TIMELINE 9th CENTURY


Return to Timeline Table of Contents
Return to Ultimate SF Table of Contents

TIMELINE 9th CENTURY

Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.
We examine both works of fiction and important contemporaneous works on non-fiction which set the context for early Science Fiction and Fantasy.
There are 60 hotlinks here to authors, magazines, films, or television items elsewhere in the Ultimate Science Fiction Web Guide and 153 hotlinks to web sites beyond Magic Dragon Multimedia. Most recently updated: 9 May 2003 [from 76 to 80 kilobytes].
This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795; and the Wikipedia. It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D. E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958]. Executive Summary of the 9th Century Jump Straight to the alphabetical list of Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical People of the Century Fiction About the 9th Century 9th Century African Geomancy The Vampire and the 9th Century Major Books of the Decade 800-810 Major Books of the Decade 810-820 Major Books of the Decade 820-830 Major Books of the Decade 830-840 Major Books of the Decade 840-850 Major Books of the Decade 850-860 Major Books of the Decade 860-870 Major Books of the Decade 870-880 Major Books of the Decade 880-890 Major Books of the Decade 890-900 Other Key Dates and Stories of this 9th Century Major Writers Born this 9th Century Major Writers Died this 9th Century Decade by Decade 9th Century Science Background Decade by Decade 9th Century Mundane Background Later Carolingian Empire Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology Where to Go for More: 51 Useful Reference Books

Executive Summary of the 9th Century

In this Ninth Century (or maybe the Eighth), the great Old English Fantasy Poem Beowulf could have first been written (as oposed to orally transmitted) Europe began to be attacked by Vikings, as well as Islamic Arab naval raids on the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian shores (ca.813-ca.915). The Aghlabid dynasty ruled most of North Africa (800-909). In the Christian world, there was a schism between Eastern and Western churches (863-879) which later reoccurred and expanded into the permanent Great Schism. There was no great Mathematician of the Century, the way Omar Khayyam was to the late 10th/early 11th Centuries, or Fibonacci was to the 13th century. Al-Mamun, who reigned from 809 to 833, was considered a patron of Mathematics [D.E. Smith, p.555] Tenjin (ca.890) was considered a patron of Mathematics in Japan [D.E. Smith, p.556]

Mathematical/Scientific/Philosophical People of the Century:

  1. Abu'l-Taiyib
  2. see: 850
  3. Abu-al-'Abbas al Farghani
  4. see: 820, 830
  5. Ahmed ibn al-Taiyib
  6. see: 890
  7. Al-Arjani
  8. see: 850
  9. Al-Astorlabi
  10. see: 830
  11. Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Jabir Al-Battani (Albategnius)
  12. see: 850-859, 880-909, 929
  13. Albumasar
  14. see: 880
  15. Alchindi
  16. see: 860
  17. Alfarabicus (Al-Farabi)
  18. [870-950], see: 870-879
  19. Abu-al-'Abbas al Farghani (Alfragamus)
  20. [born c. 820], see: 820, 830, 861
  21. al-Jauhari
  22. [fl.c.830]
  23. Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi
  24. see: 820, 850-859
  25. Al-Hajjaj
  26. see: 820
  27. Al-Himsi
  28. see: 880
  29. Al Kindi
  30. [died c.884], see: 873
  31. Muslim ibn Ahmed al-Leiti
  32. see: 900
  33. Almahani
  34. see: 860
  35. Al-Mervazi
  36. see: 860
  37. Al-Misri
  38. see: 900
  39. Abu al Fadl Ja'far ibn al-Muqtafi
  40. see: 840-849
  41. Al-Nehavendi
  42. see: 820
  43. Al-Qass
  44. see: 900
  45. Al-Tabari
  46. see: 800
  47. An-Nairizi
  48. [died 922], Arab commentator on Euclid
  49. Abu-Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya Ar-razi (Rhazes)
  50. see: 840-849, 880-909, 930-939
  51. Sind b'Ali
  52. [died 864], Arab commentator on Euclid
  53. Sahl ibn Bishr
  54. see: 850
  55. Ahmed ibn Da-ud
  56. see: 890
  57. Thabit ibn Qurra b Harran
  58. [826-901], see: 836, 870
  59. Ishaq ibu Honein ibn Ishaq
  60. see: 840, 900
  61. Abu Kamil
  62. see: 900
  63. Qosta ibn Luqa
  64. see: 900
  65. Mahavira
  66. see: 850
  67. Hrabanus Maurus
  68. see: 820
  69. Messahala
  70. see: 800
  71. Jacob ben Nissim
  72. see: 800
  73. Tabit ibn Qorra
  74. [826-901], see: 836, 870
  75. Rhazes (Abu-Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya Ar-razi)
  76. see: 840-849, 880-909, 920, 930-939
  77. Remigius of Auxerre
  78. see: 900
  79. Strabo (Walafried Strabus)
  80. see: 840
  81. The Three Brothers
  82. see: 870
  83. Cheng Yin
  84. see: 850-859
Jump Straight to the alphabetical list of Politico-Military Names

Fiction About the 9th Century

Pope Joan: A Novel, by Donna Woolfolk Cross [New York: Ballantine] ISBN 0-345-41626-0 "Pope Joan is commonly regarded as legend but Cross brings her life and the 9th century vividly to life in this novel that takes us from her life as a brilliant girl child in Germany to her life as a monk and a priest while disguised as a man and finally to a position as the most powerful religious leader of her time. Romance and politics are blended in seamlessly in this fascinatingly told story." Genreflecting: Books of the Week, Vol.3, No.1 "This historical novel vividly depicts a young woman's struggle to carry the torch of knowledge through the Dark Ages. The question of whether Joan ever did become Pope in the 9th century ceases to matter as the story sweeps us through violent clashes, deception, and intrigue. The author, Donna Woolfolk Cross, has her own website, Pope Joan: author's website, and offers to meet with book discussion groups via speakerphone." Review by Mary Feeney in Your Comments On Books¥ The Hammer and the Cross, by Harry Harrison (with John Holm) [Legend, June 1993] ISBN 0-09-926051-4, £8.99, 430 pages, trade paperback, Gino D'Achille cover art: Historical Fantasy novel set in an alternate history 9th-century England that has been conquered by the Vikings. [Tor, Sep 1993] ISBN 0-312-85439-0, $23.95, 415pp, hardcover Kevin Johnson cover art; John Holm is a pseudonym for Tom Shippey. [source: the Locus/Contento Science Fiction Database] In My Dreams, by Susan Sizemore [New York: Ace, 1994] Time Travel Romance set in 9th century Ireland. Susan Sizemore's Book Store The Belt of Gold, by Cecilia Holland [New York: Knopf, 1984] Set in the regime of Empress Irene, roughly 800 AD, the novel traces the life of a Frankish nobleman visiting the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. Primarily a romance with political intrigue providing context and excitement, we see Byzantium as a decadant society by contrast with the straightforward protagonist. Overall, an entertaining and enjoyable work. The Land the Ravens Found, by Naomi Mitchison [1955; 1968]: Fictionalized account of the historical woman "Aud." Aud "the Deep Minded" was from the Pentland Firth in the far north of Scotland. Her son, Thorston the Red, conquered caithness and Sutherland. A ship is built, when Thorston dies, to take Aud's surviving son, Anlaf, some Norse, and some freed Scots thralls to Iceland -- "The Land the Ravens Found." Great background, historically accurate, emphasizing domestic rather than military life. Aud's story is also told in: Sword Song, by Rosemary Sutcliffe. The Wizard Children of Finn, by Mary Tannen Bran and Fiona time travel to 9th century Ireland to solve a curse in this fine book for older children. Irish legend Finn McCool is also central to: Finn Mac Cool, by Morgan Llywellen; Master of Earth and Water, by Diana Paxon and Adrienne Martine-Barnes. East of the Fall of Rome: A Byzantine Bedside Companion, by James Lovett [Iress, 1975]. Light looks at the Imperial court of 9th Century Byzantium, and life in the empire, without the usual emphasis on war and intrigue. 9th Century-related Role Playing Game GURPS Alternate Earths 2, by Kenneth Hite, Craig Neumeier & Michael S Schiffer [Steve Jackson Games] 128 pages, ISBN: 1-55634-399-X Capsule Review by Tim Hall on 01/26/00: "Caliph: The Arabs invented the printing press in the 9th century, sparking an Islamic renaissance and a scientific revolution. We now have a highly advanced civilisation; high-tech Arabian Nights, with mile-high towers of diamond, highly advanced technology, AI 'djinn', and space colonies. But all is not perfect; centuries of peaceful expansion have been broken by war; the movement calling itself 'The Jamahirya' has rejected the world-wide Islamic state. It controls the Americas, and has allied itself to the expansionist Caliphate of Hind. So far this hasn't escalated to the level of a total war; but with the advanced bio- and nanotechnology in existance, things could get nasty. This is very much a 'sense of wonder' high-SF setting; one of the distant space colonies has allegedly made first contact with aliens." RPGNet Book of Kells "The Gospels, illuminated by the brothers at the monastery at Kells in Ireland in the early 9th century. (The Book was actually begun at Iona in the late 8th century, but was moved after early Viking raids). On permanent display at Trinity College, Dublin, it is regarded as the masterpiece of its kind. [MD]" INWO ConcordanceBasic Set Resources

9th Century African Geomancy

    Regarding "the myth that Africans had to 'borrow' all science and technology from Europeans. This myth is particularly ironic in the case of information technologies, given that the binary code appears to have a distinct African origin (Eglash 1997a). The modern binary code, essential to every digital circuit from alarm clocks to super- computers, was first introduced by Leibnitz around 1670. Leibniz had been inspired by the binary-based 'logic machine' of Raymond Lull, which was in turn inspired by the alchemistsÕ divination practice of geomancy (Skinner 1980). But geomancy is clearly not of European origin. It was first introduced there by Hugo of Santalla in twelfth century Spain, and Islamic scholars had been using it in North Africa since at least the 9th century, where it was first documented in written records by the Jewish writer Aran ben Joseph. The nearly identical system of divination in West Africa associated with Fa and Ifa was first noted by Trautmann (1939), but he assumed that geomancy originated in Arabic society, where it is known as ilm al-raml ('the science of sand). The mathematical basis of geomancy is, however, strikingly out of place in non-African systems. Unlike Europe, India, and Arabic cultures, base 2 calculation is ubiquitous in Africa, even for multiplication and division. Doubling is a frequent theme in many other African knowledge systems, particularly divination. The African origin of geomancy -- and thus, via Lull and Leibnitz, the binary code -- is well supported." The Race for Cyberspace: Information Technology in the Black Diaspora by Ron Eglash and Julian Bleecker, to appear in "Science as Culture."

    The Vampire and the 9th Century

    "The origin of Slavic vampire myths developed during the 9th century as a result of conflict between pre-Christian paganism and Christianity. Christianity won out with the vampires and other pagan beliefs surviving the folklore. The dead person who does not decompose in the grave becomes a vampire, a word and concept of Slavic origin. (The word itself -- vampire is a term used to describe the living dead and originated from the Slavonic term-'vampir' and did not exist in the English language until the 1730s.) To save the living from a vampire's evil deeds, it is necessary to plant a stake in the grave so that it passes through the heart of the corpse or else to exhume the corpse and burn it. Since the classes of unclean dead are believed to have been constantly increasing (in Macedonia, for example, it is believed that all those born in the three months between Christmas and Lady Day are unclean), it will be seen that all of the dead will at some point be in danger of rancor, fear, and eventual diregard. A Christian clergy that has lent its presence at the exhumation and destruction of vampires has contributed unwittingly to the preservation of this last phase of Slavic paganism into modern times." Legend of the Vampyre
    A Few Paid Links to decrease my losses on this Web Domain:

    Major Books and Events of 800-810 AD

    800 Coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 800: The Aghlabid rule is established in North Africa. Islamic History of the 9th Century c.800 The Elder Futhark is replaced by the Younger or Sixteen-Rune Futhark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 800 Harun al-Rashid sends an embassy to China [D.E. Smith, p.555] 800 Jacob ben Nissim writes on the Theory of Numbers [D.E. Smith, p.555] 800 Messahala writes on the Astrolabe [D.E. Smith, p.555] 800 Al-Tabari writes on Astronomy [D.E. Smith, p.555] 801 Charlemagne defeats the Moors to conquer Barcelona. c.800-810 Reign of King Godfrid of Denmark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 802 Irene of Athens, emperor of Byzantium, deposed and banished to Lesbos. 802-11 Emperor Nikephoros I succeeds Irene. The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 802 Jayavarman II founds the independent kingdom of Angkor for the Khmer people. 802 No definite King of Bulgaria, starting a "period of confusion." 802 Egbert crowned King of Wessex. 802 Vikings (Norse) sack Iona. 802 Death in battle of Aethelmund, Earl of Hwicce. 803 Irene of Athens, ex-emperor of Byzantium, dies in exile. 803 Nikephoros associates his son Staurakios in Imperial authority The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 803 Conclusion of negotiations between Nicephorus I and Charlemagne to draw the boundaries between their empires. 803 The Byzantine Empire recognizes the independence of Venice. 803 Nikephoros campaigns against the Arabs in Asia Minor The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 803 Downfall of the Barmakids. Execution of Jafar Barmki. Islamic History of the 9th Century 803 the Chinese poet Du Mu is born. 804 Charlemagne completes conquering Saxony. 804 Earliest written reference to Hedeby (also known as Haithabu or, in Latin, Heidiba), a center of trade on the Jutland Peninsula, in the southern Baltic Sea, reached by sea via the Schlei inlet in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany. 804 Fujiwara no Yoshifusa: Birth of regent of Japan. 804 Carolingian king of East Francia is born: Louis the German. 19 May 804: Death of Alcuin of York, advisor to Charlemagne, Bishop of Tours. 805 Campaigns against the Byzantines. Capture of the islands of Rhodes and Cypress. Islamic History of the 9th Century 805 Combined Slav and Arab attack against Patras in Peloponnesos, southern Greece, is repelled The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 805 Saracens, in a military upset at Crasus, beat Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I. 805 Important medieval city Magdeburg, capital of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, on the Elbe river, first referenced in writing (as "Magadoburg" in the Diedenhof Capitulary) when Charlemagne fortified this previously sleepy fishing/trading village. 805 Emperor of China Tang Shun Zong succeeds Tang De Zong, but for only a handfull of months. 806 Death of Patriarch Tarasios; Patriarch Nikephoros appointed over monastic opposition The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 806 Dalmatia briefly in the Byzantine Empire, instead of (as before and after) in the Frankish Empire. 806 Nola is sacked by Saracens. 806 Consecration of Archbishop of Canterbury Wulfred. 806 Caliph Harun al Rashid leads Arab forces into Asia Minor, Nikephoros obliged to increase terms for a truce The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 806 Emperor Heizei succeeds Kammu in Japan; Kammu dies. 807 Cuthred, King of Kent, dies; his brother Coenwulf of Mercia rules Kent. 807 Khan Krum and Bulgars advance towards Constantinople Under Krum, the House of Dulo is restored. The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 808 Widukind dies; he had been the leader of the Saxons. 808 Baghdad no longer the capital of the Abbasid dynasty. The seat of power moves north to Samarra. 809 Emperor of Japan Heizei is succeeded by Saga. 809 Death of Harun ur Rashid. Accession of Amin. Islamic History of the 9th Century

    Major Books and Events of 810-820 AD

    810-819 Arab alchemist Geber dies, possibly at Al-Kufah, Iraq. [Hellemans, p.68] 810 Death of Charlemagne. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page (but see the more authoritative entry at 814) 810 Birth of Emperor Nimmyo of Japan. 810 Death of Pepin, King of Italy. c.810 Birth of Kenneth I, future King of Scotland. c.810-827 Reign of King Harald Klak of Denmark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 811 Emperor (since 802) Nikephoros prepares major offensive against the Bulgars, invades the capital Pliska, dies in battle after ambush. The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 811-13 Staurakios proclaimed emperor but dies from wounds; his brother-in-law accedes as Emperor Michael I The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century c.812 Birth of Donald I, future King of Scotland. 812 In China, the government takes control of the issuing of paper bank drafts, the predecessor of paper money as such. [Hellemans, p.68] 812 Byzantine embassy to Charles acclaims him as Basileus (emperor) The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 812 Bulgar invasion of Thrace, Khan Krum occupies Mesembria The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 813 Charlemagne presides over the crowning of his son Louis the Pious as "co-emperor" of the family business. 813 Michael I leads Byzantines to defeat at Versinikia in the war against Bulgaria; in essentially a revolt for the throne. The army proclaims Leo, general of the Anatolikon theme as emperor This starts the so-called Second Iconoclastic Period. The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 813 Priests are ordered to preach in the vernacular (Vulgar Latin or else German) by the Third Council of Tours. 813 Al Mamon starts a school of Astronomy in Baghdad. 813 The poet Abu Nuwas dies. 813-20 Emperor Leo V, called the Armenian The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 813 Khan Krum besieges Constantinople unsuccessfully, Leo V defeats Bulgars at Mesembria The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 13 Apr 814 Khan Krum again besieges Constantinople, dies suddenly, of a brain haemorrage. Byzantines conclude a 30-year peace with successor Khan of Bulgaria Omurtag. The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 28 Jan 814 Frankish Emperor Charlemagne dies in Aachen (Germany). [Hellemans, p.68] 18 Feb 814 Frankish political figure Angilbert dies. 814-40 On Charlemagne's death, his son Louis becomes Western emperor The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 814 Leo V invites Patriarch Nikephoros to resume iconoclasm; he declines, is exiled and replaced by iconoclast Theodotos Melissenos The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 814: Civil war between Amin and Mamun. Amin killed and Mamun becomes the Caliph. Islamic History of the 9th Century 815 In Cornwall, the west Welsh territories are attacked and plundered by Ecgbert. 815 Council of S. Sophia reaffirms iconoclasm The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 2 June 815: Death of Saint Nicephorus, Patriarch of Constantinople. c.815 Death of Geber (Arab alchemist Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan). 815 In Baghdada (Iraq), the science library Bayt al-Hikma is founded. [Hellemans, p.68] 815: Shia revolt under Ibn Tuba Tabs. Islamic History of the 9th Century 816: Shia revolt in Makkah; Harsama quells the revolt. In Spain the Umayyads capture the island of Corsica. Islamic History of the 9th Century 816 Death of Pope Leo III (on throne 795-816); Pope Stephen V succeeds Leo. 816 Louis the Pious, Frankish king, son of Charlemagne, crowned Emperor. c.816 Birth of future Pope Formosus. 817 Bulgaria's siege of Constantinople at last stops. 817 Louis the Pious divides the empire between his sons (see "Later Carolingian Empire" near the bottom of this web page about how this leads to "fractal balkanization). Louis the German becomes King of East Francia; while Lothar I becomes Co-Emperor. 817 Pope Stephen V dies (on the throne June 816-Jan 817), Pope Paschal I succeeds him. 817 Council of Aachen meets. 817 Harsama killed. Islamic History of the 9th Century 818 The Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Izira, Majorica, and Sardinia. Islamic History of the 9th Century 818 Bishop Theodulf of Orleans conspires with Bernard, king of Italy, against the reign of Louis the Pious. The conspiracy fails, Theodulf's imprisoned and deposed. 819 Marriage of Judith Welf to Louis the Pious. 819 The capital of the Abbasids is moved from Samarra back southwards to Baghdad. 819 Mamun comes to Baghdad. Islamic History of the 9th Century

    820-830 AD

    820 Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi writes an extremely important book on Algebra. [D.E. Smith, p.555] (but see 830-839) His name gradually evolves into our word "Algorithm" (see below). 820-829 Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi writes the book De Numero Indorum ["Concerning the Hindu Art of Reckoning"] giving a set of rules for computation with Hindu-Arabic numerals. In modern language, we call these rules "Algorithms", the very name of the subject being based on his name [Hellemans, p.69] 820 Hrabanus Maurus writes an important Computus. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 820 Al-Nehavendi writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 820 Al-Hajjaj writes on Greek Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 820-829 Birth of Egyptian Astronomer and Geographer Abu-al-'Abbas al Farghani writes a clear account of the works of Ptolemy in Arabic. [Hellemans, p.68] Abu-al-'Abbas Ahmed ibn Muhammed ibn Kathir al Farghani was born in Farghana, Transoxiana. He wrote the Elements of Astronomy, which were translated into Latin in the 12th century, which translation greatly influenced European Astronomy before Regiomontanus. Al Farghani calculated the diameter of the Earth to be 6,500 miles (fairly close to the roughly 8,000 in fact), and found both the diameters and greatest distances to each of the known planets. Of Literary/Poetic interest: Al Farghani not only influenced Sacrobosco's "Sphere", but also, in the translation by Gherard, was the astronomical source for Dante's "Vitanuova" and "Convivio." 820 Leo V accuses Michael the Stammerer, commander of the Exkoubitors of plotting against him; Michael organizes the murder of Leo V on Christmas Day The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 820: Tahir establishes the rule of the Tahirids in Khurasan. Islamic History of the 9th Century 820-29 Emperor Michael II, suspends all discussion of icons and associates his son Theophilos in imperial power The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 821-23 Revolt of Thomas the Slav, who overruns Asia Minor, besieges Constantinople and is finally defeated by Bulgars The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 822: Death of Al Hakam in Spain; accession of Abdul Rahman II. Islamic History of the 9th Century 823: Death of Tahir in Khurasan. Accession of Talha and his deposition. Accession of Abdullah b Tahir. Islamic History of the 9th Century 824 Byzantine letter to Emperor Louis on the dangers of idolatry The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 825 Council of Paris condemns the cult of images The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 826-7 Ummayad Arab pirates from Spain conquer Crete The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 827: Mamun declares the Mutazila creed as the state religion. Islamic History of the 9th Century 827 The Arabic book entitled the Almagest is published; it is a translation of the book Megale Syntaxis by Ptolemy. [Hellemans, p.68] c.827-853 Reign of King Horik Godfredsson of Denmark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 829-42 Emperor Theophilos, iconoclast persecution The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century

    830-840 AD

    830 Al-'Abbas writes on Greek Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 830 Al-Astorlabi, as his chosen name suggests, writes on the Astrolabe. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 830 Arab conquest of Palermo, Sicily The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 830-839 Founding, in Baghdad, of the "House of Wisdom." [Hellemans, p.69] 830-839 Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi publishes Al-jabr wa'l Muqabalah, from which we derive the word "Algebra", which gives algorithms for finding the positive solutions to all equations of the first and second degree (linear and quadratic) [Hellemans, p.69] 830-839 Nearly a millennium after the Chinese invented them, crank handles for turning wheels are used in the West, according to the oldest evidence: the Utrecht Psalter. [Hellemans, p.69] 831 Theophilos campaigns against Arabs in Asia Minor The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 833: Death of Mamun. Accession of Mutasim. Islamic History of the 9th Century c.835 Danish raiders ally with the Cornish against the rule of King Ecgbehrt of Wessex. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 836: Mutasim shifts the capital to Samarra. Islamic History of the 9th Century 836 Tabit ibn Qorra or Thabit ibn Qurra b Harran is born in Turkey. He is later to translate various works from the Greek, and tries to solve the vexing problem of Euclid's Fifth Postulate. [Hellemans, p.69] 837 John the Grammarian elected Patriarch The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 837 Theophilos celebrates another triumph over the Arabs The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 837: Revolt of the Jats. Islamic History of the 9th Century 838 Arab capture of Amorion The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 838: Revolt of Babek in Azarbaijan suppressed. Islamic History of the 9th Century 839: Revolt of Maziar in Tabaristan. The Muslims occupy South Italy. Capture of the city of Messina in Sicily. Islamic History of the 9th Century

    840-850 AD

    840 Honein ibn Ishaq writes an important book on Greek Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 840 Strabo (Walafried Strabus) [809-849] is an influential teacher of Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.555] He wrote on Geography and Botany as well, often in poetic forms. 840-849 Suleiman travels to China; when he returns, and publishes his tales of the trip, it becomes the first account of China in the Arab world. [Hellemans, p.68] 840-849 The first Arabic writing that records sunspots, by Abu al Fadl Ja'far ibn al-Muqtafi [Hellemans, p.68] 840-849 Alchemist and Physician of Persia, Abu-Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya Ar-razi (Rhazes), is born in Rhages (Iran). [Hellemans, p.69] c.840-870 Reign of King Halfdan the Black of Norway. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 842 Death of Theophilos, accession of young son Michael with Regency of Empress Theodora, her brothers Bardas and Petronas, and Theoktistos the Logothete The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 842-67 Emperor Michael III The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 842: Death of Mutasim, accession of Wasiq. Islamic History of the 9th Century 843: Revolts of the Arabs. Islamic History of the 9th Century 843 Triumph of Orthodoxy, reestablishment of icon veneration by Empress Theodora; and Patriarch Methodios appointedÊ The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 843 Treaty of Verdun divides the western empire of Charles [between his three sons] The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 843 First picture of a rotary grindstone in any European source (an illustration in the Utrecht Psalter shows a crank, thought to be the first known use of a crank in the Europe. c.844-845 Norse raids on Moorish Spain begin. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page c.845 Al-Ghazal's embassy to Turgeis, King of the Vikings in Ireland. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 847 Death of Methodios, Patriarch Ignatios The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 847: Death of Wasiq, accession of Mutawakkil. Islamic History of the 9th Century 849 Birth of Alfred the Great, King of England, in Wantage, Bershire [Hellemans, p.68] 849 Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah b Tahir; accession of Tahir II. Islamic History of the 9th Century

    850-860

    850 Mahavira writes important works on arithmetic, algebra, and mensuration. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 850 Sahl ibn Bishr writes on arithmetic, algebra, and astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 850 Al-Arjani writes on Greek Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.555] Ibn Rahawaiki Al-Arjani 850 Abu'l-Taiyib writes on Trigonometry. [D.E. Smith, p.555] 850-859 Death of Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi. [Hellemans, p.71] see: 820 850-859 Chinese scholar Cheng Yin is the attributed author of Classified Essentials of the Mysterious Tao of the True Origin of Things gives an early (and imprecise) formula for gunpowder, and warns that mixing it can be dangerous, as it might burn the experimenter and his house. [Hellemans, p.71] 850: Mutawakkil restores orthodoxy. Islamic History of the 9th Century c.851 First Norse raid on Wales recorded in the Welsh chronicles Annales Cambriae, Brut y Tywysogion and Brut y Saeson stating that a certain Cyngen or Cinnen died on the swords of "the Heathen". The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 852: Death of Abdur Rahman II of Spain; accession of Muhammad I. Islamic History of the 9th Century c.852 The Swedish Rus become dominant among the Volga. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page c.853-873 Reign of King Rorik of Denmark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 856 Michael III's uncle Bardas removes Theodora from the Regency, Michael III acclaimed emperor by Senate The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 856 Expedition against the Paulicians in Tephrike The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 856: Umar b Abdul Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind. Islamic History of the 9th Century 858 Birth in Haran (Turkey) of Arabian Astronomer Albategnius (Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Jabir Al-Battani). He is later to introduce into Arabic Astronomy the use of Trigonometry, and to refine the work of Ptolemy with an extensive series of more precise measurements. [Hellemans, p.70] 858 Deposition and exile of Patriarch Ignatios The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 858: Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya. Islamic History of the 9th Century 858-67 Patriarch Photios, first period The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 859 Arabs commence conquest of Sicily The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century

    860-870

    860 Alchindi writes important works on Astronomy, Optics, and proportion. [D.E. Smith, p.556] 860 Almahani writes important works on Trigonometry, and Cubic Equations. [D.E. Smith, p.556] 860 Al-Mervazi writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.556] 860 Russians attack Constantinople The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 860: Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana. Islamic History of the 9th Century c.860 The Norse discovery of Iceland. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page c.860's Ragnar Loddbrok killed at York. The Rus found Novgorod and Kiev. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 861 Death of Egyptian Astronomer Abu-al-'Abbas al Farghani (Alfragamus). [Hellemans, p.70] 861 Photios sends Constantine and Methodios to Khazaria The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 861: Murder of the Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil; accession of Muntasir. Islamic History of the 9th Century 862 Bardas proclaimed Caesar The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 862: Muntasir poisoned to death; accession of Mutasin. Islamic History of the 9th Century 863 Imperial school established at Magnaura Palace The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 863-7 Constantine and Methodios sent to Moravia The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 863 Pope Nicholas I deposes Photios and recognizes Ignatios The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 864: Zaidi state established in Tabaristan by Hasan b Zaid. Islamic History of the 9th Century 864/5 Baptism of Bulgarian Khan Boris The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 865 Michael III appoints Basil parakoimomenos The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 866: Mutasim flies from Samarra, his depostion and accession of Mutaaz. Islamic History of the 9th Century 867 Photios excommunicates Pope Nicholas I, and condemns the "Filioque" clause in the creed The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 867 Michael III murdered, Basil proclaimed The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 867-86 Emperor Basil I the Macedonian The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 867 Photios deposed, Ignatios restored as Patriarch The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 867: Yaqub b Layth founds the Saffarid rule in Sistan. Islamic History of the 9th Century 867/8 Roman synod under Hadrian II condemns Photios The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 868 Printing of the earliest extant complete printed book (really a scroll): the Diamond Sutra. [Hellemans, p.71] 868 Arabs besiege Ragusa/Dubrovnik The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 868: Ahmad b Tulun founds the Tulunid rule in Egypt. Islamic History of the 9th Century 869 Byzantine alliance with Louis II against the Arabs The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 869 Eighth Oecumenical Council in Constantinople restores union of churches The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 869 Death of Constantine as monk Cyril in Rome The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 869 The Abbasid Caliph Mutaaz forced to abdicate, his death and accession of Muhtadi. Islamic History of the 9th Century 869-70 Arabs capture Malta The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century

    870-880

    870-879 birth of Persian scholar Alfarabicus (Al-Farabi) later to reconcile Islam with Aristotle. [Hellemans, p.70] 870 Tabit ibn Qorra writes important works on Conics, and Greek Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.556] 870 The Three Brothers write on Geometry, and Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.556] 870: Turks revolt against Muhtadi, his death and accession of Mutamid. Islamic History of the 9th Century 870 The Settlement of Iceland begins. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page c.870-945 Reign of King Harald Harfagra of Norway. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 870-9 Publication of Procheiros Nomos, legal code The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 871 Start of the reign of Alfred the Great, in England [D.E. Smith, p.556] (see: 29 Oct 900 for his death) 871 Basil I writes to Louis II about imperial title The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 872 Campaign against Paulicians, destruction of Tephrike The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 872 Defeat of Arab fleet off Corinth, central Greece The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 873 Tahirid rule extinguished. Islamic History of the 9th Century 873 Death of Mathematician Al Kindi. [Hellemans, p.70] c.873-891 Kings Sigfred and Halfdan are co-rulers of Denmark. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 874 Zanj revolt in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of Nasr. Islamic History of the 9th Century 876 Byzantine forces reoccupy Bari in southern Italy The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 877 Death of Ignatios, Photios restored as Patriarch The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 877: Death of Yaqubb Layth in Sistan, accession of Amr b Layth. Islamic History of the 9th Century 878 Fall of Syracuse to Arabs who complete conquest of Sicily The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 878 Alfred the Great defeats Guthrum/Guthorm and forces the Viking forces to accept Christianity in return for English for settlement. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 878 Harald Harfagra completes his conquest and unification of Norway and the Orkney Islands, many Norwegians flee to Iceland. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 879-80 Council of Constantinople rehabilitates Photios The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 879-80 Publication of Epanagoge, legal code The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century

    880-890

    880 Al-Himsi writes on Greek Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.556] 880 Albumasar writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.556] 880-909 Al-Battani (Albategnius) calculates the length of the year and (more accurately than others before) determines the precession of the equinoxes. [Hellemans, p.70] 880-909 Alcohol is prepared by distillation of wine (various Arab physicians and chemists). [Hellemans, p.71] 880-909 Rhazes (Ar-razi) is the first to classify chemical substances into mineral, vegetable, animal, and derivative. He subclassifies minerals into metals, spirits, salts, and stones. He also gives formulas for making metallic antimony, and making Plaster of Paris. [Hellemans, p.71] 880-909 Printed Paper Money first used in Szechuan Province, China. [Hellemans, p.71] 885 Byzantine forces reconquer Calabria The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 885: Death of Ahmad b Tulun in Egypt, accession of Khamar-wiyiah. Islamic History of the 9th Century 886 Death of Basil I, accession of sons Leo and Alexander The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 886: Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Munzir. Death of Abdullah b Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind. Islamic History of the 9th Century 886-912 Emperor Leo VI The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 886 Photios deposed again, replaced by Patriarch Stephen The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 888: Death of Munzir the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Abbullah. Islamic History of the 9th Century 889 Abdication of Khan Boris, accession of his son Vladimir, heathen reaction in Bulgaria The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century

    890-900

    890 Ahmed ibn al-Taiyib writes on Algebra. [D.E. Smith, p.556] 890 Ahmed ibn Da-udwrites on Algebra. [D.E. Smith, p.556] c.890's Reign of King Helgi of Denmark, followed by Swedish rule of Denmark under King Olaf the Swede. The Viking Answer Lady Web Page 891: The Qarmatian state established at Bahrain. Islamic History of the 9th Century 892: Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail. Islamic History of the 9th Century 893 Vladimir defeated by father Boris and brother Symeon The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century c.893-927 Reign of Khan Symeon of Bulgaria The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century c.893-927 Reign of Khan Symeon of Bulgaria The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 893 Patriarch Stephen dies, replaced by Anthony Kauleas The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 894 Symeon invades Macedonia and Thrace The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 894: The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain. Islamic History of the 9th Century 896 Magyars arrive in Carpathian Basin The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 896: Death of the Tulunid ruler Khamarwiyiah; accession of Abul Asakir Jaish. Islamic History of the 9th Century 897 Death of Theophano, wife of Leo VI The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 897: Assassination of Abul Asakir Jaish; accession of Abu Musa Harun. Islamic History of the 9th Century 898 Reconciliation of Ignatian supporters with Patriarch The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 898 Leo marries Zoe, daughter of Stylianos Zaoutzes The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 898: Qarmatians sack Basra. Islamic History of the 9th Century 899 Zoe dies The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century c.899 Compilation of Philotheos' Kleterologion (precedence list) The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 900 Leo marries Eudokia The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century 912 Death of Leo VI the Wise, succeeded by brother Alexander and son Constantine VII aged 6 years The Byzantine Empire in the 9th Century 880-909 Al-Battani (Albategnius) calculates the length of the year and (more accurately than others before) determines the precession of the equinoxes. [Hellemans, p.70] 880-909 Alcohol is prepared by distillation of wine (various Arab physicians and chemists). [Hellemans, p.71] 880-909 Rhazes (Ar-razi) is the first to classify chemical substances into mineral, vegetable, animal, and derivative. He subclassifies minerals into metals, spirits, salts, and stones. He also gives formulas for making metallic antimony, and making Plaster of Paris. [Hellemans, p.71] 880-909 Printed Paper Money first used in Szechuan Province, China. [Hellemans, p.71] 29 Oct 900 King Alfred the Great dies in Winchester, England [Hellemans, p.70] (see: 871 for the start of the reign) c.900 Abu Kamil writes important works of Geometry and Algebra. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Ishaq ibu Honein ibn Ishaq writes important work on Greek Mathematics. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Remigius of Auxerre writes on Capella. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Muslim ibn Ahmed al-Leiti writes on Arithmetic. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Al-Qass writes on Euclid. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Qosta ibn Luqa writes on Diophantus. [D.E.Smith, p.556] c.900 Al-Misri writes on Geometry. [D.E.Smith, p.556] Hotlinks to other Timeline pages of SF Chronology |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Literary Precursors |Cosmic History: 13,000,000,000 - 3000 BC |6th Millennium BC: 6000-5000 B.C. |5th Millennium BC: 5000-4000 B.C. |4th Millennium BC: 4000-3000 B.C. |3rd Millennium BC: Gilgamesh and Cheops |2nd Millennium BC: Abraham to David |1st Millennium BC: 1000 BC-1 BC |1st Century: 1 AD-100 AD |2nd Century: 100 AD-200 AD |3rd Century: 200 AD-300 AD |4th Century: 300-400 |5th Century: 400-500 |6th Century: 500-600 |7th Century: 600-700 |8th Century: Beowulf, Charlemagne, 1001 Arabian Nights |9th Century: Gunpowder and the first printed book |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China [you are here] |11th Century: Kyahham, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

    Other Key Dates and Stories of this 9th Century

    {to be done}

    Major Writers Born this 9th Century

    803: Chinese poet Du Mu 809: Strabo (Walafried Strabus) [809-849] is an influential teacher of Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.555] He wrote on Geography and Botany as well, often in poetic forms. c. 820: Abu-al-'Abbas al Farghani (Alfragamus) see: 820, 830, 861 826: Thabit ibn Qurra b Harran [826-901], see: 836, 870 836: Tabit ibn Qorra or Thabit ibn Qurra b Harran is born in Turkey. He is later to translate various works from the Greek, and tries to solve the vexing problem of Euclid's Fifth Postulate. [Hellemans, p.69] 840-849: Alchemist and Physician of Persia, Abu-Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya Ar-razi (Rhazes), is born in Rhages (Iran). [Hellemans, p.69] 858: Birth in Haran (Turkey) of Arabian Astronomer Albategnius (Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Jabir Al-Battani). He is later to introduce into Arabic Astronomy the use of Trigonometry, and to refine the work of Ptolemy with an extensive series of more precise measurements. [Hellemans, p.70] 870: Alfarabicus (Al-Farabi) [870-950], see: 870-879 alternate range of birth dates: 870-879. Persian scholar Alfarabicus (Al-Farabi) was later to reconcile Islam with Aristotle. [Hellemans, p.70] 879: Odo of Cluny [879-ca.942], writer on the Abacus.

    Major Writers Died this 9th Century

    813: poet Abu Nuwas c.815: Death of Geber (Arab alchemist Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan). He may have died at Al-Kufah, Iraq. 817: Byzantine historian Theophanes the Chronographer. 849: Strabo (Walafried Strabus) [809-849] is an influential teacher of Mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.555] He wrote on Geography and Botany as well, often in poetic forms. 850-859 Death of Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi. [Hellemans, p.71] see: 820 861: Death of Egyptian Astronomer Abu-al-'Abbas al Farghani (Alfragamus). [Hellemans, p.70] 864: Sind b'Ali Arab commentator on Euclid. 873: Death of Mathematician Al Kindi. [Hellemans, p.70] 29 Oct 900: King Alfred the Great dies in Winchester, England. 18 Feb 901: Arab mathematician Thabit ibn Qurra dies in Baghdad, Iraq. 907 or 908: Muslim ibn Ahmed al-Leiti, Abu 'Obeida, also called Sahib al-Qible, a native of Cordova and a writer on astronomy and arithmetic. 922 or 923: Arithmetician of Cordova Salhab ibn 'Abdessalam al-Faradi, Abu'l-Abbas 929: Death in Samarra (Iraq) of Arab astronomer Albategnius (Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Jabir Al-Battani) (wrote important work on Astronomy). 930-939: Death in Rhages (Iran) of Arab scholar Rhazes (Ar-razi) (wrote important work of Geometry). 950-959: Death in Damascus (Syria) of Alfarabicus (Al Farabi). (wrote on Arithmetic).

    Decade by Decade 9th Century Science Background

    The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site break these apart (science/math versus political/military history). Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about Christian saints, and poetry of equivalent function.

    Decade by Decade 9th Century Mundane Background

    See the political/military history in the main body of text, and the index of Politico-Military People of the Century, below. The biggest names in Mundane History of the Ninth century included: * Arnulf of Carinthia * Charlemagne (see "Later Carolingian Empire", below) * Louis the Pious (see "Later Carolingian Empire", below) * Alfred the Great, King of England (born 849, died 29 Oct 900)

    Later Carolingian Empire

    Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious, kept his imperial inheritance intact. What Charlemagne created was maintained for two generations. Louis the Pious had three sons, hence he divided the empire between them. Those sons battled against each other, with a purportedly final agreement in 843. Afterwards, their heirs still disputed the settlement. From the 870s until many decades later, the fragments of the Carolingian Empire became further fragmented, in what one might call "Fractal Balkanization" [a useful phrase courtesy of Scottish Science Fiction author Ken MacLeod]. The essential triple division continued, to some extent. (1) The Kingdom of the West Franks corresponded approximately with France, though southern France broke loose fairly early. (2) In the East, an assortment of German kings ruled until Otto I (936-973) re-united most of the Eastern lands, as well as Italy, and therefore claimed the title "Emperor." This was why the Holy Roman Empire came to be based in Germany. (3) The Middle Kingdom lay between the Kingdom of the West Franks and the the Eastern lands plus Italy. It also fragmented quickly. This area included: (a) the Rhineland, (b) Flanders, and (c) Burgundy. This pattern left traces even until present Europe: France is West, Germany is East, while in between these lie the Low Countries and Switzerland. Ninth and Tenth Century Europe lacked internal political stability. The main reason was that this era was also this was the age of the Vikings, who attacked the northern and western flanks of Europe, more or less simultaneously with two other cultures were attacking Europe: Muslims (the Islamic Empire) to the South, and Magyars from the East. Significant Viking incursions in western Europe lasted from the early 800s until the end of the 11th Century. Viking culture evolved into Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, integrated into the nascent community of Europe. Vikings, over that period, converted from polytheism (paganism) into Christianity, in a bewildering mix.

    Where to Go for More

    Useful Reference Books Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources.
    Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A. Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795; and the Wikipedia.
    It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics" [(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958].

    Return to Ultimate SF Table of Contents



    Compiled by Magic Dragon Multimedia

    Ultimate Mystery/Detective Web Guide


    Copyright 1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003 by Magic Dragon Multimedia.
    All rights reserved Worldwide. May not be reproduced without permission.
    May be posted electronically provided that it is transmitted unaltered, in its entirety, and without charge.