saxons with an army, felled on the spot five kings, and slew many of their men. This year Eanfleda, the daughter of King Edwin, was baptized, on the holy eve of Pentecost. And the king within twelve months was baptized, at Easter, with all his people. Easter was then on the twelfth of April. This was done at York, where he had ordered a church to be built of timber, which was hallowed in the name of St. Peter. There the king gave the bishopric to Paulinus; and there he afterwards ordered a larger church to be built of stone. This year Penda began to reign; and reigned [30 years. He was 50 years old] when he began to reign. Penda was the son of Wybba, Wybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of Offa, Offa of Wearmund, Wearmund of Whitley, Whitley of Woden. [ASC] 627 "...King Edwin [was] baptized at Easter, with all his people, by [Bishop] Paulinus, who also preached baptism in Lindsey, where the first person who believed was a certain rich man, of the name of Bleek, with all his people. At this time Honorius succeeded Boniface in the papacy, and sent hither to Paulinus the pall; and Archbishop Justus having departed this life on the tenth of November, Honorius was consecrated at Lincoln Archbishop of Canterbury by Paulinus; and Pope Honorius sent him the pall. And he sent an injunction to the Scots, that they should return to the right celebration of Easter." [ASC] 627: Battle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews. Islamic History of the 7th Century 628 Herakleios defeats Persians, captures Nineveh, liberates Christian prisoners and True Cross; Syria, Palestine and Egypt revert to Byzantine control The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 628: Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet addresses letters to various heads of states. Islamic History of the 7th Century 628 Brahmagupta writes important books on Geometry and Algebra. [D.E. Smith, p.555] "Brahmasphutasiddhanta", the full title of the most important one, means "The Opening of the Universe." 628 "...Cynegils and Cwichelm fought with Penda at Cirencester, and afterwards entered into a treaty there." [ASC] 629 Huan-tsang goes to India. Translates Hindu works. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 629: The Holy Prophet performs the pilgrimage at Makkah. Expedition to Muta (Romans). Islamic History of the 7th Century

Major Books and Events of the Decade 630-640

630: Conquest of Makkah. Battles of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif. Islamic History of the 7th Century 631 True Cross restored to Jerusalem The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 631: Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations. Islamic History of the 7th Century 632 Death of Muhammad The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah. Islamic History of the 7th Century 632: Death of the Holy Prophet. Election of Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq. Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar. Islamic History of the 7th Century 632 "...Orpwald baptized." [ASC] 633 "...King Edwin was slain by Cadwalla and Penda, on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October. He reigned seventeen years. His son Osfrid was also slain with him. After this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga, the relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent. Eadbald and [Pope] Honorius received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of Rochester, where he continued to his death." [ASC] 633: Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq. Battles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein at tamr, Daumatul Jandal and Firaz. Islamic History of the 7th Century 634 Psephos issued by Herakleios, proclaims doctrine of Monotheletism, theory of one-will of Christ The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 634 Arabs capture Damascus The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 634: Battles of Basra, Damascus and Ajnadin. Death of Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat Umar Farooq becomes the Caliph. Battles of Namaraq and Saqatia. Islamic History of the 7th Century 634 "... Osric, whom Paulinus baptized, succeeded to the government of Deira. He was the son of Elfric, the uncle of Edwin. And to Bernicia succeeded Eanfrith, son of Ethelfrith. This year also Bishop Birinus first preached baptism to the West-Saxons, under King Cynegils. The said Birinus went thither by the command of Pope Honorius; and he was bishop there to the end of his life. Oswald also this year succeeded to the government of the Northumbrians, and reigned nine winters. The ninth year was assigned to him on account of the heathenism in which those lived who reigned that one year betwixt him and Edwin." [ASC] 635 "... King Cynegils was baptized by Bishop Birinus at Dorchester; and Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was his sponsor." [ASC] 635 Nestorian missionaries reach China The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 635: Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl. Islamic History of the 7th Century 635 An unknown Chinese scholar writes correctly and clearly that the tail of a comet always points way from the sun, although he could not possibly have known that this was caused by the pressure of sunlight on gasses and particles of dust. [Hellemans, p.64] 635 Asclepius of Tralles writes on Nicomachus. [D.E. Smith, p.555] see: Asclepius of Tralles' Treatise on Nicomachus' Introduction to Arithmetic, edited and with an introduction by Leonardo Taran [Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1969] 89 pages. 4 April 636 death of Isidorus of Seville [born in Seville c.570], one of the more remarkable statesmen of the Middle Ages, as well as bishop, grammarian, historian, orator, scholar, and theologian. [see Executive Summary, near the top of this web page] 636 "Priest from Rome visits China." [D.E. Smith, p.555] 636: Battle of Yermuk. Battle of Qadsiyia. Conquest of Madain. Islamic History of the 7th Century 637 Arabs capture Antioch The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 637: Conquest of Syria. Fall of Jerusalem. Battle of Jalula. Islamic History of the 7th Century 638 Ekthesis imposes Monotheletism The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 638: Conquest of Jazirah. Islamic History of the 7th Century 638 Arabs capture Jerusalem The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 639: Conquest of Khuizistan. Advance into Egypt. Islamic History of the 7th Century 639 "... Birinus baptized King Cuthred at Dorchester, and received him as his son." [ASC] c.639 Date of the Sutton-Hoo ship-burial, a rich Germanic grave containing artifacts of Swedish manufacture. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page

Major Books and Events of the Decade 640-650

640-649 The Islamic conquest of Alexandria, Egypt, completes the destruction of the Library of Alexandria and the related Museum. This was once the home of the great scientists Apollonius, Eratosthenes, Euclid, and Pappus, among others. [Hellemans, p.64] 640 Joannes Philoponus writes on the Astrolabe and Nicomachus. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 640 Byzantine thema of Opsikion established The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 640s Arab conquest of Persia The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 640: Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia. Battle of Babylon in Egypt. Islamic History of the 7th Century 640 Death of "...Eadbald, King of Kent, after a reign of [25 years]. He had two sons, Ermenred and Erkenbert; and Erkenbert reigned there after his father. He overturned all the idols in the kingdom, and first of English kings appointed a fast before Easter. His daughter was called Ercongota -- holy damsel of an illustrious sire! whose mother was Sexburga, the daughter of Anna, king of the East-Angles. Ermenred also begat two sons, who were afterwards martyred by Thunnor." [ASC] 641 Death of Herakleios, disputed succession, Senate of Constantinople exiles Empress Martina and her son The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 641: Battle of Nihawand. Conquest Of Alexandria in Egypt. Islamic History of the 7th Century 641-68 Emperor Constans II, grandson of Herakleios The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 642 Library of Alexandria burned. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 642 Arab capture of Alexandria, and conquest of Egypt; Mu'awiya raids Armenia. The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 642: Battle of Rayy in Persia. Conquest of Egypt. Foundation of Fustat. Islamic History of the 7th Century 642 Death of "... Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain by Penda, king of the Southumbrians, at Mirfield, on the fifth day of August; and his body was buried at Bardney. His holiness and miracles were afterwards displayed on manifold occasions throughout this island; and his hands remain still uncorrupted at Barnburgh. The same year in which Oswald was slain, Oswy his brother succeeded to the government of the Northumbrians, and reigned two less than thirty years." [ASC] 643 "...Kenwal succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and held it [31 years]. This Kenwal ordered the old church at Winchester to be built in the name of St. Peter. He was the son of Cynegils." [ASC] 643 Death of Physician Chen Ch'uan of China, the first person to have noted the symptoms of diabetes mellitus (thirst, sweet urine). [Hellemans, p.64] 643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia). Islamic History of the 7th Century 644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan. Martyrdom of Hadrat Umar. Hadrat Othman becomes the Caliph. Islamic History of the 7th Century 644 Death "... at Rochester, on the tenth of October, Paulinus, who was first Archbishop at York, and afterwards at Rochester. He was bishop nineteen winters, two months, and one and twenty days. This year the son of Oswy's uncle (Oswin), the son of Osric, assumed the government of Deira, and reigned seven winters." [ASC] 645 "... King Kenwal was driven from his dominion by King Penda." [ASC] 645: Campaigns in Fats. Islamic History of the 7th Century 646: Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor. Islamic History of the 7th Century 646 "... King Kenwal was baptized." [ASC] 647 Mu'awiya begins regular raids into Asia Minor The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 647: Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cyprus. Islamic History of the 7th Century 648 Typos issued, confirms Monotheletism, bans debate The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 648: [Muslim] Campaigns against the Byzantines. Islamic History of the 7th Century 648 "... Kenwal gave his relation Cuthred three thousand hides of land by Ashdown. Cuthred was the son of Cwichelm, Cwichelm of Cynegils." [ASC] 649 First sea-borne Arab raids on Cyprus The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 649-55 Pope Martin I The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 649 Lateran Synod in Rome condemns Monotheletism The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century

Major Books and Events of the Decade 650-660

650 Sebokht writes on Hindu Numerals. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 650-659 Callincus [born c.620 in Heliopolis, Egypt] invents a mysterious substance (whose composition is debated today) that burns in water, and can be a potent weapon against wooden ships. It comes to be called Greek Fire. [Hellemans, p.65] 650 "... Egelbert, from Gaul, after Birinus the Romish bishop, obtained the bishopric of the West-Saxons...." or, alternatively, "Birinus the bishop died, and Agilbert the Frenchman was ordained." [ASC] 650-55 Trial of Pope Martin I in Constantinople and exile to Cherson in Crimea. The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 651: [Muslim] Naval Battle of the Masts against the Byzantines. Islamic History of the 7th Century 651 Death of "... King Oswin was slain, on the twentieth day of August; and within twelve nights afterwards died Bishop Aidan, on the thirty-first of August." [ASC] 652 "...Kenwal fought at Bradford by the Avon." [ASC] 652: Discontentment and disaffection against the rule of Hadrat Othman. Islamic History of the 7th Century 653 "... Middle-Angles under alderman Peada received the right belief." [ASC] 654 "King Anna was slain, and Botolph began to build that minster at Icanhoe. This year also died Archbishop Honorius, on the thirtieth of September." [ASC] 655 "Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty royal personages with him, some of whom were kings. One of them was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles. The Mercians after this became Christians.... Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of the Mercians. In his time came together himself and Oswy, brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter. And they did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted; because there is a well there, called Meadswell. And they began the groundwall, and wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk, whose name was Saxulf. He was very much the friend of God, and him also loved all people. He was nobly born in the world, and rich: he is now much richer with Christ. But King Peada reigned no while; for he was betrayed by his own queen, in Easter-tide. This year Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to Canterbury, on the twenty-sixth day of March." [ASC] 656 "...Peada [was] slain; and Wulfhere, son of Penda, succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians. In his time waxed the abbey of Medhamsted very rich, which his brother had begun. The king loved it much, for the love of his brother Peada, and for the love of his wed-brother Oswy, and for the love of Saxulf the abbot. He said, therefore, that he would dignify and honour it by the counsel of his brothers, Ethelred and Merwal; and by the counsel of his sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha; and by the counsel of the archbishop, who was called Deus-dedit; and by the counsel of all his peers, learned and lewd, that in his kingdom were. And he so did. Then sent the king after the abbot, that he should immediately come to him. And he so did. Then said the king to the abbot: 'Beloved Saxulf, I have sent after thee for the good of my soul; and I will plainly tell thee for why. My brother Peada and my beloved friend Oswy began a minster, for the love of Christ and St. Peter: but my brother, as Christ willed, is departed from this life; I will therefore intreat thee, beloved friend, that they earnestly proceed on their work; and I will find thee thereto gold and silver, land and possessions, and all that thereto behoveth.'...." [ASC] 656-61 First Arab civil war, removal of capital from Damascus to Baghdad under new dynasty of Abbasids The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 656: Martyrdom of Hadrat Othman. Hadrat Ali becomes the Caliph. Battle of the Camel. Islamic History of the 7th Century 657: Hadrat Ali shifts the capital from Madina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin. Arbitration proceedings at Daumaut ul Jandal. Islamic History of the 7th Century 658: Battle of Nahrawan. Islamic History of the 7th Century 658 "... Kenwal fought with the Welsh at Pen, and pursued them to the Parret. This battle was fought after his return from East-Anglia, where he was three years in exile. Penda had driven him thither and deprived him of his kingdom, because he had discarded his sister." [ASC] 659: Conquest of Egypt by Mu'awiyah. Islamic History of the 7th Century 659 Penda, last heathen king of England, dies in battle. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page

Major Books and Events of the Decade 660-670

660-669 Death of Indian Astronomer/Mathematician Brahmagupta. [Hellemans, p.64] See Executive Summary. 660: Hadrat Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Mu'awiyah. Mu'awiyah declares himself as the Caliph at Damascus. Islamic History of the 7th Century 660 "...Bishop Egelbert departed from Kenwal; and Wina held the bishopric three years. And Egbert accepted the bishopric of Paris, in Gaul, by the Seine." [ASC] 661 "... at Easter, Kenwal fought at Pontesbury; and Wulfere, the son of Penda, pursued him as far as Ashdown. Cuthred, the son of Cwichelm, and King Kenbert, died in one year. Into the Isle of Wight also Wulfere, the son of Penda, penetrated, and transferred the inhabitants to Ethelwald, king of the South-Saxons, because Wulfere adopted him in baptism. And Eoppa, a mass-priest, by command of Wilfrid and King Wulfere, was the first of men who brought baptism to the people of the Isle of Wight." [ASC] 661: Martyrdom of Hadrat Ali. Accession of Hadrat Hasan and his abdication. Mu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph. Islamic History of the 7th Century 662 Constans II moves capital to Syracuse, Sicily The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 662: Khawarij revolts. Islamic History of the 7th Century 662 Bishop Severus Sebokht, in western Syria, writes that Hindu numerals use only nine digits. [Hellemans, p.65] 664 "... the sun was eclipsed, on the eleventh of May; and Erkenbert, King of Kent, having died, Egbert his son succeeded to the kingdom. Colman with his companions this year returned to his own country. This same year there was a great plague in the island Britain, in which died Bishop Tuda, who was buried at Wayleigh -- Chad and Wilferth were consecrated -- And Archbishop Deus-dedit died." [ASC] In many cultures, solar eclipses and comets magically foretold tragedies such as plagues, conquests, and the death of kings. [see 678] 666: [Muslim] Raid of Sicily. Islamic History of the 7th Century 667 "... Oswy and Egbert sent Wighard, a priest, to Rome, that he might be consecrated there Archbishop of Canterbury; but he died as soon as he came thither." [ASC] 668 "... Theodore was consecrated archbishop, and sent into Britain." [ASC] 668 Constans murdered in bath, revolt of Mezezios The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 669 "... King Egbert gave to Bass, a mass-priest, Reculver -- to build a minster upon." [ASC] 668-85 Emperor Constantine IV, son of Constans II The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 668-672 reign of Emperor Tenchi (Tenji). Observatory established. Book on Arithmetic written. [D.E. Smith, p.555]

Major Books and Events of the Decade 670-680

670 Japan followed in the mathematical footsteps of China, with the founding circa 670 of both an observatory and a school of arithmetic. 670: Advance in North Africa. Uqba b Nafe founds the town of Qairowan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul. Islamic History of the 7th Century 670 Death of "... Oswy, King of Northumberland, on the fifteenth day before the calends of March; and Egferth his son reigned after him. Lothere, the nephew of Bishop Egelbert, succeeded to the bishopric over the land of the West-Saxons, and held it seven years. He was consecrated by Archbishop Theodore. Oswy was the son of Ethelfrith, Ethelfrith of Ethelric, Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa." [ASC] 671 "This year happened that great destruction among the fowls." [ASC] presumably some sort of avian virus or other zoodemic [epidemic among animals] 672: Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan. Islamic History of the 7th Century 672-673 One of the great Church scolars of the Middle Ages was born in Monkton, Northumberland: Baeda [c.673-735] usually known as Beda Venerabilis, or the Venerable Bede. [see Executive Summary about Bede, based on D.E. Smith] [Hellemans, p.64, says that Bede was born in Jarrow, Durham, England] 672 Death of "... King Cenwal; and Sexburga his queen held the government one year after him." [ASC] 673 Death of "... Egbert, King of Kent; and the same year there was a synod at Hertford; and St. Etheldritha began that monastery at Ely." [ASC] 674: The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state. Islamic History of the 7th Century 674-8 Arab siege of Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 674 "... Escwin succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex. He was the son of Cenfus, Cenfus of Cenferth, Cenferth of Cuthgils, Cuthgils of Ceolwulf, Ceolwulf of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic." [ASC] 675 "... Wulfere, the son of Penda, and Escwin, the son of Cenfus, fought at Bedwin. The same year died Wulfere, and Ethelred succeeded to the government. In his time sent he to Rome Bishop Wilfrid to the pope that then was, called Agatho...." [ASC] 675 In Newcastle, the first English sundial is built. [Hellemans, p.64] 676 "... Hedda succeeded to his bishopric, Escwin died; and Centwin obtained the government of the West-Saxons. Centwin was the son of Cynegils, Cynegils of Ceolwulf. Ethelred, king of the Mercians, in the meantime, overran the land of Kent." [ASC] 670s Establishment of Anatolikon, Armeniakon and Thrakesion themata in Asia Minor The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 677: Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of Constantinople. Islamic History of the 7th Century 678 "... This year appeared the comet-star in August, and shone every morning, during three months, like a sunbeam. Bishop Wilfrid being driven from his bishopric by King Everth, two bishops were consecrated in his stead, Bosa over the Deirians, and Eata over the Bernicians. About the same time also Eadhed was consecrated bishop over the people of Lindsey, being the first in that division." [ASC] In many cultures, solar eclipses and comets magically foretold tragedies such as plagues, conquests, and the death of kings. [see 664] 679 "... Elwin was slain, by the river Trent, on the spot where Everth and Ethelred fought. This year also died St. Etheldritha; and the monastery of Coldingiham was destroyed by fire from heaven." [ASC]

Major Books and Events of the Decade 680-690

680-689 The first use of 0, the modern symbol for zero, is used in Sumatra and Cambodia. Earlier, a blank space was used in China as a placeholder, and the Mesopotamians copied the Chinese. It is uncertain when 0 became understood as a number, and not merely a placeholder within tables of numbers. [Hellemans, p.65] 680 Death of Caliph Mu'awiya The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 680: Death of Muawiyah. Accession of Yazid. Tragedy of Kerbala and martyrdom of Hadrat Hussain. Islamic History of the 7th Century 680-1 Sixth general church council at Constantinople, condemns Monotheletism with support of Pope Agatho. The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 680-1 Bulgars cross Danube under Khan Asperuch The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 680 "... Archbishop Theodore appointed a synod at Hatfield; because he was desirous of rectifying the belief of Christ; and the same year died Hilda, Abbess of Whitby." [ASC] 681 "... Trumbert was consecrated Bishop of Hexham, and Trumwin bishop of the Picts; for they were at that time subject to this country. This year also Centwin pursued the Britons to the sea." [ASC] 682: In North Africa, Uqba b Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Qairowan and withdraw to Burqa. Islamic History of the 7th Century 683: Death of Yazid. Accession of Mu'awiyah II. Islamic History of the 7th Century 684: Abdullah b Zubair declares himself as the Caliph at Makkah. Marwan I becomes the Caliph at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahat. Islamic History of the 7th Century 684 "...Everth sent an army against the Scots, under the command of his alderman, Bright, who lamentably plundered and burned the churches of God." [ASC] 685 "... King Everth commanded Cuthbert to be consecrated a bishop; and Archbishop Theodore, on the first day of Easter, consecrated him at York Bishop of Hexham; for Trumbert had been deprived of that see. The same year Everth was slain by the north sea, and a large army with him, on the thirteenth day before the calends of June. He continued king fifteen winters; and his brother Elfrith succeeded him in the government. Everth was the son of Oswy. Oswy of Ethelferth, Ethelferth of Ethelric, Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. About this time Ceadwall began to struggle for a kingdom. Ceadwall was the son of Kenbert, Kenbert of Chad, Chad of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic. Mull, who was afterwards consigned to the flames in Kent, was the brother of Ceadwall. The same year died Lothhere, King of Kent; and John was consecrated Bishop of Hexham, where he remained till Wilferth was restored, when John was translated to York on the death of Bishop Bosa. Wilferth his priest was afterwards consecrated Bishop of York, and John retired to his monastery in the woods of Delta. This year there was in Britain a bloody rain, and milk and butter were turned to blood." [ASC] 685 Death of Constantine IV, undisputed succession of son The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 685-95 Emperor Justinian II The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 685: Death of Marwan I. Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph at Damascus. Battle of Ain ul Wada. Islamic History of the 7th Century 686: Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa. Islamic History of the 7th Century 686 "... Ceadwall and his brother Mull spread devastation in Kent and the Isle of Wight. This same Ceadwall gave to St. Peter's minster, at Medhamsted, Hook; which is situated in an island called Egborough. Egbald at this time was abbot, who was the third after Saxulf; and Theodore was archbishop in Kent." [ASC] 687 "... Mull [was] consigned to the flames in Kent, and twelve other men with him; after which, in the same year, Ceadwall overran the kingdom of Kent." [ASC] 687: Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b Zubair. Mukhtar killed. Islamic History of the 7th Century 688 "... Ceadwall went to Rome, and received baptism at the hands of Sergius the pope, who gave him the name of Peter; but in the course of seven nights afterwards, on the twelfth day before the calends of May, he died in his crisom-cloths, and was buried in the church of St. Peter. To him succeeded Ina in the kingdom of Wessex, and reigned thirty-seven winters. He founded the monastery of Glastonbury; after which he went to Rome, and continued there to the end of his life. Ina was the son of Cenred..." [ASC] 688 Chinese Empress Wu Tse has, built from cast iron, a pagoda 90 meters tall (294 feet). [Hellemans, p.65]

Major Books and Events of the Decade 690-700

690 "... Archbishop Theodore, who had been bishop twenty-two winters, departed this life, and was buried within the city of Canterbury. Bertwald, who before this was abbot of Reculver, on the calends of July succeeded him in the see; which was ere this filled by Romish bishops, but henceforth with English. Then were there two kings in Kent, Wihtred and Webherd." [ASC] 691: Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik. Islamic History of the 7th Century 691-2 Caliph Abd al Malik constructs the Dome of the Rock (mosque) at Jerusalem The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 692 Council in Trullo held in Constantinople, issues 102 canons The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 692: The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the sole Caliph. Islamic History of the 7th Century 693 "Bertwald consecrated archbishop by Godwin, bishop of the Gauls, on the fifth day before the nones of July; about which time died Gifmund, who was Bishop of Rochester; and Archbishop Bertwald consecrated Tobias in his stead. This year also Dryhtelm retired from the world." [ASC] 694 "... the people of Kent covenanted with Ina, and gave him 30,000 pounds in friendship, because they had burned his brother Mull. Wihtred, who succeeded to the kingdom of Kent, and held it thirty-three winters, was the son of Egbert, Egbert of Erkenbert, Erkenbert of Eadbald, Eadbald of Ethelbert. And as soon as he was king, he ordained a great council to meet in the place that is called Bapchild; in which presided Wihtred, King of Kent, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Brihtwald, and Bishop Tobias of Rochester; and with him were collected abbots and abbesses, and many wise men, all to consult about the advantage of God's churches that are in Kent...." [ASC] 695 Chinese Empress Wu Tse has, built from cast iron, a column weighing 1,325 tons to commemorate the Chou Dynasty. [Hellemans, p.67] 695 Themata of Thrace, Sicily and Calabria, and Hellas The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 695 Rebellion of Leontios, strategos (governor) of Hellas; Justinian II deposed, mutilated and exiled to Cherson The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 695-8 Emperor Leontius The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 695 First Muslim coins minted in Syrian capital, Damascus The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 695: Khawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish. Islamic History of the 7th Century 696 Radbod, King of the Frisians, rejects attempts to convert him to Christianity. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 697 "...the Southumbrians slew Ostritha, the queen of Ethelred, the sister of Everth." [ASC] 698 Arabs capture Carthage, complete Great Mosque at Kairouan The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 698 Leontius deposed by troops commanded by Apsimar The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 698-705 Reign of Emperor Tiberius II (Apsimar) The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 699 "... the Picts slew Alderman Burt." [ASC] 700: Campaigns against the Berbers in North Africa. Islamic History of the 8th Century c.700 Primitive Norse (or Runic Norse) gives way to Old Norse. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 701 In Japan, a University system was established, with 9 Chinese works required for math students. These were the classics that directed Japanese mathematics and its scientific application of centuries to come. [see the Executive Summary for a list of the titles] 702 Death of Asperuch, Khan of Bulgars The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 705 Justinian II restored to power with Khazar support The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 705-11 Second reign of Justinian II The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 705-15 Caliph Walid constructs the Great Mosque at Damascus The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 710 The Venerable Bede writes on the Calendar and on Finger Reckoning. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 711 Justinian killed by troops loyal to exiled military commander Bardanes Philippikos The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 711-3 Emperor Philippikos, revives Monotheletism The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 713 Philippikos deposed by troops who impose civilian official Artemios as emperor The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 713-5 Emperor Anastasius II (Artemios) The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 715-17 Emperor Theodosius III, imposed by troops of Opsikion The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century 717 Revolt of Anatolikon and Armeniakon troops led by Leo, strategos of the Anatolikon thema The Byzantine Empire in the 7th Century

Other Key Dates and Stories of this 7th Century

{to be done}

Major Writers Born this 7th Century

c.673 Venerable Bede (c.673-735) see: Executive Summary, 710 ??? Wang Wei, Poet, Painter and Musician of China. [died 759] {to be done} Data is scattered through the main body of text, and more should be added.

Major Writers Died this 7th Century

620 Stephen of Alexandria (550-620) see: [610] 636 Isadorus of Seville (c.570-636) see: [570] Executive Summary, [610], [636] 643 Chen Ch'uan (???-643), see: [643] 667 Severus Sebokht (???-667), see: Executive Summary, [650], [662] 668 Brahmagupta (598-668) see: Executive Summary, [598], [628], [660-669] {to be done} Data is scattered through the main body of text, and more should be added.

Decade by Decade 7th Century Science Background

The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site break these apart (science/math versus political/military history). Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about Christian saints, and poetry of equivalent function.

Decade by Decade 7th Century Mundane Background

See the political/military history in the main body of text, and the index of Politico-Military People of the Century, below. The biggest names in Mundane History of the Seventh century included: * Mohammed

Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology

|Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Literary Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: 6000-5000 B.C. |5th Millennium BC: 5000-4000 B.C. |4th Millennium BC: 4000-3000 B.C. |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: 1000 BC-1 BC |1st Century: 1 AD-100 AD |2nd Century: 100 AD-200 AD |3rd Century: 200 AD-300 AD |4th Century: 300-400 |5th Century: 400-500 |6th Century: 500-600 |7th Century: 600-700 [you are here] |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights [you are here] |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners
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