TIMELINE COSMIC


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TIMELINE COSMIC

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This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not merely copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additional resources. Other sources (cited where used) include: Bibliography (books, articles, websites) 14,000,000,000 BC Big Bang The Dark Age of the Universe nothing to "see" 4,600,000,000 - 4,500,000,000 BC Planet Earth 4,600,000,000 - 3,800,000,000 BC Hadean Era 4,000,000,000 BC start of the Archean 4,000,000,000 - 2,500,000,000 BC Archean 2,500,000,000-543,000,000 BC Proterozoic 543,000,000 BC Precambrian/Cambrian Boundary 543,000,000-525,000,000 BC Cambrian 525,000,000-435,000,000 BC Ordivician 435,000,000-410,000,000 BC Silurian 410,000,000-365,000,000 BC Devonian 365,000,000-290,000,000 BC Carboniferous 290,000,000-245,000,000 BC Permian 245,000,000 BC Paleozoic/Mesozoic 245,000,000-210,000,000 BC Triassic 210,000,000-145,000,000 BC Jurassic 145,000,000-65,000,000 BC Cretaceous 65,000,000 BC Chixulub Extinction 65,000,000-56,500,000 BC Paleocene 56,500,000-33,500,000 BC Eocene 33,500,000-23,500,000 BC Oligocene 23,500,000-5,500,000 BC Miocene 5,500,000-1,800,000 BC Pliocene 3,200,000-3,100,000 BC pulse of cooling 3,000,000 BC to 2,000,000 BC Australopithecus africanus 2,000,000 BC to 1,000,000 BC Homo habilis 1,800,000-20,000? BC Quaternary, Pleistocene 500,000 BC to 100,000 BC start of Homo sapiens 100,000 BC to 80,000 BC Homo neanderthalensis 80,000 BC to 70,000 BC stone lamps 70,000 BC to 60,000 BC Early Wurm Glaciation 60,000 BC to 50,000 BC relatively warmer 50,000 BC to 40,000 BC reaching Australia 40,000 BC to 30,000 BC Cro-Magnons vs. Neanderthals 30,000 BC to 25,000 BC another big freeze-up Foraging Societies: From 30,000 BC 25,000 BC to 20,000 BC full glacial world 20,000 BC to 10,000 BC Last Glacial Maximum 10,000 BC to 9,000 BC Beginnings of Settled Agriculture 9,000 BC to 8,000 BC 8,000 BC to 7,000 BC 6,000 BC to 5,000 BC 5,000 BC to 4,000 BC 4,000 BC to 3,500 BC 3,500 BC to 3,000 BC Link List for History of Science and Science Fiction

14,000,000,000 BC

Big Bang: Universe Created. When the universe was born, it was VERY hot and VERY small. It was so hot that all the fundamental forces (Gravity, the Weak Nuclear Force, the Strong Nuclear Force, and Electromagnetism) were the same force. The cosmos was a swirling fireball of quarks, gluons, neutrinos, and other particles. Gradually, the universe cooled, and one after the other forces attained independence. Protons and neutrons formed, but it was still to hot for atoms. All was plasma. Inflation Theory says that the initial moments experienced powerful antigravity that expanded the universe faster than the speed of light -- two Science Fiction ideas in one theory! The universe today, by mass/energy, consists of: * 73% Dark Energy (which causes Inflation) * 23% Dark Matter * 3.7% other non-luminous matter -- 3.6% Interstellar Gas -- 0.1% Neutrinos -- 0.04% Supermassive Black Holes * 0.4% luminous matter -- 0.4% Stars + Luminous Gas -- 0.005% Radiation We humans, and all the planets we are discovering, are a mere trace, a side-effect of star formation. 96% of the universe is invisible to us! See Stephen Weinberg book: The First Three Minutes see Jonathan Vos Post's hardcopy Timeline of the Cosmos (developed for his Elderhostel courses: "The Search for Other Earths" and "The Frontiers of Ignorance" for dates such as the first galaxies, the Milky Way Galaxy, and the like.

The Dark Age of the Universe

Atoms formed when the universe cooled down to about 3000 degrees Kelvin. At about 300,000 years after the Big Bang we have "the surface of last scattering." Now, the universe is opaque to light, and we can't see anything. Hence the title "Dark Age." At about 2,000,000 years after the Big Bang we have "Lithium Recombination." The universe is still dominated by Hydrogen and Helium. And maybe Dark Matter of various kinds. At about 200,000,000 years after the Big Bang we have the formation of the first stars. These are mostly huge, bloated, fast-burning, short-lived, and soon to explode as supernovae. The Dark Age begins to end, in each such location. The Dark Age of the Universe gradually ends between 200,000,000 years and 1,000,000,000 after the Big Bang. This is due to reionization of interstellar gas by quasars and stars, in ever-expanding bubbles, which eventually merge to make the universe transparent again. From 1,000,000,000 to 10,000,000,000 after the Big Bang, galaxy clusters form, and the universe begains to look the way it looks now. ["The Dark Age of the Universe", Science, 4 July 2003]

4,600,000,000 - 4,500,000,000 BC

Planet Earth is born; start of the Priscoan phase of the Precambrian Eon. Formation of the Earth's Crust. No life. ["Geological Time Scale"] Our Solar System forms, from a collapsing, spinning, compressively heating protosolar nebula formed from interstellar gas and dust, including heavy elements formed in an earlier generation of stars, and flung into space by supernovae. 4,467,000,000 BC: The first solid grains in our solar system formed. 4,477,000,000 BC: The solid planet Earth formed. 4,500,000,000 BC: Planet Earth was struck by a Mars-sized planet. The collision splashed a mix of Earth and the impactor planet into Earth's orbit. This molton mas of rocky material (somewhat deficient in iron and heavier elements) formed a glowing ring around the Earth. The ring coalesced into what we now call the Moon. "How Old is Planet Earth?", Stein B. Jacobson [Science, 300 (6 June 2003) 1513]

4,600,000,000 - 3,800,000,000 BC

The Hadean Era. "For its first 800 million years, the young Earth was pounded by meteorites and the oceans existed only as a giant vapor cloud. The surface was a molten stew, and the place was hardly hospitable to life." ["Life's Origins Get Murkier and Messier", Nicholas Wade, Science Times, The New York Times, 13 June 2000, p.D1] This little-known Eon accounts for roughly 20% of the history of our world. Best science fiction about this era is poetry: Frederick Turner. Hadean Eclogues [Story Line, July 1999] 90 pages, paperback, $12.95, ISBN 1-885266-70-7 "In introducing these poems, Turner remarks that there are times, 'like the Renaissance and our own coming twenty-first century, when it is the past that creates the future, by breaking the shackles of the present.' He lives in a place where the past is returning, where old species are re-pioneering in a newly created, inadvertently throwback ecology. It is as if Hades, the realm of the dead, were disgorging its denizens to revive the Earth. The poems are often set at gateways between the living and the dead: 'Texas Eclogues' in Turner's own neighborhood and others at Yellowstone and the desert in which Jesus encountered the tempter. In keeping with the notion of the past creating the future, Turner employs regular meters and rhyme, even inventing a stanza form for 'Field Notes,' the longest piece here, a set of reflections, partly in prose, on his career by Jesus himself, whom Turner presents orthodoxly, as fully human and fully divine. Turner freely uses such classical devices as personification, mythological reference, and secular parody of religious forms. Best of all, there is in every poem the combination of wit and sagacity also found in such classical and classicist poets as Horace, Dryden, and Pope. Brilliant. -- Ray Olson Booklist/July 1999 "The name Hadean was coined by geologist Preston Cloud for the pre-Isuan sequence whose record may not be preserved on Earth but is better known from Moon rocks." The Hadean Era "During Hadean time, the Earth and Solar System formed by coagulation and gravitation contraction from a large cloud of gas and dust around the sun, called an accretion disc. The sun formed the nucleus, shrinking in on itself by gravitational compaction until it reached a stage where it ignited with nuclear fusion and give off light and heat. The surrounding particles within this cloud coalesced into planetisimals which then aggregated to form microplanets (rather like modern asteroids). The energy of the collisions between the larger microplanets, as well as interior radioactive and gravitational heating, generated a huge amount of heat, and the Earth and other planets would have been initially molten. The Earth and Moon formed from a collision between two previous planets - a Mars-sized and a slightly larger one." The Hadean Era "During this period the heavier molten iron sank down to become the core, whilst the lighter rocks rose to the surface, the lightest of all becoming the crust as a sort of 'scum' on the surface. There was also an outgassing of volatile molecules such as water, methane, ammonia, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. An initial steam atmosphere was made of water from comets and hydrated minerals. Rain fell into proto-ocean 4.3 to 4.4 billion years ago. All terrestrial planets had a similar process in their early histories." The Hadean Era "Once most of the planetesimals were gone, the planetary bombardment stopped, and a stable rocky crust was able to formed on the Earth. This is the age of the oldest rocks on Earth and also of Moon-rocks. Atmospheric water condensed into oceans and proto-life formed in the soup of primordial organic molocules, either in the early oceans or in clay or rocks within the crust itself." The Hadean Era The Geological Time-Scale - Hadean Eon When began Period 4,560,000,000 BC Cryptic 4,150,000,000 BC Basin-Groups 1-9 3,950,000,000 BC Nectarian 3,850,000,000 BC Early Imbrian Summary of the Hadean Era in Two Phases: Phase I: the initial accretion of the Earth from the Solar Nebula (approximately 100,000,000 years)
  1. Formation and contraction of the original Solar Nebula, probably due to shock waves from a nearly supernova.
  2. Collapse of the Solar Nebula into a rotating disk, with most of the mass as hydrogen gas concentrated in the center (the protosun).
  3. Formation of dust-sized particles of differing composition. Clumping of particles into larger and larger sizes, making a range of objects from meteoroids to planetesimals.
  4. Fusion ignition of the Sun, followed by 1,000,000 years of violent solar activity. Intense solar wind sweeps out lighter material (Hydrogen, Helium, Water vapor, Ammonia...) away from the Sun, leaving the inner Solar System enhanced in refractoty materials (silica, iron...).
  5. Initial formation of Jupiter, near the "snow line" at 4 AU. Jupiter's large mass and high gravity attract much of the material in its region, leaving the asteroid belt too depleted in material to form a planet, and making Mars lighter in mass than Earth. Jupiter also grabs a lion's share of comets and asteroids, sweeping them up or flinging them out of the Solar System. Without Jupiter, the Earth might have had 1,000 times more impacts with comets and asteroids.
  6. Accretion of remaining planets from planetesimals. Most material is swept up by the four inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars). Major collisions between planets and large planetesimals result in formation of Earth's Moon (collision with a Mars-sized impactor), loss of much of Mercury's mantle, and reversal of Venus' direction of rotation.
  7. Heavy Meteoric Bombardment. Studies of the surface of the Moon, Mercury, and other planetary bodies reveals that for several hundred million years after the formation of the Solar System, the planets were continuously bombarded by meteoric debris. Thus, Earth's surface was probably impacted repeatedly, and perhaps re-melted by the impacys of large asteroids. This bombardment continued until about 3,800,000,000 BC.
Phase II: the Stabilization of the young Earth
  1. Differentiation and cooling of the crust.
  2. Outgassing of the initial atmosphere and formation of the oceans.
  3. Stabilization of the crust and initiation of plate tectonics.
  4. Differentiation of the earliest felsic crust (first continents).
above based on J. Bret Bennington's Geology 2C lecture notes 4,400,000 BC: Earlier Water On Earth? Oldest Rock Suggests Hospitable Young Planet Source: National Science Foundation (http://www.nsf.gov) Date: Posted 1/15/2001 Geological evidence suggests that Earth may have had surface water -- and thus conditions to support life -- billions of years earlier than previously thought. Scientists reconstructed the portrait of early Earth by reading the telltale chemical composition of the oldest known terrestrial rock. The 4.4-billion-year-old mineral sample suggests that early Earth was not a roiling ocean of magma, but instead was cool enough for water, continents, and conditions that could have supported life. The age of the sample may also undermine accepted current views on how and when the moon was formed. The research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and is published in this week's issue of the journal Nature. "This appears to be evidence of the earliest existence of liquid water on our planet," says Margaret Leinen, assistant director of NSF for geosciences. "If water occurred this early in the evolution of earth, it is possible that primitive life, too, occurred at this time." By probing a tiny grain of zircon, a mineral commonly used to determine the geological age of rocks, scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Colgate University, Curtin University in Australia and the University of Edinburgh in Scotland have found evidence that 4.4 billion years ago, temperatures had cooled to the 100-degree Centigrade range, a discovery that suggests an early Earth far different from the one previously imagined. "This is an astounding thing to find for 4.4 billion years ago," says John Valley, a geologist at UW-Madison. "At that time, the Earth's surface should have been a magma ocean. Conventional wisdom would not have predicted a low-temperature environment. These results may indicate that the Earth cooled faster than anyone thought." Previously, the oldest evidence for liquid water on Earth, a precondition and catalyst for life, was from a rock estimated to be 3.8 billion years old. The accepted view on an infant Earth is that shortly after it first formed 4.5 to 4.6 billion years ago, the planet became little more than a swirling ball of molten metal and rock. Scientists believed it took a long time, perhaps 700 million years, for the Earth to cool to the point that oceans could condense from a thick, Venus-like atmosphere. For 500 million to 600 million years after the Earth was formed, the young planet was pummeled by intense meteorite bombardment. About 4.45 billion years ago, a Mars-size object is believed to have slammed into the Earth, creating the moon by blasting pieces of the infant planet into space. The new picture of the earliest Earth is based on a single, tiny grain of zircon from western Australia found and dated by Simon Wilde, of the School of Applied Geology at Curtin University of Technology in Perth, Western Australia. Valley worked with William Peck, a geologist at Colgate University, to analyze oxygen isotope ratios, measure rare earth elements, and determine element composition in a grain of zircon that measured little more than the diameter of two human hairs. Colin Graham's laboratory analyzed the zircon to obtain the oxygen isotope ratios. Graham is a contributor to the paper and geochemist at the University of Edinburgh. "What the oxygen isotopes and rare earth analysis show us is a high oxygen isotope ratio that is not common in other such minerals from the first half of the Earth's history," Peck says. In other words, the chemistry of the mineral and the rock in which it developed could only have formed from material in a low-temperature environment at Earth's surface. "This is the first evidence of crust as old as 4.4 billion years, and indicates the development of continental-type crust during intense meteorite bombardment of the early Earth," Valley says. "It is possible that the water-rock interaction (as represented in the ancient zircon sample) could have occurred during this bombardment, but between cataclysmic events." Scientists have been searching diligently to find samples of the Earth's oldest rocks. Valley and Peck say such ancient samples are extremely rare because rock is constantly recycled or sinks to the hot mantle of the Earth. Over the great spans of geologic time, there is little surface material that has not been recycled and reprocessed in this way. The tiny grain of zirconium silicate or zircon found by Wilde in western Australia was embedded in a larger sample containing fragments of material from many different rocks, Valley says. Zircons dated at 4.3 billion years were reported from the same site a decade ago, but the new-found zircon grain is more than 100 million years older than any other known sample, giving scientists a rare window to the earliest period of the Earth. "This early age restricts theories for the formation of the moon," Valley says. "Perhaps the moon formed earlier than we thought, or by a different process." Another intriguing question is whether or not life may have arisen at that early time. Low temperatures and water are preconditions for life. The earliest known biochemical evidence for life and for a hydrosphere is estimated at 3.85 billion years ago, and the oldest microfossils are 3.5 billion years old. "It may have been that life evolved and was completely extinguished several times" in catastrophic, meteorite-triggered extinction events well before that, Valley says. The research conducted by Valley, Peck, Graham and Wilde was also supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council and a Dean Morgridge Wisconsin Distinguished Graduate Fellowship. Editor's Note: The original news release can be found at http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/press/01/pr0102.htm Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by National Science Foundation for journalists and other members of the public. If you wish to quote from any part of this story, please credit National Science Foundation as the original source. You may also wish to include the following link in any citation: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/01/010111073459.htm

4,000,000,000 BC

End of the Priscoan phase of the Precambrian Eon, start of the Archean phase of the Precambrian Eon. No life. ["Geological Time Scale"]

4,000,000,000 - 2,500,000,000 BC

The Archean phase of the Precambrian Eon. "As the bombardment slowed and the Earth cooled, a heavy rain flooded the surface and deep oceans formed as a suitable cradle for life." ["Life's Origins Get Murkier and Messier", Nicholas Wade, Science Times, The New York Times, 13 June 2000, p.D1] * Evidence of life in Archaean (3,500,000,000 BC; algae, colonies) (this implies an earlier origin!) * End of Hadean - giant impacts (same time as mare forming impacts on moon) serious implications for primitive life - oceans vaporized several times? * Building the continents * the first "cratons" - continental shields * andesite volcanism; granite batholiths * plate tectonics, continental building - rapid in Archean addition of crust at margins of continents/subduction zones (?) * Divergence between Earth, Venus, Mars - role of water * Andesite low density material - stable "floating" platforms * Granite a later development - resists subduction * Carbonate-Silicate cycle - stable feedback loop (T, rain, carbonates) * Water lubricates/catalyzes plate tectonics - recycled CO2 * Venus: basalt "continents", no differentiation or plate tectonics * Mars - shield volcanoes, no differentiation or plate tectonics * Faint early sun, early climates - solar evolution * Evidence for early liquid water (sedimentary rocks, fossils) * Early strong greenhouse effect on Earth - much more CO2 - controversy absorption of thermal infrared by gases * Carbonate-Silicate cycle - stable feedback loop (Tectonics, rain, carbonates) * Divergent paths for Earth, Mars, Venus * Role of condensation and atmospheric loss in greenhouse * Mars lost heat, CO2 quickly; CO2 clouds limit heat trapping also lost more atmosphere to impacts early on; died young * Venus Greenhouse runaway - water lost from top of atmosphere * Lack of plate tectonics and recycling in both cases The Archaean: Divergence of Earth, Venus, Mars 3,800,000,000-3,500,000,000 BC: Isuan Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 3,500,000,000-2,800,000,000 BC: Swazian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 2,800,000,000-2,450,000,000 BC: Randian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 2,500,000,000 BC: St. Louis University, Washington University In St. Louis Researchers Uncover Evidence That Sheds Light On Origins Of Earth Source: St. Louis University (http://news.slu.edu/) Date: Posted 5/14/2001 A Saint Louis University researcher has made a discovery near the Great Wall in China that could change the science of plate tectonics and provide some clues into how life might have developed on Earth. The research, a collaborative effort involving Peking University and Washington University in St. Louis researchers, was published as a report in the May 11, 2001 issue of Science magazine. It has been widely held that plate tectonics, or the motion of plates and continents, dates back 1.9 billion years. Timothy Kusky, Ph.D., professor of geology at St. Louis University, is part of a group of geologists who believe the plates began moving much sooner. Kusky now believes he has the data to prove the theory. Last summer, he discovered the oldest complete section of oceanic sea floor on the planet, which is more than 500 million years older than previously documented. When he returned, he sought the assistance of Robert Tucker, Ph.D., associate professor of earth and planetary science at Washington University in St. Louis, to date the rare samples. According to Tucker, the rocks are 2.5 billion years old and date back to Earthís earliest geologic time period, known as the Archean. The rocks are remarkably similar to much younger volcanic rocks that erupted on the sea floor in the process of sea floor spreading. For decades, geologists have debated whether plate tectonics operated in the Archean period. Those who have argued against that theory have cited the lack of any Archean ophiolites as their main line of evidence that plate tectonics did not occur on the early Earth. Ophiolites are rock structures formed on the sea floor when continents collide. "This discovery shows that the plate tectonic forces that create oceanic crust on the Earth today were in operation more than 2.5 billion years ago," Kusky said. Kusky said the findings could have a more far-reaching effect on theories related to the development of life on the planet. Scientists believe life on Earth during the Archean period consisted mainly of single-celled organisms in the oceans. Just when they evolved into more complex organisms has been contested for years. "Because hot volcanic vents on the sea floor may have provided the nutrients and temperatures needed for life to flourish and develop, itís possible that life developed and diversified around these vents as plate tectonics began," Kusky said. Kusky and Dr. Jiang-Hai Li of Peking University in Beijing made the discovery in a mountain belt in the Eastern Hebei Province, which is located only a few miles from the Great Wall. Saint Louis University is a leading Catholic, Jesuit, research institution ranked 24th in the nation on the U.S. News & World Report 2001 best buy list. Founded in 1818, the University strives to foster the intellectual and spiritual growth of its 11,000 students through a broad array of undergraduate, graduate and professional degree programs on campuses in St. Louis, Missouri, and Madrid, Spain. Washington University in St. Louis, a medium-sized, independent university, is dedicated to challenging its faculty and students alike to seek new knowledge and greater understanding of an ever-changing, multicultural world. The University is counted among the world's leaders in teaching and research and draws students and faculty to St. Louis from all 50 states and more than 90 nations. The University is highly regarded for its commitment to excellence in learning. Its programs, administration, facilities, resources, and activities combine to further its mission of teaching, research, and service to society. Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by St. Louis University for journalists and other members of the public. If you wish to quote from any part of this story, please credit St. Louis University as the original source. You may also wish to include the following link in any citation: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/05/010511074404.htm

2,500,000,000-543,000,000 BC

The Proterozoic phase of the Precambrian Eon. ["Geological Time Scale"] 2,450,000,000-2,200,000,000 BC: Huronian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 2,200,000,000-1,650,000,000 BC: Animikean Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

Late Precambrian (Proterozoic) Life

* We will look at a major event in life history that took place in the Proterozoic (2.5 - 0.5 Billion Years Ago), the evolution of eukaryotes. * There is very little fossil evidence of early eukaryotes. Most of this evolution is inferred from biochemical studies * Complex eukaryotic cells evolved after O2 began accumulating in the atmosphere. * Eukaryotic cells paved the way for the multicellular organisms that evolved near the end of the Precambrian * Evolution of Eukaryotes * Differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes * Cell size * DNA storage * Cell membrane * Respiration and Photosynthesis * Reproduction * The origin of the nucleus * DNA is suseptible to UV light * The nucleus may have been a defense mechanism to limit the impact of UV light on DNA * The origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts * Similarities between these organelles and bacteria * Both contain prokaryote style DNA * Both Mitochondria and Chloroplasts use biochemical pathways for protein synthesis that are similar to prokaryote pathways. * Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have an independent reproductive mechanism. * The Role of 02 * Origins of sex * A difficult problem because of the costs involved. * Possible reasons for sex * survival of the idiots * limiting damage caused by mutations * Benefits of sex * increased genetic variability * increased rates of evolution * Late Precambrian Fossils * Acritarchs/Chitinozoans * Doushantuo Formation * Ediacaran Fauna * Metazoan fossils dating from 565 - 543 million years * First described in Australia, but have since been found all over the world * Soft-bodied fauna preserved as casts or molds at the base of sand beds * Trace fossils of worms are also common. * Originally, Most of the fossils were interpreted to represent types of Cnidarians (anemones and jelly fish). * One fossil, Kimberella, has recently been interpreted as a precursor to the Mollusks. * Spriggina, may be an arthropod precursor * Others, however, are unlike any other modern animals. Late Precambrian (Proterozoic) Life 2,100,000,000 BC:Two Billion Year Old Carbon Signature Of Wyoming Rocks Helps To Reveal Shape Of Ancient Ocean In Middle America Source: Virginia Tech (http://www.vt.edu:10021/ur/news/newsndex.html) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/05/010502075359.htm Date: Posted 5/3/2001 Blacksburg, Va., May, 1, 2001 -- Discoveries by a Virginia Tech doctoral student have provided missing information about how oxygen was able to build up in the earth's atmosphere two billion years ago, and is helping to trace the history of the ocean between Wyoming and Minnesota. Andrey Bekker, a student in geological sciences, will present his research at the Rocky Mountain and South-Central Sections of the Geological Society of America and the Rocky Mountain Section of the Paleontological Society of America, being held April 30 to May 2 in Albuquerque, N.M. In the Medicine Bow Mountains of Wyoming, Bekker discovered rocks with a unique carbon isotope composition. These carbonate rocks were once on the edge of the ocean that lapped at the southern margin of the Wyoming craton (WC)-- one of the continents that later formed North America. Working with Juha A. Karhu of the Geological Survey of Finland and Jay A. Kaufman, University of Maryland, College Park, Bekker then located the same characteristic isotopic signatures in carbonate rocks in the Hartville Uplift, the easternmost exposure of the WC, near Cheyenne. Geologists have known of the ocean south and east of Wyoming, but could not reconcile its history with that of the ocean to the east of the WC. "There are only bits of rock left as evidence," Bekker explains. But, having studied the carbonates in the Medicine Bow Mountains, the Hartville Uplift, and the Black Hills, S.D., northeast of the Hartville Uplift, the researchers now suggest that the opening of the ocean between the Wyoming craton and the Superior (Minnesota area) craton happened much later than the ocean opening on the southern margin of the Wyoming craton. The section that Bekker, Karhu, and Kaufman studied contains carbonates that are enriched in 13C (carbon-13) isotope. This enrichment was detected in a number of successions that are between 2.3 and 2.1 billion years old. "What makes this succession particularly interesting is the presence of organic-rich rocks (shales) within these 13C-enriched carbonates," says Bekker. "These organic-rich shales formed under deep water and generally are not found in successions of this age. Without deep-water protection from oxygen, the organic carbon would not have survived because it would have been converted to carbon dioxide when the ancient algal source decayed. Such deposits have long been expected because otherwise oxygen produced during photosynthesis would not have increased in the atmosphere, but would have been recycled back into carbon dioxide when organic matter decayed," he explains. Geological studies have long indicated that the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere increased dramatically two billion years ago. "The discovery of carbonates of this age provided a missing link as to when and how oxygen began to be introduced into the atmosphere," Bekker says. "Based on this isotope signature, we can now trace the boundary of the Wyoming craton and learn how it responded to environmental and sea level changes," Bekker says. "Looking at the changes in the chemical characteristics of the carbonates, we can compare the changes in several areas and separate changes of global significance and of local significance. We can use the isotope features as a time marker, to understand the tectonic history of this area, to put events into a time frame such as when uplifts occurred or oceans formed. The shoreline location is still general but the isotopic data allow researchers to say that some event on the WC eastern margin is or is not related to an event on the southern margin. For example, "We found that the breakup on the eastern margin that led to the ocean opening affected the southern margin of the WC, similar to what happened when the Atlantic Ocean opened and resulted in subsidence of the older Mediterranean Sea," Bekker explains. The researchers also demonstrated that the carbonates in the Hartville Uplift are not as old as previously thought, but is the same age as carbonates in the Medicine Bow Mountains. And stromatolites discovered in 1985 in the Hartville Uplift and assumed to be older than 2.5 billion years old, are "only" 2.1 billion years old. Stromatolites are buildups of blue-green algae, one of the earliest forms of life and the engine for converting carbon dioxide to organic carbon and oxygen, resulting in the carbon ration Bekker discovered. Bekker will deliver the paper "Tectonic implications of a chemostratigraphic study of early Paleoproterozoic carbonates from the southeastern margin of the Wyoming Craton," at noon on May 1 at the Sheraton Old Town Hotel, in the Alvarado DE room. Karhu and Kaufman are co-authors. Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by Virginia Tech for journalists and other members of the public. If you wish to quote from any part of this story, please credit Virginia Tech as the original source. You may also wish to include the following link in any citation: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/05/010502075359.htm 1,650,000,000-800,000,000 BC: Riphean Era/Period The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 1,650,000,000-1,350,000,000 BC: Burzyan Epoch/Age of the Riphean Era/Period The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 1,350,000,000-1,050,000,000 BC: Yurmatin Epoch/Age of the Riphean Era/Period The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 1,050,000,000-800,000,000 BC: Karatau Epoch/Age of the Riphean Era/Period The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 965,000,000 B.C. (plus or minus 140,000,000 years) was the divergence of metazoans (animals) and fungi, from a common ancestor. [M.L. Berbee and J.W. Taylor, "The Mycota", Vol.VII, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2000] 800,000,000-570,000,000 BC: Sinian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 800,000,000-610,000,000 BC: Sturtian Period/Epoch/Age of the Sinian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 610,000,000-570,000,000 BC: Vendian Period of the Sinian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 610,000,000-590,000,000 BC: Varanger Epoch of Vendian Period of Sinian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 610,000,000-600,000,000 BC: Smalfjord Age of Varanger Epoch of Vendian Period of Sinian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 600,000,000 B.C.: the origin of land plants. 600,000,000 B.C.: Ascomycetes (lichen-forming fungi combined with green algae or cyanobacteria to result in lichen) diverge from Basidiomycetes (the other main kind of fungus). [M.L. Berbee and J.W. Taylor, "The Mycota", Vol.VII, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2000] 600,000,000-590,000,000 BC: Mortensnes Age of Varanger Epoch of Vendian Period of Sinian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 590,000,000-570,000,000 BC: Ediacara Epoch of Vendian Period of Sinian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History See: Stephen Jay Gould book: A Wonderful Life about the Ediacarian creatures 590,000,000-580,000,000 BC: Wonokan Age of Ediacara Epoch of Vendian Period of Sinian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 580,000,000-570,000,000 BC: Poundian Age of Ediacara Epoch of Vendian Period of Sinian Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

543,000,000 BC +/- 1,000,000

The Precambrian/Cambrian Boundary. End of the Precambrian Eon, Start of the Phanerozoic Eon, of the Cambrian period, start of the Paleozoic Era of the Phanerozoic Eon, and start of the Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era. [revised date Grotzinger et al., 1995] ["Geological Time Scale"]

543,000,000-525,000,000 BC

The Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era. [revised date Grotzinger et al., 1995] ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Late Cambrian, 509x671 pixel JPEG image Paleozoic Life: Marine animals with mineralized shells appear: trilobites, echinoderms, brachiopods, molluscs, primitive graptolites; a variety of worms. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology 580,000,000-554,000,000 BC: Caerfai Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 580,000,000-570,000,000 BC: Tommotian Age of Caerfai Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 570,000,000-560,000,000 BC: Atdabanian Age of Caerfai Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 560,000,000-554,000,000 BC: Lenian Age of Caerfai Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 554,000,000-530,200,000 BC: St.David's Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 554,000,000-536,000,000 BC: Solvan Age of St.David's Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 536,000,000-530,200,000 BC: Menevian Age of St.David's Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 530,200,000-510,000,000 BC: Merioneth Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 530,200,000-517,200,000 BC: Maentwrogian Age of Merioneth Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 517,200,000-514,100,000 BC: Dolgellian Age of Merioneth Epoch of Cambrian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

525,000,000-435,000,000 BC

The Ordivician Period of the Paleozoic Era. [revised date Grotzinger et al., 1995] ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Ordivician, 501x668 pixel JPEG image Ordivician Life: Graptolites dominant; also trilobites, brachiopods, bryozoans, gastropods, bivalves, echinoids, crinoids, cephalopods, and corals Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology The Ordovician Mass Extinction * Ordovician period (510- 438 million years ago) * Ordovician extinction (440-450 million years ago) * Ordovician extinction was second most devastating in Earth history Geological Setting "The Ordovician period was an era of extensive diversification and expansion of numerous marine clades. Although organisms also present in the Cambrian were numerous in the Ordovician, a variety of new types including cephalopods, corals (including rugose and tabulate forms), bryozoans, crinoids, graptolites, gastropods, and bivalves flourished. Ordovican communities typically displayed a higher ecological complexity than Cambrian communities due to the greater diversity of organisms. However, as in the Cambrian, life in the Ordovician continued to be restricted to the seas." Species Affected "The Ordovician extinction occurred at the end of the Ordovician period, about 440-450 million years ago. This extinction, cited as the second most devastating extinction to marine communities in Earth history, caused the disappearance of one third of all brachiopod and bryozoan families, as well as numerous groups of conodonts, trilobites, and graptolites. Much of the reef-building fauna was also decimated. In total, more than one hundred families of marine invertebrates perished in this extinction." The Ordovician Mass Extinction There is still considerable controversy as to the cause of this mass extinction. 514,100,000-493,000,000 BC: Canadian Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 514,100,000-510,000,000 BC: Tremadoc Epoch of Canadian Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 493,000,000-476,100,000 BC: Arenig Epoch of Canadian Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 493,000,000-465,400,000 BC: Dyfed Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 493,000,000-472,700,000 BC: Llanvirn Epoch of Dyfed Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 493,000,000-476,100,000 BC: Early Age of Llanvirn Epoch of Dyfed Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 476,100,000-472,700,000 BC: Late Age of Llanvirn Epoch of Dyfed Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 472,700,000-465,400,000 BC: Llandeilo Epoch of Dyfed Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 472,700,000-468,600,000 BC: Early Age of Llandeilo Epoch of Dyfed Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 468,600,000-467,000,000 BC: Mid Age of Llandeilo Epoch of Dyfed Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 467,000,000-465,400,000 BC: Late Age of Llandeilo Epoch of Dyfed Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 465,400,000-439,500,000 BC: Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 465,400,000-444,000,000 BC: Caradoc Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 460,000,000 BC: 460-million-year-old Ordovician fungus existed in association with early plants (bryophyte-like plants), suggesting that fungus was on land first, and helped plants become established on land. ["Terrestrial Life-- Fungal from the Start?", Meredith Blackwell, Science, Vo.289, 15 Sep 2000, pp.1884-1885] 465,400,000-463,900,000 BC: Costonian Age of Caradoc Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 463,900,000-462,300,000 BC: Harnagian Age of Caradoc Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 462,300,000-457,500,000 BC: Soudleyan Age of Caradoc Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 457,500,000-449,700,000 BC: Longvillian Age of Caradoc Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 449,700,000-447,100,000 BC: Marshbrookian Age of Caradoc Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 447,100,000-444,500,000 BC: Actonian Age of Caradoc Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 444,500,000-444,000,000 BC: Onnian Age of Caradoc Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 444,000,000-439,500,000 BC: Ashgill Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 444,000,000-443,100,000 BC: Pusgillian Age of Ashgill Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 443,100,000-440,600,000 BC: Cautleyan Age of Ashgill Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 440,600,000-440,100,000 BC: Rawtheyan Age of Ashgill Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 440,100,000-439,500,000 BC: Hirnantian Age of Ashgill Epoch of Bala Subperiod of Ordovician Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

435,000,000-410,000,000 BC

The Silurian Period of the Paleozoic Era. ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Silurian, 488x672 pixel JPEG image Silurian Life: Brachiopods, crinoids, corals; primitive fish. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology Name of the Silurian Period "During the 1830s the great English geologist Sir Roderick Impey Murchison was studying fossiliferus strata outcropping in the hills of South Wales. He named this geological stage the Silurian System, after the Silures, an ancient Celtic tribe that lived along what is now the Welsh-English border. In 1835, Murchison and Sedgwick presented a joint paper, On the Silurian and Cambrian Systems, Exhibiting the Order in which the Older Sedimentary Strata Succeed each other in England and Wales, which laid the foundation for the modern geological time scale. During the following years a bitter controversy arose between the two former friends over the relative status of the Cambrian and the Silurian. This was only resolved in 1879 by the formulation of a further, Ordovician period as intermediate between the two stages." The Silurian Period Geography "The early Paleozoic saw the continents clustered around the equator, with Gondwanaland continuing its slow southern drift. Meanwhile Siberia, Laurentia and Baltica converge at the equator. By the end of the Silurian, these colliding continents had began to raise mountains and forge a new supercontinent, Laurussia." The Silurian Period Climate "The Earth entered a long warm greenhouse phase. However, latitudinal variations in cliamte were rather similiar to today, with glaciers occuring in the higher latitudes (over 65 degrees C.). Regions of marked aridity occcured within 40 degrees of the Silurian equator. Warm shallow seas covred much of the equatorial land masses." edited from: The Silurian Period Life: The Biosphere "Following the Ordovician extinction event there was a rapid recovery of invertebrate faunas during the Silurian. The high sea levels and warm shallow continental seas provided a hospitable environment for marine life of all kinds. The biota and ecological dynamics were basically still similiar to that of the Ordovician, but was more diverse, with brachiopods making up 80% of the total. Tropical reefs were common, formed by tabulate and rugose corals, stromatoporoid organisms, bryozoa and calcareous algae. Trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, echinoderms, and graptolites were common and diverse. Jawless fish invaded brackish water, as did Eurypterids, xiphosurids, scorpions, which may have been semi-aquatic. Rhyniophytes, primitive lycopods, and myriapods became the first proper land organisms. At the end of the period Jawed fish appeared for the first time, but they remain insignificant." The Silurian Period [click above for pictures of these creatures] 439,500,000-432,600,000 BC: Llandovery Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 439,500,000-439,000,000 BC: Rhuddanian Age of Llandovery Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 439,000,000-436,900,000 BC: Aeronian Age of Llandovery Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 436,900,000-432,600,000 BC: Telychian Age of Llandovery Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 432,600,000-425,400,000 BC: Wenlock Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 432,600,000-430,400,000 BC: Sheinwoodian Age of Wenlock Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 430,400,000-426,100,000 BC: Whitwellian Age of Wenlock Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 426,100,000-425,400,000 BC: Gleedonian Age of Wenlock Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 425,400,000-415,100,000 BC: Ludlow Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 425,400,000-424,000,000 BC: Gorstian Age of Ludlow Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 424,000,000-415,100,000 BC: Ludfordian Age of Ludlow Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 415,100,000-410,700,000 BC: Pridoli Epoch of Silurian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

410,000,000-365,000,000 BC

The Devonian Period of the Paleozoic Era. ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Devonian, 487x722 pixel JPEG image Devonian Life: Corals, brachiopods, ammonoids, crinoids; fishes and early land plants. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology Continental Drift "During the middle and late Paleozoic, about a third of the Rodinian mass was torn apart and moved to equatorial regions. Most of these blocks were assembled by a series of plate collisions into the super continents of Laurussia [the Old Red continent] by the Devonian and Laurasia by the Pennsylvanian. Meanwhile the remains of Rodinia, Gondwana, rotated clockwise and moved northward to collide with Laurasia -- the result was the super continent Pangaea [all land]. Pangaea was shaped like a huge 'pac-man', mouth agape and facing eastward across the equator. The large, open mouth was the Tethys Ocean. The Caledonian-Acadian orogeny marks the assemblage of the macro continent Laurussia, sometimes called the 'Old Red continent'. Meanwhile, Gondwana closes in from the south. An arc approaches western North America from the west." Devonian The Devonian Period Pamela J. W. Gore Georgia Perimeter College Click here to see Pamela Gore's photographs of this era, illustrating the text quoted below * Sea levels were high worldwide. * Extensive sedimentary record of Devonian period. * Reefs, carbonates, evaporites suggest warm climate. * Acadian Orogeny. * Iapetus Ocean (Proto-Atlantic) closed. * Laurentia and Baltica collided, forming a mountain belt. Life in the Devonian Period 1. Invertebrates * Trilobites * Brachiopods 2. Age of Fishes * Ostracoderms ("bony skin") - no jaws * Placoderms ("platey skin"). This [photo] is the skull of Bothriolepis canadensis, a bony-headed fish. The body was probably soft and decayed rapidly. * Dunkleosteus (30 ft long; bony skull shown here is about 1 meter high). Note protrusions of jaw that functioned as teeth, and note the eye sockets protected by a bony ring. Top predator. Extinct at the end of the Devonian * Acanthodians (spiny fishes) * Cartilaginous fish, sharks and rays were present and may have been the last major group of fish to evolve (cartilage) * Bony fish: There are two groups of bony fish [Osteoichthys] * Ray-finned fish began their evolution in Devonian lakes and streams (freshwater) and then spread to the sea. They are the dominant fishes of the modern world. * Lobe-finned fish, have muscular fins with articulating bones. There are two groups of lobe finned fish. a. The lungfish, live today in freshwater. b. The crossopterygians, an important group of lobe-finned fish because it gave rise to the amphibians during the Devonian. * Another group of lobe-finned crossopterygian fish invaded the sea and gave rise to the coelacanths. The coelacanths are considered to be living fossils because they were long believed to be extinct, but one was caught in 1938 near Madagascar. More have been caught since. * Fishes were the only vertebrates on Earth until the Late Devonian. 3. Adaptive radiation of fish during the Devonian. * Many of the armored fish became extinct at the end of the Devonian. * Lobe-finned fishes and lung-fishes also declined at the end of the Devonian. Out-competed by amphibians?? * Swimming predators were increasing. Many new types. * fish * ammonoids * eurypterids (Silurian and Devonian) * Predators may have contributed to the decline in trilobite diversity. 4. Invasion of the land by animals * wingless Insects and Scorpions * amphibians (in Late Devonian) * Icthyostega is intermediate between lobe-finned fishes and amphibians. Four legs. Skull structure resembles lobe-finned fish. Also had fish-like tail. 5. First Trees * Trees stand tall against the pull of gravity by the Late Devonian. (Some more than 7 meters tall). Requires the development of good system for water circulation. * Lycopods (scale trees and club mosses) appeared. Moisture loving plants. Reproduced by means of spores. Requires moist habitat. Continued and thrived in Carboniferous. * The large lycopod trees became extinct by the end of the Paleozoic. * Plant roots begin to stabilize the soil against erosion. 6. First Seeds. * Seed-bearing plants appeared. Non-flowering plants. Gymnosperms. * Seed-bearing plants no longer require moist habitats. * Expansion of plants into drier areas. 7. Mass extinction just before the end of the Devonian * tabulate-stromatoporoid reefs disappear * many fish extinct * many extinctions among floating and swimming animals * many freshwater forms extinct * Tropical taxa were most severely affected. WHY? * global cooling? * drying? * glaciation? Wingless insects and millipedes first appear. ["Terrestrial Life-- Fungal from the Start?", Meredith Blackwell, Science, Vo.289, 15 Sep 2000, pp.1884-1885] 410,700,000-390,400,000 BC: D1 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 410,700,000-408,500,000 BC: Lochkovian Age of D1 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 408,500,000-396,300,000 BC: Prgian Age of D1 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 396,300,000-390,400,000 BC: Emsian Age of D1 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 390,400,000-380,800,000 BC: D2 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 390,400,000-386,000,000 BC: Eifelian Age of D2 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 386,000,000-380,800,000 BC: Givetian Age of D2 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 380,800,000-367,000,000 BC: D3 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 380,800,000-377,400,000 BC: Frasnian Age of D3 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 377,400,000-367,000,000 BC: Famennian Age of D3 Epoch of Devonian Period of Paleozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

365,000,000-290,000,000 BC

The Carboniferous Period of the Paleozoic Era. ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Carboniferous, 513x681 pixel JPEG image Plate Tectonics and Palaeogeography "During the late Early Carboniferous, East Gondwanaland, for the first time since Early Palaeozoic, began to drift toward the South Pole. By early Late Carboniferous, the South American-North African margin of Gondwanaland had collided with the northern Devonian supercontinent of Euramerica, becoming Laurasia by the late Carboniferous. There is regional subsidence of the East-European Platform (east Laurussia) due to compressional stresses at the platform's margins. The northward drifting Gondwanaland then collided with Laurasia, resulting in a fold belt and mountain building from Poland through central Europe to the Appalachians. Through the collision of these two supercontinents arises Pangaea. At this time Pangaea was shaped like a huge 'pac-man', with a huge mouth facing eastward across the equator. The large open mouth becomes the Tethys Ocean. While East Gondwanaland drifted toward the South Pole, most of the East and Southeast Asian terranes were left in equatorial positions, forming a chain of continental terranes at the eastern edge of the Tethys Ocean." "It seems that Carboniferous paleogeography was controlled by sea-level changes and long-wave tectonic irregular deformation of topography." The Carboniferous Period: the age of great forests Climate "The early part of the period is mostly warm, but there is a pronounced cooling and glaciation during the second half, triggered by Gondwanaland's southward migration. Although the equatorial regions remain warm and wet and tropical, the poles are gripped in a massive ice age, one that lasts for many millions of years. Vast sheets of ice cover Gondwanaland." edited from: The Carboniferous Period: the age of great forests Life in the Carboniferous "Equatorial regions are covered by forests. The moist tropical climate produces a lush plant growth, which eventually becomes the great Coal Deposits (hence the name Carboniferous ('coal bearing')." "In the oceans: coral reefs, brachiopods, ammonoids and echinoderms diversify. The armoured placoderm and ostracoderm fish and marine lobe-finned fish (apart from the coelacanths) have all died out, and are replaced by an amazing diversity of sharks (Chondrichthyes). Marine invertebrates such as brachiopods, echinoderms, ammonites, bryozoa, and corals are common, whilst old groups like the trilobites and nautiloids are much reduced in numbers." "On land: many types of insects, spiders, and other types of arthropods evolve. Some reach huge sizes. The dragonfly-like Meganeura had a wingspan of 60 to 75 centimeters, while the stocky-bodied millipede-like Arthropleura was 1.8 meters long. Alongside these giants were more conventionally sized invertebrates." "But the labyrinthodont amphibians are the dominant life form, and many different types inhabit the rivers, ponds, and swamps of the Carboniferous tropics. The first reptiles appear, adapted to life lived totally on land, but remain insignificant until at least the very end of the Carboniferous." edited from: The Carboniferous Period: the age of great forests Time scale
Started Period Subperiod Epoch
Carboniferous Mississippian (early Carboniferous) 362,500,000 BC Tournaisian 349,500,000 BC Visean 332,900,000 BC Serpukhovian Pennsylvanian (late Carboniferous) 322,800,000 BC Bashkirian 311,300,000 BC Moscovian 303,000,000 BC Kasimovian 295,100,000 BC Gzelian 290,000,000 BC Permian Rotliegendes Earth in the Late Mississippianian, 340,000,000 BC, JPEG image Earth in the Early Pennsylvanian, 300,000,000 BC, JPEG image
Name: Carboniferous "The name 'Coal Measures was proposed by Farey in 1807 and 1811. The term 'Carboniferous' (coal bearing) was proposed by the English geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in a paper published in 1822 to designate coal-bearing strata in north-central England. Conybeare and Phillips's 'Medial or Carboniferous Order' included the Mountain or Carboniferous Limestone, Millstone Grit, and Coal Measures as its three divisions. It was the first geological period to be established. Subsequently, in Continental Europe and Britain, the system was divided into a Lower and an Upper Carboniferous. Meanwhile, the American geologist Alexander Winchell proposed the name 'Mississippian' in 1869 for Lower Carboniferous strata along the Mississippi River drainage region, and later, in 1891 Henry S. Williams suggested 'Pennsylvanian' for the Upper Carboniferous. The terms Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Periods were then used by American geologists and palaeontologists instead of the one Carboniferous Period. Some recent fiddling with stratigraphic boundaries has allowed the American system to be matched with the Lower/Early and Upper/Later Carboniferous, giving a single international standard for the period." edited from: The Carboniferous Period: the age of great forests Carboniferous Life: Foraminiferans, corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, blastoids; seed ferns, lycopsids, and other plants; amphibians become more common. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology New: Cockroaches first appear. ["Terrestrial Life-- Fungal from the Start?", Meredith Blackwell, Science, Vo.289, 15 Sep 2000, pp.1884-1885]

290,000,000-245,000,000 BC

The Permian Period of the Paleozoic Era. ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Permian, 471x683 pixel JPEG image Permian Life: Trilobites extinct; Amphibians and reptiles dominant land animals; gymnosperms dominant plants. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology The Permian Mass Extinction * Permian Period (286-248 million years ago) * Terrestrial faunal diversification occurred in the Permian * 90-95% of marine species became extinct in the Permian Geological Setting "With the formation of the super-continent Pangea in the Permian, continental area exceeded that of oceanic area for the first time in geological history." "The result of this new global configuration was the extensive development and diversification of Permian terrestrial vertebrate fauna and accompanying reduction of Permian marine communities. Among terrestrial fauna affected included insects, amphibians, reptiles (which evolved during the Carboniferous), as well as the dominant terrestrial group, the therapsids (mammal-like reptiles)." "The terrestrial flora was predominantly composed of gymnosperms, including the conifers." "Life in the seas was similar to that found in middle Devonian communities following the late Devonian crisis. Common groups included the brachiopods, ammonoids, gastropods, crinoids, bony fish, sharks, and fusulinid foraminifera. Corals and trilobites were also present, but were exceedingly rare." Permian Mass Extinction Species Affected "The Permian mass extinction occurred about 248 million years ago and was the greatest mass extinction ever recorded in Earth history; even larger than the previously discussed Ordovician and Devonian crises and the better known End Cretaceous extinction that felled the dinosaurs. Ninety to ninety-five percent of marine species were eliminated as a result of this Permian event." "The primary marine and terrestrial victims included the fusulinid foraminifera, trilobites, rugose and tabulate corals, blastoids, acanthodians, placoderms, and pelycosaurs, which did not survive beyond the Permian boundary. Other groups that were substantially reduced included the bryozoans, brachiopods, ammonoids, sharks, bony fish, crinoids, eurypterids, ostracodes, and echinoderms." Permian Mass Extinction 250,000,000 BC: ASTEROID OR COMET TRIGGERED LARGEST MASS EXTINCTION IN EARTH'S HISTORY, FORESHADOWING FATE OF DINOSAURS New findings provide evidence that Earth's most severe mass extinction -- an event 250 million years ago that wiped out 90 percent of the life on Earth -- was triggered by a collision with a comet or asteroid. Over 90 percent of all marine species and 70 percent of land vertebrates perished as a result, according to the NASA-funded research team, led by Dr. Luann Becker of the University of Washington (UW), Seattle. The team's findings will be published tomorrow in the journal Science. The collision wasn't directly responsible for the extinction but rather triggered a series of events, such as massive volcanism, and changes in ocean oxygen, sea level and climate. That in turn led to species extinction on a wholesale level, according to the team. "If the species cannot adjust, they perish. It's a survival- of-the-fittest sort of thing," said Becker, UW acting assistant professor of Earth and Space Sciences. "To knock out 90 percent of organisms, you've got to attack them on more than one front." The scientists do not know the site of the impact 250 million years ago, when all Earth's land formed a supercontinent called Pangea. However, the space body left a calling card -- complex carbon molecules called buckminsterfullerenes, or Buckyballs, with the noble gases helium and argon trapped inside the caged structure. Fullerenes, which contain at least 60 carbon atoms and have a structure resembling a soccer ball or a geodesic dome, are named for Buckminster Fuller, inventor of the geodesic dome. The researchers know these particular Buckyballs are extraterrestrial because the noble gases trapped inside have an unusual ratio of isotopes, atoms whose nuclei have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Terrestrial helium is mostly helium-4, while extraterrestrial helium is mostly helium-3. "These things form in carbon stars. That's what's exciting about finding fullerenes as a tracer," Becker said. The extreme temperatures and gas pressures in carbon stars are perhaps the only way extraterrestrial noble gases could be forced inside a fullerene, she said. These gas-laden fullerenes were formed outside the Solar System, and their concentration in the sedimentary layer at the boundary of the Permian and Triassic periods means they were delivered by comets or asteroids. The researchers estimate the comet or asteroid was roughly 3 3/4 to 7 1/2 miles (6 to 12 kilometers) across, or about the same size as the asteroid believed responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. The telltale fullerenes containing helium and argon were extracted from sites where the Permian-Triassic boundary layer had been exposed in Japan, China and Hungary. The evidence was not as strong from the Hungary site, but the China and Japan samples bear strong evidence, Becker said. The team's work was made more difficult because there are few 250 million-year-old rocks left on Earth since most rocks of that age have been recycled through the planet's tectonic processes. "It took us two years to do this research, to try to narrow it down enough so that we could see this fullerene signature," Becker said. Scientists have long known of the mass extinction 250 million years ago, since many fossils below the boundary -- such as trilobites, which once numbered more than 15,000 species -- diminish sharply close to the boundary and are not found above it. There also is strong evidence suggesting the extinction happened very rapidly, on the order of 8,000 to 100,000 years, which the latest research supports. Previously, it was thought that any asteroid or comet collision would leave strong evidence of the element iridium, the signal found in the sedimentary layer from the time of the dinosaur extinction. Iridium was found at the Permian-Triassic boundary, but not nearly in the concentration as from the dinosaur extinction. Becker believes that difference is because the two space bodies that slammed into Earth had different compositions. Members of the research team are Becker; Robert Poreda and Andrew Hunt from the University of Rochester, NY; Ted Bunch of the NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; and Michael Rampino of New York University and NASA's Goddard Institute of Space Sciences, New York. Funding for the research was provided by NASA's Astrobiology and Cosmochemistry programs and the National Science Foundation. Images are available at: http://www.washington.edu/newsroom/news/images/extinct

245,000,000 BC

End of the Paleozoic Era, start of the Mesozoic Era. End of the Permian Period, start of the Triassic Period. ["Geological Time Scale"]

245,000,000-210,000,000 BC

The Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era. ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Middle Triassic, 230,000,000 BC, 473x776 pixel JPEG image Triassic Life: Molluscs dominant invertebrates; reptiles dominant:  turtles, dinosaurs, ichthyosaurs. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology MARINE LIFE in the TRIASSIC "Several Paleozoic survivors of the Permian mass extinction diversified and several new groups appeared. Only a few groups (e.g., clams and snails) were relatively unaffected by the extinction". Sea urchins A few pencil urchin survivors of the Permian extinction are the ancestors of all modern urchins. New groups included the first burrowing urchins (e.g., sea biscuits, sand dollars). Corals Appearance and diversification of the first modern corals (Scleractinia). Reefs remained small until the late Triassic. Earliest corals probably lacked the symbiotic algae characteristic of modern reef-building corals. Crustacea Appearance of the first close relatives of modern crabs and lobsters. Ammonoids (or ammonites) Only two known genera survive from the Permian. Rapid diversification into over 100 genera in Lower Triassic rocks. Bony fishes (Marine and freshwater) Bony fishes armored with heavy bony (ganoid) scales continue an adaptive radiation that began during the Carboniferous. Most are extinct by the end of the Triassic. Modern survivors include paddlefish and sturgeons. A second, Triassic-to-Jurassic diversification includes the Semionotidae (abundant in eastern North American rift valley lakes), and surviving gars and bowfin.   Hybodont sharks Intermediate between primitive Paleozoic sharks and modern forms. Some had molar-like teeth for crushing shellfish prey. The Port Jackson shark is a living survivor of this group. Triassic Life clickable illustrations plus the above text TRIASSIC PLANTS The transition to a Mesozoic-type flora began during the Permian and plants were relatively unaffected by the Permian extinction. Ferns survived the mass extinction and diversified. Gymnosperms diversified and four groups dominated early Mesozoic forests. Cycads Leaves similar to palm fronds. Unbranched, usually bulbous trunks typically covered with an armor of persistent leaf bases. Separate male and female plants bear specialized pollen and seed cones. Cycads reached their height of diversity during the Jurassic and then declined in importance and diversity. Ten genera survive today. Cycadeoids (Bennettitales) Superficially similar to cycads, with palmlike leaves. Distinctive stalked fruiting structures contain both pollen and seeds and resemble primitive flowers. Recent research suggests that cycadeoids are more closely related to flowering plants than to cycads. Extinct during the Cretaceous Period. Gingkos Trees with typically fan-shaped leaves and stalked sex organs borne on separate male and female trees. One species, the maidenhair tree, Gingko biloba, survives today. [Your Humble Webmaster was greatly influenced to study paleontology by the many Gingko trees is Brooklyn Heights, to which neighbors in the 1950s referred mysteriously as "living fossils."] Conifers Trees and shrubs with seeds borne on the projecting scales of  reproductive cones. Wood of logs in the petrified forest (Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Arizona) virtually identical to that of the modern Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria). Most modern conifer families (e.g., pines, yews, junipers) appear during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Triassic Life clickable illustrations plus the above text TETRAPODS of the JURASSIC The Early Triassic was dominated by therapsids, early archosaurs often lumped together as thecodonts (see below), and a few holdover primitive giant amphibians. AMPHIBIANS A few large primitive amphibians, such as Metoposaurus, survived from the Permian. Most extinct by the end of the Triassic. THERAPSIDA Several groups survived the Permian extinction. Again best known from the Karoo Basin of South Africa. Lystrosaurus Medium-sized (1-2 m long), chunky herbivorous therapsid. Dominated earliest Triassic faunas; accounts for over 90% of all vertebrate skeletons wherever found. Later (with other fossils) widely distributed on Gondwana; important early evidence for continental drift. Cynodonts (e.g., Thrinaxodon, Cynognathus) Wolf-like therapsids that arose in the latest Permian and diversified in the Triassic. Small canals in the skull snout of some species indicate nerves that probably served whiskers. Some almost certainly had fur and were warm-blooded. Clearly on the road to mammals. Features pointing in the mammalian direction include: * more erect posture * dentary bone that occupied more than 90% of the lower jaw * distinction between thoracic vertebrae with ribs and lumbar (lower back) vertebrae with very short ribs * ability to chew food (occluding tooth surfaces) Mammals First species Late Triassic (about same time as first dinosaurs) (e.g,. Adelobasileus, Morganucodon). Small (15 cm long) and probably nocturnal. Distinction between advanced cynodonts and first mammals arbitrary, based chiefly on jaw joint anatomy. * Therapsid jaw joint (e.g., Thrinaxodon): primitive "reptilian" between quadrate and articular bones. Quadrate at rear of lower jaw very much reduced. * Mammalian jaw joint (e.g., Morganucodon): between dentary and squamosal bones. * Intermediate double jaw joint in Probainognathus: combination of both primitive therapsid and incipient mammalian arrangements. * Small bones at rear of primitive therapsid lower jaw become hammer and anvil of mammalian middle ear. Triassic Life clickable illustrations plus the above text

210,000,000-145,000,000 BC

The Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era. ["Geological Time Scale"] Note that the dinosaurs of the novel and movie "Jurassic Park" are NOT from the Jurassic Period, but from the Cretaceous. The writer, director, and producers simply preferred the name... Earth in the Middle Jurassic, 170,000,000 BC, JPEG image Jurassic Life: Ferns, cycads, ginkgos, rushes, conifers; ammonites and other invertebrates; pterosaurs, Archaeopteryx appears. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology New: Most modern insects first appear during the Jurassic, including moths, beetles, grasshoppers, and termites. Dung beetles evolve about 200,000,000 B.C.; Diptera (flies) evolve about 225,000,000 B.C. ["Terrestrial Life-- Fungal from the Start?", Meredith Blackwell, Science, Vo.289, 15 Sep 2000, pp.1884-1885] 195,000,000 BC: New: "Mini Mammal Fossil Shows Big Brains Evolved Early" by Kate Wong Scientific American, March? 2002 Key features in the mammalian ear and brain evolved far earlier than previously thought, paleontologists say. According to a report published today in the journal Science, the fossilized remains of a diminutive creature that researchers have dubbed Hadrocodium wui push the origins of these characteristic innovations back by some 45 million years. Zhe-Xi Luo of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History and his colleagues discovered the 195-million-year-old fossil, which comes from the Lufeng Basin in southwestern China's Yunnan Province. Comparing Hadrocodium to other known fossil mammals, the team concluded that it is the closest known relative to living mammals. Characteristics of the braincase and middle ear bones were particularly revealing. The transition from mammal-like reptiles to true mammals involved increasing brain size and detaching the middle ear bones from the lower jaw, but identifying the origins of these features had proved problematic. That Hadrocodium resembles a modern mammal in both regards suggests that these features may have evolved together. The new fossil also reveals that there must have been considerable diversity among early mammals: Hadrocodium, which weighed no more than a paper clip, is far smaller than other mammals from the early Jurassic period. "The welcome discovery of the tiny but crucial fossil of Hadrocodium," André Wyss of the University of California at Santa Barbara writes in a commentary accompanying the Science report, "demonstrates yet again the continued handsome scientific payoffs that emerge from the time-honored practice of hunting for ancient bones."

145,000,000-65,000,000 BC

The Cretaceous Period of the Mesozoic Era. ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Early Cretaceous, 110,000,000 BC, JPEG image Earth in the Late Cretaceous, 70,000,000 BC, JPEG image Cretaceous Life: Angiosperm plants; Mesozoic reptiles peak. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology

65,000,000 BC

Chixulub Extinction event. Giant asteroid/meteorite smashes into the shore of the Yucatan Peninsula, flings dirt, water, rock, and dust into the atmosphere that reduces sunlight, killing plants, starving the animals that eat those plants, and ends the reign of the dinosaurs. Dinosaurs extinct, mammals have their main chance, and take it... [discovery by Luis Alvarez, et al., widely documented] End of the Cretaceous Period of the Mesozoic Era, end of the Mesozoic Era, start of the Cenozoic Era, start of the Tertiary, start of the Paleogene period. ["Geological Time Scale"] Tertiary Life: Mass extinction: dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and ammonites extinct; rise of modern animals; shrubs, grasses, and other flowering plants. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology

65,000,000-56,500,000 BC

The Paleocene Epoch of the Paleogene part of the Tertiary period. ["Geological Time Scale"] Palaeocene Life: Mammals become abundant after extinction of dinosaurs and large reptiles; by the beginning of the Eocene rodents and primates have evolved. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology 71,300,000-65,000,000 BC: Danian Age of Paleocene Epoch of Paleogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 65,000,000-60,500,000 BC: Thanetian Age of Paleocene Epoch of Paleogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

56,500,000-33,500,000 BC

The Eocene Epoch of the Paleogene part of the Tertiary period. ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Eocene, 60,000,000 BC, JPEG image Eocene Life: Mammals dominant: rodents, artiodactyls, carnivores, perissodactyls (including horses); whales make their first appearance. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology 60,500,000-56,500,000 BC: Ypresian Age of Eocene Epoch of Paleogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 56,500,000-50,000,000 BC: Lutetian Age of Eocene Epoch of Paleogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 55,000,000 BC: Our Earliest Primate Ancestor "Asian Origin for Certain Mammal Groups" Scientific American, March 2002, Kate Wong Around 55 million years ago, Earth's climate underwent a short but intense bout of global warming, accompanied by dramatic shifts in plant and animal life. Of particular interest to paleontologists is the sudden appearance in the Northern Hemisphere of several groups of mammals--including the primates, the even-toed hoofed mammals and the odd-toed hoofed mammals--at this so-called Paleocene/Eocene boundary. Researchers have long wondered exactly where these creatures, which differed considerably from the animals they replaced, came from. Findings published today in the journal Science indicate that at least one key group, and probably others, originated in Asia. Working with samples obtained from southern China's Hengyang Basin, an international team of scientists led by Gabriel J. Bowen of the University of California, Santa Cruz, employed a variety of techniques to constrain the ages of important Asian animal groups. Comparisons of these sequences with those from North America and Europe clearly showed that a group of doglike carnivores known as hyaenodontid creodonts (such as the one pictured here [on the web page]) appeared in Asia before showing up in Europe or North America. And members of the primate and hoofed mammal groups, the investigators found, emerged in Asia no later than they did in North America. "Based on the best data we have now for correlating different Asian faunas, it looks quite possible that these groups were present in Asia first," Bowen observes, "but we can't say definitely yet." The results fit neatly with phylogenetic analyses that have identified Asia as the birthplace of several modern mammal groups, including the primate order to which we belong," paleontologist Chris Beard of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh notes in a commentary accompanying the report. "They also point toward global warming as the driving force behind the most profound biotic reorganization of the Age of Mammals." 50,000,000-42,100,000 BC: Bartonian Age of Eocene Epoch of Paleogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 42,100,000-38,600,000 BC: Priabonian Age of Eocene Epoch of Paleogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

33,500,000-23,500,000 BC

The Oligocene Epoch of the Paleogene part of the Tertiary period. ["Geological Time Scale"] Oligocene Life: Continued rise of mammals: pigs, rhinoceroses, and tapirs make their appearance. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology 38,600,000-35,400,000 BC: Rupelian Age of Oligocene Epoch of Paleogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 35,400,000-29,300,000 BC: Chattian Age of Oligocene Epoch of Paleogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 33,000,000 BC: Aegyptopithecus (an early hominoid)

23,500,000 BC

End of the Paleogene part, and start of the Neogene part of the Tertiary period. ["Geological Time Scale"]

23,500,000-5,500,000 BC

The Miocene Epoch of the Neogene part of the Tertiary period. ["Geological Time Scale"] Earth in the Miocene, 20,000,000 BC, JPEG image 29,300,000-23,300,000 BC: Aquitanian Age of Miocene Epoch of Neogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 23,000,000 BC: Ancient Climate Excursion Linked To A Rare Anomaly In Earth's Orbit Source: University Of California, Santa Cruz (http://www.ucsc.edu/) Date: Posted 4/16/2001 SANTA CRUZ, CA -- About 23 million years ago, a huge ice sheet spread over Antarctica, temporarily reversing a general trend of global warming and decreasing ice volume. Now a team of researchers has discovered that this climatic blip at the boundary between the Oligocene and Miocene epochs corresponded with a rare combination of events in the pattern of Earth's orbit around the Sun. In a paper published in the April 13 issue of the journal Science, the researchers show that the transient glaciation and other climatic variations during a period from about 20 to 25.5 million years ago correspond with variations in Earth's orbit known as Milankovitch cycles. Although the concept of such relationships is not new, some of the results were surprising, said James Zachos, a professor of Earth sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and lead author of the paper. "When we began examining the temporal relationship of the orbital oscillations relative to the oscillations in the climate record, we never suspected that the transient glaciation at 23 million years ago had anything to do with orbital anomalies," Zachos said. The astrophysicist Milutin Milankovitch first proposed that cyclical variations in certain elements of Earth-Sun geometry can cause major changes in Earth's climate. The main variables are eccentricity, obliquity, and precession. Eccentricity refers to the changing shape of Earth's orbit around the Sun, which varies from nearly circular to elliptical over a cycle of about 100,000 years. Obliquity refers to the angle at which Earth's axis is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit, varying between 22.1 degrees and 24.5 degrees over a 41,000-year cycle. And precession is the gradual change in the direction Earth's axis is pointing, which completes a cycle every 21,000 years. "Because there are several components of orbital variability, each with lower frequency components of amplitude modulation, there is the potential for unusual interactions between them on long timescales of tens of millions of years," Zachos said. "What we found at 23 million years ago is a rare congruence of a low point in Earth's eccentricity and a period of minimal variation in obliquity." The result of this rare congruence was a period of about 200,000 years when there was unusually low variability in the planet's climate, with reduced extremes of seasonal warmth and coldness. Earth's orbit was nearly circular, so its distance from the Sun stayed about the same throughout the year. In addition, the tilt of Earth's axis, which gives rise to the seasons, varied less than usual. In other words, the tilt doesn't always vary between the same extremes in its 41,000-year cycles; the obliquity cycle itself varies in amplitude over a longer period of about 1.25 million years. Similarly, the eccentricity cycle peaks every 400,000 years. The combination of a low-amplitude "node" in the obliquity cycle and a minimum in eccentricity would have caused only several degrees difference in summer temperatures at the poles, but it was probably enough to allow the Antarctic ice sheet to expand, Zachos said. Zachos's collaborators on the paper were Nicholas Shackleton and Heiko Pšlike of Cambridge University, Justin Revenaugh of UC Santa Cruz, and Benjamin Flower of the University of South Florida. The researchers obtained detailed climate records for the late Oligocene and early Miocene by analyzing sediment cores drilled out of the ocean floor. Cutting through layers of sediments laid down over millions of years, such cores contain a chronological record of past climates written in the chemistry of fossilized shells left behind by tiny marine organisms. Oxygen isotopes in the shells, for example, reflect ocean water temperatures and the amount of ice trapped in glaciers. In the 1970s, scientists using these techniques obtained the first good evidence in support of Milankovitch's theory, almost 50 years after he had proposed it. According to Zachos, researchers are still trying to get a handle on the relationships between climate cycles and orbital variations. Since most of the research has focused on the past 5 million years, the new paper is valuable because it looks at a more distant window in time when conditions on the planet were different. In the period they examined, the late Oligocene and early Miocene, Zachos and his collaborators found evidence of several climate cycles with frequencies corresponding to the Milankovitch cycles. But the correspondence of the orbital anomaly with the transient glaciation event at the boundary between the two epochs is especially interesting, Zachos said. The climate system seems to have undergone a fundamental shift at this boundary, which also marks a major break in the paleontologic record. "I'm not sure everyone will be convinced that the orbital anomaly alone is responsible," Zachos said. "But the congruence of those orbital cycles is a very rare event, and the fact that it exactly corresponds with this rare climatic event is compelling." Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by University Of California, Santa Cruz for journalists and other members of the public. If you wish to quote from any part of this story, please credit University Of California, Santa Cruz as the original source. You may also wish to include the following link in any citation: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/04/010413081139.htm 23,300,000-21,500,000 BC: Burdigalian Age of Miocene Epoch of Neogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 21,500,000-16,300,000 BC: Langhian Age of Miocene Epoch of Neogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 16,300,000-14,200,000 BC: Serravallian Age of Miocene Epoch of Neogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 14,200,000-10,400,000 BC: Tortonian Age of Miocene Epoch of Neogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History 10,400,000-6,700,000 BC: Messinian Age of Miocene Epoch of Neogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History Miocene Life: More and more modern mammals: horses, dogs modern whales, South American monkeys; modern birds, apes present in southern Europe, Ramapithecus (our ancestor) appears. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology 20,000,000-18,000,000 BC: Proconsul (very early hominoid) 16,000,000 BC Orangutan (Pongo) line branched off from pre-human line 10,000,000 BC Gorilla (Gorilla) line branched off from pre-human line 8,000,000 BC Ramapithecus (in orangutan line) line branched off from pre-human line 7,000,000 BC Chimpanzee (Pan) line branched off from pre-human line 6,700,000-5,200,000 BC: Zanclian Age of Pliocene Epoch of Neogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

5,500,000-1,800,000 BC

The Pliocene Epoch of the Neogene part of the Tertiary period. ["Geological Time Scale"] Pliocene Life: Mammals similar to modern forms evolve; australopithecines appear, the forerunners of humanity, appear. Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology Starting roughly 4,000,000 or 1,500,000 BC, and continuing to 500,000 or 130,000 BC, was what is called the Acheulian Tool Tradition. Anthropology Glossary 4,600,000 - 4,200,000 BC Ardipithecus ramidus ? (early Hominid ancestor of humans) "The earliest fossil hominid, Ardipithecus ramidus, is a recent discovery. It is dated at 4.4 million years ago. The remains are incomplete but enough is available to suggest it was bipedal and about 4 feet tall. Other fossils were found with the ramidus fossil which would suggest that ramidus was a forest dweller. A new skeleton was recently discovered which is about 45% complete. It is now being studied." Adapted from onelife.com 4,500,000 - 3,900,000 BC Australopithecus anamensis (early Hominid ancestor of humans) "A new species, Australopithecus anamensis, was named in 1995. It was found in Allia Bay in Kenya. Anamensis lived between 4.2 and 3.9 million years ago. Its body showed advanced bipedal features, but the skull closely resembled the ancient apes." Adapted from onelife.com 3,900,000 - 3,000,000 BC Australopithecus afarensis (early Hominid ancestor of humans) "Australopithecus afarensis lived between 3.9 and 3.0 million years ago. It retained the apelike face with a sloping forehead, a distinct ridge over the eyes, flat nose and a chinless lower jaw. It had a brain capacity of about 450 cc. It was between 3'6" and 5' tall. It was fully bipedal and the thickness of its bones showed that it was quite strong. Its build (ratio of weight to height) was about the same as the modern human but its head and face were proportionately much larger. This larger head with powerful jaws is a feature of all species prior to Homo sapiens sapiens." Adapted from onelife.com 5,200,000-3,400,000 BC: Piacenzian Age of Pliocene Epoch of Neogene Subperiod of Tertiary Period of Cenozoic Era The DOL Geologic Ages of Earth History

3,200,000-3,100,000 BC

"A pulse of cooling occurred relatively suddenly at high at middle latitudes", the evidence being "oxygen isotope ratios for marine microfossils." ["Neogene Ice Age in the North Atlantic Region: Climatic Changes, Biotic Effects, and Forcing Factors", Steven M. Stanley (Johns Hopkins) & William F. Rudderman (University of Virginia), in "Effects of Past Global Change on Life" [National Academy Press, 1995, p.118]

3,000,000 BC to 2,000,000 BC

3,000,000 - 2,300,000 BC Australopithecus africanus "Australopithecus africanus was quite similar to afarensis and lived between three and two million years ago. It was also bipedal, but was slightly larger in body size. Its brain size was also slightly larger, ranging up to 500 cc. The brain was not advanced enough for speech. The molars were a little larger than in afarensis and much larger than modern human. This hominid was a herbivore and ate tough, hard to chew, plants. The shape of the jaw was now like the human." Adapted from onelife.com Starting roughly 2,900,000 or 2,500,000 BC, and continuing to 1,500,000 BC, was what is called the Oldowan Tool Tradition. Anthropology Glossary 2,600,000 - 2,300,000 BC Australopithecus aethiopicus "Australopithecus aethiopicus lived between 2.6 and 2.3 million years ago. This species is probably an ancestor of the robustus and boisei. This hominid ate a rough and hard to chew diet. He had huge molars and jaws and a large sagittal crest. A sagittal crest is a bony ridge on the skull extending from the forehead to the back of the head. Massive chewing muscles were anchored to this crest. Brain sizes were still about 500cc, with no indication of speech functions." Adapted from onelife.com 2,500,000 BC: "Large ice sheets formed... when more severe cooling and regional drying of climates occurred. Cycles of glacial expansion and contraction reflected orbital forcing at periodicities of ~41,000 years until about [900,000 BC] and ~100,000 years thereafter. Aridification in Africa... resulted in the extinction of many forest-dwelling species of mammals and, soon thereafter, in the origins of numerous species adapted to savannas." ["Neogene Ice Age...", Steven M. Stanley et al., p.118] 2,500,000 - 1,800,000 BC Homo habilis "Homo habilis was called the handy man because tools were found with his fossil remains. This species existed between 2.4 and 1.5 million years ago. The brain size in earlier fossil specimens was about 500cc but rose to 800cc toward the end of the species life period. The species brain shape shows evidence that some speech had developed. Habilis was about 5' tall and weighed about 100 pounds. Some scientists believe that habilis is not a separate species and should be carried either as a later Australopithecine or an early Homo erectus. It is possible that early examples are in one species group and later examples in the other." Adapted from onelife.com 2,500,000 BC: Diet Diverged In Earliest Human Ancestors, Researchers Find Source: University Of Arkansas (http://www.uark.edu) Date: Posted 12/27/2000 FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. -- Dietary diversity distinguished the diets of our earliest human ancestors, starting a trend that eventually led to the ability of human beings to colonize different types of terrain all over the world, according to two researchers. Peter Ungar, associate professor of anthropology at the University of Arkansas, and Mark Teaford, professor of cell biology and anatomy at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, report their findings in the Dec. 5 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Ungar and Teaford used dental and jaw data from Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus anamensis, Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus, Pliocene hominids that date back 2.3 to 4.4 million years ago. They looked at tooth size, tooth shape, tooth enamel structure, dental microwear and mandibular biomechanics of the fossils, most of which date back to a time before stone tools, before culture and before meat was introduced to the diet. "No one has looked at diet variability within this group," Ungar said. "Until now, we had no idea of what happened from the standpoint of diet in the first half of human evolution." The researchers found that even the dental fossils of the oldest human ancestor studied -- Ardipithecus ramidus -- showed signs of a generalized diet. A few hundred thousand years later, the fossils show larger teeth with thicker enamel, and a million years later the fossils sport larger teeth and heavier jaws suited for heavy chewing of hard, brittle foods. But microscopic marks on the teeth also indicate that the hominids had not lost the ability to eat soft, tough foods, like fruit. "You're seeing an ability to broaden the diet," Ungar said. This generalized diet became crucial 2.5 million years ago, when our human ancestors split from the specialized forms of hominid species that eventually died out. Researchers speculate that the hominids with a more varied diet were able to survive environmental changes, while the specialists could not adapt quickly enough. Until now, there was no evidence of dietary changes in the first half of human evolution. Ungar and Teaford's research shows that diets were changing throughout the evolution of our human ancestors, from the time soon after they split from the apes. "The specialists and generalists branch off, but both stem from a trend that started 5 million years ago," Ungar said. Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by University Of Arkansas for journalists and other members of the public. If you wish to quote from any part of this story, please credit University Of Arkansas as the original source. You may also wish to include the following link in any citation: Diet Diverged In Earliest Human Ancestors 2,400,000 BC Hominids in Africa manufacture stone tools [Hellemans p.5]

2,000,000 BC to 1,000,000 BC

2,200,000 - 1,600,000 BC: Homo habilis "Homo habilis was the transition man. Starting with a 500cc brain, it grew to a respectable 800cc. Habilis developed from a brutish and dim-witted herd animal to a competent man. The Broca's area in his brain became developed showing the existence of a workable vocabulary. He invented the use of fire for cooking, warmth and keeping wild animals at bay. He invented the stone axe. He also may have eliminated the last of that big tough robustus and boisei bunch. For some reason they disappeared about that time. For sure there was no one else on the plains who could have done them in." Adapted from onelife.com 2,000,000 BC: "Mammalian extinction intensified... in North America and was weaker in Europe, where forests changed in floral composition but remained widespread." ["Neogene Ice Age...", Steven M. Stanley et al., pp.118-119] 2,000,000 - 1,500,000 BC Australopithecus robustus (collateral, not direct human ancestor) "Australopithecus robustus lived between two and 1.5 million years ago. It had a body similar to that of africanus, but a larger and more massive skull and teeth. Its huge face was flat and with no forehead. It had large brow ridges and a sagittal crest. Brain size was up to 525cc with no indication of speech capability." Adapted from onelife.com

1,800,000-20,000? BC

The Quaternary Period, and the Pleistocene Epoch. ["Geological Time Scale"] 1,800,000 - 1,400,000 BC Australopithecus boisei (collateral, not direct human ancestor) "Australopithecus boisei lived between 2.1 and 1.1 million years ago. It was quite similar to robustus, but with an even more massive face. It had huge molars, the larger measuring 0.9 inches across. The brain size was about the same as robustus. Some authorities believe that robustus and boisei are variants of the same species." Adapted from onelife.com 1,700,000 BC: First Wave of Human Migration Out of Africa? "Genetic Analysis Reveals Complexity of Modern Human Origins" by Kate Wong, Scientific American Humans migrated out of Africa in at least three major waves and later emigrants probably interbred with the archaic people they encountered, according to the results of a new genetic study. The findings, announced today in the journal Nature, challenge a popular view of human evolution that holds that anatomically modern humans replaced the archaic inhabitants of Europe and Asia. Previous genetic analyses aimed at testing the various hypotheses of modern human origins have tended to focus on a single DNA region, such as maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA. And in many cases the results of those studies have been interpreted as support for the so-called Out of Africa replacement model. In the new study, however, Alan Templeton of Washington University analyzed gene trees representing a number of different genome regions to reconstruct the evolutionary history of our species. His results support a scenario in which the human lineage initially left Africa around 1.7 million years ago and subsequently expanded at least twice after that--at around 600,000 years ago and again at roughly 95,000 years ago. Importantly, the work indicates that the anatomically modern people who left Africa most recently made love, not war, with the archaic Eurasians they encountered. Had that migration instead involved replacement, Templeton says, the genetic signatures of the earlier expansion and those of recurrent gene flow between populations would have been wiped away. "Humans expanded again and again out of Africa," Templeton concludes, "but these expansions resulted in interbreeding, not replacement, and thereby strengthened the genetic ties between human populations throughout the world." 1,600,000 - 500,000 BC: Homo erectus direct human ancestor "Then, about 1.8 million years ago, Homo erectus came: mighty warrior, skilled hunter, inventor, far-ranging explorer and king of all he surveyed. The size of a modern human and standing as straight, he developed a 1250cc brain, very close to modern man. Along the way he developed many new tools and weapons, invented clothing, and traveled out of Africa, the first hominid to do so. He went across southeast Asia, into northern China and south to Java. He was now an omnivore who ate mostly meat, both animals and fish. He cooked his food. Evolution had noted the softer food, and degraded his magnificent chewing apparatus. By the end of his reign, his molars and jaw had shrunk to almost that of modern man." Adapted from onelife.com Stone artifacts and weapons (club, spear, axe...) 1,000,000 BC to 500,000 BC 1,600,000 - 500,000 BC: Homo erectus Stone artifacts and weapons "Homo erectus lived between 1.8 million and 300,000 years ago. It was a successful species for a million and a half years. Early examples had a 900cc brain size on the average. The brain grew steadily during its reign. Toward the end its brain was almost the same size as modern man, at about 1200cc. The species definitely had speech. Erectus developed tools, weapons and fire and learned to cook his food. He traveled out of Africa into China and Southeast Asia and developed clothing for northern climates. He turned to hunting for his food. Only his head and face differed from modern man. Like habilis, the face had massive jaws with huge molars, no chin, thick brow ridges, and a long low skull. Though proportioned the same, he was sturdier in build and much stronger than the modern human." Adapted from onelife.com 750,000 BC: Ancient hearths found in the Escale cave near Marseilles, France, indicate that Homo erectus, the immediate predecessor of modern human beings, uses fire. [Hellemans p.5] 700,000 BC - 250,000 BC Archaic Homo sapiens "Homo sapiens (archaic) provides the bridge between erectus and Homo sapiens sapiens during the period 200,000 to 500,000 years ago. Many skulls have been found with features intermediate between the two. Brain averaged about 1200cc and speech was indicated. Skulls are more rounded and with smaller features. Molars and brow ridges are smaller. The skeleton shows a stronger build than modern human but was well proportioned." Adapted from onelife.com 700,000 BC: Start of the Acheulian Cultural Tradition of the Lower Paleolithic (in Europe) Palomar College Anthropology Home Page 600,000 BC: Second Wave of Human Migration Out of Africa? "Genetic Analysis Reveals Complexity of Modern Human Origins" by Kate Wong, Scientific American Humans migrated out of Africa in at least three major waves and later emigrants probably interbred with the archaic people they encountered, according to the results of a new genetic study. The findings, announced today in the journal Nature, challenge a popular view of human evolution that holds that anatomically modern humans replaced the archaic inhabitants of Europe and Asia. Previous genetic analyses aimed at testing the various hypotheses of modern human origins have tended to focus on a single DNA region, such as maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA. And in many cases the results of those studies have been interpreted as support for the so-called Out of Africa replacement model. In the new study, however, Alan Templeton of Washington University analyzed gene trees representing a number of different genome regions to reconstruct the evolutionary history of our species. His results support a scenario in which the human lineage initially left Africa around 1.7 million years ago and subsequently expanded at least twice after that--at around 600,000 years ago and again at roughly 95,000 years ago. Importantly, the work indicates that the anatomically modern people who left Africa most recently made love, not war, with the archaic Eurasians they encountered. Had that migration instead involved replacement, Templeton says, the genetic signatures of the earlier expansion and those of recurrent gene flow between populations would have been wiped away. "Humans expanded again and again out of Africa," Templeton concludes, "but these expansions resulted in interbreeding, not replacement, and thereby strengthened the genetic ties between human populations throughout the world."

500,000 BC to 100,000 BC

500,000 - 80,000 BC: start of Homo sapiens Starting roughly 200,000 or 500,000 BC, and continuing to 30,000 or 40,000 BC, was what is called the Mousterian Tool Tradition. Anthropology Glossary 340,000-330,000 BC: Ice Age, with low sea levels creating land bridges. 270,000-230,000 BC: Ice Age, with low sea levels creating land bridges. 150,000 BC: Cold, dry full glacial world "A quick background to the last ice age" 150,000 BC Start of Homo sapiens neandertalensis (Neanderthal Man) "Homo sapiens neandertalensis lived in Europe and the Mideast between 150,000 and 35,000 years ago. Neandertals coexisted with Homo sapiens (archaic) and early Homo sapiens sapiens. It is not known whether he was of the same species and disappeared into the Homo sapiens sapiens gene pool or he may have been crowded out of existence (killed off) by the Homo sapien sapien. Recent DNA studies have indicated that the neandertal was an entirely different species and did not merge into the Homo sapiens sapiens gene pool. Brain sizes averaged larger than modern man at about 1450cc but the head was shaped differently, being longer and lower than modern man. His nose was large and was different from modern man in structure. He was a massive man at about 5'6" tall with an extremely heavy skeleton that showed attachments for massive muscles. He was far stronger than modern man. His jaw was massive and he had a receding forehead, like erectus." Adapted from onelife.com 130,000-110,000 BC: The Eemian Interglacial. "The Earth's climates were generally much like those of today, though somewhat warmer and moister in many regions. The climate record derived from long ice cores taken through the Greenland ice cap suggest that the warm climate of the Eemian might have been punctuated by many sudden and fairly short-lived cold phases... at least one major cold and dry event during the Eemian seems to be corroborated by the terrestrial pollen record from Europe and China (Zhisheng & Porter, 1997).... The recent high-resolution Atlantic sediment record of Adkins et al (1997) suggests that the move from interglacial to much colder-than-present glacial conditions occurred over a period of less than 400 years [and maybe even faster]" "A quick background to the last ice age" 125,000-120,000 BC: start of Homo sapiens sapiens (modern man) "Homo sapiens sapiens first appeared about 120,000 years ago. Modern humans have an average brain size of about 1350 cc." Adapted from onelife.com 119,000 BC: possible global cold, dry event "A quick background to the last ice age" 115,000 BC: The Early Wisconsin Glaciation begins in North America 103,000-93,000 BC: "Climate warms slightly, but still cooler and drier than present; strong fluctuations." "A quick background to the last ice age"

100,000 BC to 80,000 BC

100,000 - 33,000 BC: Homo neanderthalensis Ice Ages ; Stone tools 100,000 BC: The earliest known ornament, a decorative amulet, is made from a piece of mammoth's tooth by a Neanderthal; it is found in what is now Hungary. [Hellemans p.5] 95,000 BC: Third Wave of Human Migration Out of Africa? "Genetic Analysis Reveals Complexity of Modern Human Origins" by Kate Wong, Scientific American Humans migrated out of Africa in at least three major waves and later emigrants probably interbred with the archaic people they encountered, according to the results of a new genetic study. The findings, announced today in the journal Nature, challenge a popular view of human evolution that holds that anatomically modern humans replaced the archaic inhabitants of Europe and Asia. Previous genetic analyses aimed at testing the various hypotheses of modern human origins have tended to focus on a single DNA region, such as maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA. And in many cases the results of those studies have been interpreted as support for the so-called Out of Africa replacement model. In the new study, however, Alan Templeton of Washington University analyzed gene trees representing a number of different genome regions to reconstruct the evolutionary history of our species. His results support a scenario in which the human lineage initially left Africa around 1.7 million years ago and subsequently expanded at least twice after that--at around 600,000 years ago and again at roughly 95,000 years ago. Importantly, the work indicates that the anatomically modern people who left Africa most recently made love, not war, with the archaic Eurasians they encountered. Had that migration instead involved replacement, Templeton says, the genetic signatures of the earlier expansion and those of recurrent gene flow between populations would have been wiped away. "Humans expanded again and again out of Africa," Templeton concludes, "but these expansions resulted in interbreeding, not replacement, and thereby strengthened the genetic ties between human populations throughout the world." 93,000-91,000 BC: "another cooler phase similar to that at [108,000 BC]" 91,000-73,000 BC: "a milder phase resembling that at [103,000-93,000 BC]" "A quick background to the last ice age"

80,000 BC to 70,000 BC

Possibly as old as 80,000 BC, or as young as 41,000 BC there was a Bone Flute manufactured and used by Neanderthals! It was found in the Cave Bear site, was made from a femur, and was tuned to a Diatonic Scale (Do Re Mi...) Neanderthal Flute If they made musical instruments, how can we deny them status as human beings? 79,000 BC: Simple forms of stone lamps, probably fueled with animal fat and using grass or moss for a wick, are in use. [Hellemans p.5] 73,000-58,000 BC: "full glacial world, cold and dry (the ‘Lower Pleniglacial' or Stage 4')" "A quick background to the last ice age" 73,000 BC: Start of the Mousterian Cultural Tradition of the Middle Paleolithic (in Europe) Palomar College Anthropology Home Page

70,000 BC to 60,000 BC

70,000 BC: The Early Wurm Glaciation begins in Europe.

60,000 BC to 50,000 BC

60,000-55,000 BC: "Conditions around the world had become warmer, though still generally colder than today. The ice melted back partially, and there followed a long 'middling' phase during which the climate oscillated between warmer and colder conditions, often in sudden jumps. During some parts of this phase, conditions in the tropics may have been moister than they are at present, and at other times they were drier. Generally, the mid-latitude zones seem to have been drier than present, with cold steppe and wooded steppe instead of forests." "A quick background to the last ice age" 58,000-23,000 BC: " 'middling phase' of highly unstable but generally cooler and drier-than-present conditions (Stage 3)." "A quick background to the last ice age"

50,000 BC to 40,000 BC

45,000 BC: Based on the presence of stone tools along the Nepean River, near what is now Sydney, Australia, early humans reach Australia. [Hellemans p.5]

40,000 BC to 30,000 BC

Starting roughly 30,000 or 40,000 BC, and continuing to the beginning of History as such, was what is called the Upper Paleolithic Tool Tradition in Europe, and the Late Stone Age in Africa. Anthropology Glossary 40,000 BC: Philippine Prehistory - The First Inhabitants - 40,000 BP The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands in the South China Sea situated between Taiwan to the north and Borneo to the south. Just 2,000 of its islands are inhabited and only 500 are larger than a kilometre square. The nine largest islands of Luzon, Mindanao, Palawan, Panay, Mindoro, Samar, Negros, Leyte and Cebu make up 90% of the nation's land area. Over the past two million years, the earth has undergone twenty cycles of glaciation. During these ice ages, glaciers accumulate on land a substantial quantity of the earth's water in the form of ice and cause the water levels in the world's oceans to drop. At the height of the last ice age, the sea levels around the Philippines were at least 50 metres lower than they are today. The present sea beds surrounding the Malay peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Palawan were all above water making one huge extension to the continental land mass of Asia. The earth's climate began warming 18,000 years ago and the oceans regained their present high levels about 8,000 years ago. No pre-hominid or hominid species such as australopithecus or homo erectus has been found in the Philippines. The first human beings probably reached the Philippines about 40,000 years ago at roughly the same time as they reached Australia and New Guinea. The Philippines, like Australia and New Guinea, were never actually joined to the south east Asian mainland but, at the low ocean levels, the water barrier was much less. The earliest human bones found in the Philippines were on Palawan of modern type and date to 22,000 B.P. although stone tools from Palawan date back to 30,000 B.P. The original people of the Philippines were the ancestors of the people known today as Negritos or Aeta. They are an Australo-Melanesian people with dark skin and tight, curly brown hair. They are also distinctively small and of short stature. As the Pygmies in the equatorial forests of Africa, the Aeta are believed to have adapted locally to the tropical jungles of the Philippines. The Aeta are a nomadic hunting and gathering people who forage in small family bands with an informal organization and leadership. They were once widespread throughout the Philippines but are now found only in the remote highland areas of Luzon, Palawan, Panay, Negros and Mindanao. 35,000 BC: The Late Wisconsin Glaciation begins in North America; Cro-Magnons displace Neanderthals in Europe. "Concluding this story without giving tribute to an enigma in our history would not be proper. The Homo sapiens neandertalensis does not quite fit in our story. They probably came from far northern Europe, the descendants of an ancient Homo erectus tribe, a tribe that had migrated to that region many hundreds of thousands of years before. They had many physical characteristics of the modern Eskimo, who is well tuned to arctic living. They were stocky, almost massive, in build. The males were about 5'6" tall but they were much heavier and stronger than modern man. They had the large pronounced cheeks usually associated with cold weather adaptation. They walked as erectly as modern man. Their tools paralleled the coexisting Homo sapiens sapiens, but it is not known who copied. Although lacking a forehead, they had brains that averaged 1450cc, about 8% larger than modern man. They were the first to bury their dead, complete with flowers and artifacts. Were they cunning beasts? Or were they gentle and intelligent people? And what happened to them?" Adapted from onelife.com 31,000 BC: Start of the Aurignacian/Chatelperronian Cultural Tradition of the Upper Paleolithic (in Europe) Palomar College Anthropology Home Page

30,000 BC to 25,000 BC

28,000 BC: The Earth's climate system entered another big freeze-up; temperatures fell, deserts expanded and ice sheets spread across the northern latitudes much as they had done 70,000 years ago. This cold and arid phase which reached its most extreme point sometime around [19,000-15,000 BC] is known as the Last Glacial Cold Stage (and is sometimes called the Upper Pleniglacial)." "A quick background to the last ice age" Paleolithic peoples in Central Europe and France use tallies on the bones of animals, ivory, and stone to record numbers; for example, a wolf bone from this period shows 55 cuts arranged in groups of 5. [Hellemans p.5] Beads, bracelets, and pendants are worn by humans [Hellemans p.5]. Fired ceramics appear in what is now Czechoslovakia, although ceramics are not used to make pots until 20,000 years later. [Hellemans p.5] Foraging Societies: From 30,000 BC c. 30,000 to 25,000 BC: Woman of Willendorf [David W. Koeller, dkoeller@northpark.edu] c. 27,000 to 23,000 BC: Dolni Vestonice [David W. Koeller, dkoeller@northpark.edu]

25,000 BC to 20,000 BC

25,000 BC: Start of the Gravettian Cultural Tradition of the Upper Paleolithic (in Europe) Palomar College Anthropology Home Page 23,000-13,000 BC: full glacial world, cold and dry; Stage 2 (includes the 'Last Glacial Maximum'). This period includes the two 'coldest phases' -- Heinrich Events -- at around [21,000-19,000 BC] and at [15,000-12,500 BC] "A quick background to the last ice age" Music is produced by humans in what is now France; archaeological evidence includes cave paintings, footprints in caves that seem to be those of dancers, and carved bones that seem to be wind and percussion instruments. [Hellemans p.5] People make artifacts with primitive geometrical designs. [Hellemans p.5] 25,000 - 12,000 BC: Venus Figures [David W. Koeller, dkoeller@northpark.edu] The Venus figurines, small statues of faceless pregnant women with large breasts and buttocks, are made in Europe. They will continue to be manufactured for the next 2,000 years. [Hellemans p.5] People in what is now Poland are the first to use the boomerang, about 13,000 years before the first Australian boomerangs; the early Polish boomerang is made from mammoth tusk. [Hellemans p.5] The sewing needle is in use in southwestern France, and tailored clothing is known from what is now the Soviet Union. [Hellemans p.5] The bow and arrow are invented, according to evidence from sites at Parpallo (Spain), and the Sahara; stone points from Parpallo appear to be tips of arrows; drawings are found at the North African site; other evidence, however, suggests a later origin, perhaps as late as 8,000 BC. [Hellemans p.5]

20,000 BC to 10,000 BC

21,000-19,000 BC: one of the two 'coldest phases' -- Heinrich Events "A quick background to the last ice age" 19,000 BC: Start of the Solutrean Cultural Tradition of the Upper Paleolithic (in Europe) Palomar College Anthropology Home Page 20,000-18,000 BC: Last Ice Age 18,000 BC: Last Glacial Maximum (coldest depths of the last Ice Age), based on Carbon-14 evidence www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nerc.html People inhabiting caves in what are now Israel and Jordan use notches in bones to record sequences of numbers; the devices are thought to function primarily as lunar calendars. [Hellemans p.6] By about this time or by 13,000 BC the spear thrower and the harpoon are invented. [Hellemans p.6] People make wall paintings in caves, for example, in the cave of Lascaux, France. [Hellemans p.6] The first-known artifact with a map on it is made of bone at what is now Mezhirich, USSR; it appears to show the region immediately around the site at which it was found. [Hellemans p.6] Rope is in use, according to evidence at Lascaux, France. [Hellemans p.6] 18,000 BC: Chauvet cave, France [David W. Koeller, dkoeller@northpark.edu] 17,000 BC: people planting "emmer grain" The Food Timeline EMMER: Origin and Taxonomy The sites of origin of emmer are considered to be similar to einkorn, within the regions of the Near East (Nevo 1988). Wild emmer T. dicoccoides, like wild einkorn is distinguished by the brittleness of the rachis, which disarticulate when mature. The rachis of cultivated emmer T. dicoccum is less fragile and tends to remain intact until threshed. The genomic constituents of emmer are described in Table 1. The genomic constitution AA of emmer is thought to be derived from T. monococcum. Various sources of the BB genome have been suggested, T. speltoides, T. searsii, and T. tripsacoides (Morris and Sears 1967; Kimber and Sears 1987). Emmers are predominantly awned with spikelets consisting of two well developed kernels. Emmer glumes are long and narrow with sharp beaks. The use of emmer as a cereal food is considered to be contemporary with that of einkorn. Similar to einkorn, the earliest civilizations initially consumed emmer as a porridge prior to developing the process of bread making. Remnants of wild emmer in early civilization sites date to the late Paleolithic Age 17,000 BC (Zohary and Hopf 1993). Cultivated emmer emerged as the predominant wheat along with barley as the principal cereals utilized by civilizations in the late Mesolithic, and early Neolithic Ages 10,000 BC (Helmqvist 1955; Harlan 1981; Zohary and Hopf 1993). Cultivated emmer dispersion and use by early civilizations greatly exceeded that of einkorn. Due to the addition of the BB genome cultivated emmer could be grown in a wider range of environments including regions having high growing season temperatures. Cultivated emmer became the dominant wheat throughout the Near and Far East, Europe, and Northern Africa from the Neolithic (Stone Age) through the Bronze Age 10,000-4,000 BC. Emmer utilization continued through the Bronze Age 4,000-1,000 BC, during which the naked wheats, primarily the tetraploid species slowly displaced emmer. However, emmer continued to be popular in isolated regions such as south central Russia into the early 1900s. Presently emmer remains an important crop in Ethiopia and a minor crop in India and Italy (Harlan 1981; Perrino and Hammer 1982). 16,000 BC: people planting "einkorn grain" The Food Timeline EINKORN: Origin and Taxonomy Einkorn is thought to have originated in the upper area of the fertile crescent of the Near East (Tigris-Euphrates regions). Wild einkorn Triticum boeoticum includes both the single grain T. aegilopoides and the two grain T. thaoudar and T. urartu. Cultivated einkorn is T. monococcum, and like wild einkorn has the genome constitution AA (Table 1). In cereal crops the head (inflorescence) if unbranched is called a spike. The spike consists of flowers (spikelets) arranged on the rachis (which is an extension of the stem). The flowers (spikelets) arise from nodes along the rachis which are called rachilla. The spikelet is enclosed by bracts, the glumes, or chaff. The kernels within the spikelet as enclosed in bracts, the lemma, and palea. As an example, kernels of free threshing wheats thresh free of the bracts; barley threshes free of the glumes, while lemma and palea make up the hull of the kernel; einkorn, emmer, and spelt thresh with the complete spikelet intact. A classification and description of Triticum sp. is outlined by Briggle and Reitz (1963). The wild and cultivated einkorn are differentiated by the brittleness of the rachis. The rachis of wild einkorn is brittle and the spikelets readily disarticulate when mature, whereas the rachis of cultivated einkorn is less fragile and remains intact until thrashed. Einkorn along with emmer and spelt are often referred to as "the covered wheats," since the kernels do not thresh free of the glumes or the lemma and palea when harvested (Fig. 1). In contrast to the free threshing wheats, the spikes of einkorn disarticulate at threshing (the seed head breaks apart into intact spikelets). The spikes disarticulate with the rachilla apex attached to the base of the spikelet. Einkorn has long narrow glumes which are awned. Cultivated einkorn generally has one kernel per spikelet. Einkorn became widely distributed throughout the Near East, Transcaucasia, the Mediterranean region, southwestern Europe, and the Balkans, and was one of the first cereals cultivated for food. Harlan (1981), cites information suggesting that wild einkorn grain was harvested in the late Paleolithic and early Mesolithic Ages, 16,000-15,000 BC. Confirmed finds of wild grain remains have been dated to the early Neolithic (Stone Age) 10,000 BC. (Helmqvist 1955; Zohary and Hopf 1993). Cultivated einkorn continued to be a popular cultivated crop during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age 10,000-4,000 BC giving way to emmer by the mid-Bronze Age. Einkorn cultivation continued to be popular in isolated regions from the Bronze Age into the early 20th century. Today, einkorn production is limited to small isolated regions within France, India, Italy, Turkey, and Yugoslavia (Harlan 1981; Perrino and Hammer 1982). 16,000-9,000 BC: Altamira Cave Paintings There are three major sites containing cave paintings in Northern Spain which are presumed to have been painted by the Magdalenian people between 16,000-9,000 BC. Spanish archeologist Don Marcelino first discovered the caves at Altamira with their unique showcase of cave paintings. The paintings are located in the deep recesses of caves in the mountains of Northern Spain, far out of the reach of the destructive forces of wind and water. Thus these paintings have undergone little change from when they were first painted 11,000-19,000 years ago. The wall illustrations are not the only signs of human habitation here. Tools, hearths and food remains were preserved here for thousands of years. Altamira is the only site of cave paintings in which the signs of domestic life extend into the first cavern which contain the actual paintings. Oddly, the walls and ceilings of the Altamira caves lack the soot deposits which have been found in other similar caves. This might suggest that the people at Altamira had slightly more advanced lighting technology which gave off less smoke and soot than the torches and fat lamps which Paleolithic people are given credit for. The paintings at Altamira primarily focus on bison. We can infer that bison were important because of the hunt. They were hunted primarily for the food they provided, but many other useful commodities like skin, bones and fur could be extracted from the remains of such a large animal. The ceiling painting is of 15 large bison with a few interspersed animals including a horse. The groups of animals portrayed, particularly those on the walls, are of bison, deer, wild boar, and other combinations which do not normally aggregate in nature. These pictures are of the animals only and contain no landscape or horizontal base. What means did ancient peoples use to paint on the walls? The paints used for these creations were derived from natural earth pigments like ochre and zinc oxides. The paintings at Altamira boast of as many as three colors in the body of a single animal--a significant advance in technical skill over most cave artistry. This technical skill is further reflected in the accuracy of the physical proportions of depicted animals. Another advance in technical development at Altamira is that many of the animals are painted on natural protrusions from the rock face; most samples of cave painting ignore the natural character of the rock concentrating on only one dimension. The paintings at Altamira are unique from other cave paintings in many ways. The technical skill of the Magdalenian people set the Altamira paintings apart from the rest. For they employed many different colors, where others used only one. They used the facets of rock to complement the animal design instead of painting a flat picture. They discovered more advanced lighting approaches. And finally, they were fortunate enough to have resided in caves so remote that all their hard work and creativity would remain unscathed for thousands of years. Archaeologists, historians, sociologists and students are just a few of the people who have learned more about ancient people through these masterpieces at Altamira. Bibliography: Hadingham, Evan, Secrets of the Ice Age: The World of the Cave Artists, (Walker and Company: New York, 1979) Ucko, Peter J. and Rosenfeld, Andrew, Paleolithic Cave Art, (McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, 1967.) Edited by: Sarah D. Nietering, snieter@northpark.edu Researched by: Susan J. Blauwkamp, sblauwk@northpark.edu Written by: Matthew S. Johnson, mjohnso4@northpark.edu September 26, 1996 15,000-12,500 BC: one of the two 'coldest phases' -- Heinrich Events "A quick background to the last ice age" 15,000 BC: Start of the Magdalanian Cultural Tradition of the Upper Paleolithic (in Europe) Palomar College Anthropology Home Page 15,000 BC: Lascaux cave paintings [David W. Koeller, dkoeller@northpark.edu] c. 14,000 to 10,000 BC: Altamira Cave Paintings [David W. Koeller] 13,000-7,900 BC: The Paleoindian Period "The Storyteller" North American Paleoindian Projectile Point Database, by David G. Anderson and Michael K. Faught NATIONAL PARK UNITS: Evidence of Paleoindian period occupations has been found in Big South Fork National River And Recreation Area, Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area, Mammoth Cave National Park, Ocmulgee National Monument, and Russell Cave National Monument. Overview The current view of the Paleoindian period envisions bands of hunters entering the North American continent (circa 13,000 B.C.) by crossing a land bridge that connected eastern Siberia with Alaska. The land bridge was created during the Late Pleistocene by continent-sized glaciers, which, when created, drew water from the oceans' lowering sea levels by some 120 meters. It would appear that these same glaciers prevented these immigrants from expanding into the rest of the North American continent until about 12,000 B.C. The best diagnostic archeological evidence for these early Paleoindian bands are long, fluted chipped stone projectile (likely spear) points. These early points are named "Clovis" after the Clovis, New Mexico archeological site where the point type was first recognized in association with Late Pleistocene fauna. Within only a few hundred years after 10,000 B.C., the Paleoindians appear to have occupied most of the North American continent and the Southeast. Since 1960, archeological studies of the river basin projects, as well as statewide studies of Paleoindian point finds and site distributions in the Southeast, have led to refinements in the sequencing of point types and attempts to reconstruct Paleoindian cultural activities. Excavations at Paleoindian sites, better dating techniques, and study of the distribution of Paleoindian point types and the Late Pleistocene environment have led archeologists to develop new models for Paleoindian occupation in the Southeast-- now broken down into three subperiods between 9500 and 7900 B.C. For additional information, visit: [hotlinks] A North American Paleoindian Projectile Point Database, by David G. Anderson and Michael K. Faught A North American Paleoindian Database: Fluted Point Densities Florida Historical Contexts: The Paleoindian Period Cultural periods represented in Tennessee 1998 Allendale [S.C.] PaleoIndian Expedition Clovis Underwater '98 - FSU Underwater Archaeology Summer Project Kennewick Man and other Paleo discussions from the Smithsonian's Arctic Studies Center Paleolndian and Upper Paleolithic Links "Virginia's Indians, Past & Present," Internet School Library Media Center 12,600 BC: Pollen Record From Chilean Lakes Indicates Global "Togetherness" During Last Ice Age Source: University Of Cincinnati (http://www.uc.edu) Date: Posted 2/15/2001 Northern and Southern Hemisphere climate changes occurred at nearly the same time during the Earth's last ice ages, according to data reported in the Feb. 15, 2001 issue of the journal Nature. The research team included: Patricio I. Moreno of the Universidad de Chile, Geologist Thomas Lowell of the University of Cincinnati, George L. Jacobson, Jr. and George H. Denton of the University of Maine The group cored three lakes in southern Chile in hopes of resolving a long-standing question: Were the Northern and Southern Hemisphere glaciations and associated climate changes in sync with each other, or did the climate change in a see-saw pattern with northern ice sheets driving climate change later in the south? More recently, a third pattern was suggested, indicating that climate changed first in the Southern Hemisphere. To help answer those questions, the group obtained pollen records tracking changes in vegetation from 13,000 years to 10,000 years ago. Lake after lake, the results produced the same pattern. The southern mid-latitudes were warming and cooling at the same time as the North Atlantic. "All records show the same timing, character, and direction of climate change in the mid-latitudes during the end of the last glacial cycle," said Lowell. "These events [in Chile] were nearly synchronous with important paleoclimate changes recorded in the North Atlantic region," wrote Moreno, "supporting the idea that interhemispheric linkage through the atmosphere was the primary control on climate during the last deglaciation. The new data is part of an exhaustive data set with over 500 radiocarbon dates from geological and biological samples taken from the Lake District of Chile. In the present study, Moreno tracked the expansion and contraction of forests of the cold-resistant tree types Nothofagus and Podocarpus nubigena. The researchers chose the Lake District of southern Chile for their studies, because its geography and geology make it highly unlikely that the region could be directly influenced by the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic ocean currents. "So, if we find similar climate patterns in this region, that indicates the cause must be something global or atmospheric in nature. The North Atlantic ice sheets and iceberg 'armadas' could not be the driving force," explained Lowell. The same pattern was seen in climatic warming. Previous research by the same team showed an abrupt withdrawal of Andean piedmont glacier lobes 14,600 years ago at the same time northern ice sheets were retreating. "Our results suggest that mid-latitude climate in the Southern Hemisphere changed in unison with the North Atlantic region. We are continuing to verify that pattern with an ongoing study in New Zealand," said Lowell. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation, NOAA, the National Geographic Society, the Geological Society of America, and a Fondecyt grant in Chile. Lowell is in New Zealand this month continuing his field work. Editor's Note: The original news release can be found at http://www.uc.edu/news/chileice.htm Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by University Of Cincinnati for journalists and other members of the public. If you wish to quote from any part of this story, please credit University Of Cincinnati as the original source. You may also wish to include the following link in any citation: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/02/010215074925.htm 12,500 BC: "rapid warming and moistening of climates in some areas. Rapid deglaciation begins." "A quick background to the last ice age" 11,500 BC: "Nearly all areas with climates at least as warm and moist as today's" "A quick background to the last ice age" 10,800 BC (+/- 200 years): "Rapid onset of cool, dry Younger Dryas in many areas.” "A quick background to the last ice age"

10,000 BC to 9,000 BC

10,000 to 4,000 BC: Painted Pottery Bowl (China) [David W. Koeller] The dog is domesticated in Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Canaan (Isreal). [Hellemans p.6] Houses of sun-dried brick held together without mortar are built in Jericho (Israeli-occupied Jordan). [Hellemans p.6] c. 10,000 BC: Beginnings of Settled Agriculture 10,000 BC: First agricultural villages 10,000 BC: Invention of the bow and arrow 10,000 BC: Dogs and reindeer are domesticated 10,000 BC: Beginnings of settled agriculture 10,000 BC: Earliest pottery (Japan) [Copyright 1996-9 by David W. Koeller. dkoeller@northpark.edu. All rights reserved.] Beginnings of Settled Agriculture 9,500 BC: (+/- 200 years): "Younger Dryas ends suddenly, back to warmth and moist climates (Holocene, or Stage 1)" "A quick background to the last ice age" 9,500-9,000 BC: The Paleoindian Period Early Paleoindian (9500 B.C. to 9000 B.C.) The first subperiod, Early Paleoindian, is characterized by Clovis or Clovis-like large fluted stone points. It is believed that the distribution of these points throughout all the environmental zones in the Southeast represents the initial exploration and colonization of the region. Great mobility of the Paleoindians of this subperiod is suggested by the finding of stone tools and debitage traded or transported by these small bands over hundreds of kilometers from their quarry source. The Southeast, at this time, consisted of three broad environmental zones, running west to east. They were cool-climate boreal forests, temperate oak-hickory-pine forests, and subtropical sandy scrub. The last area was confined to the Florida peninsula and the coastal plain in the Southeast, which extended several kilometers outward from its present location due to the lower sea level. Megafauna of the Late Pleistocene was found in these three environmental zones.

9,000 BC to 8,000 BC

9000 BC: The first farmers: Theories and Old World evidence World Prehistory: Class 8 (c) Copyright Bruce Owen 2000 Places, dates, crops where agriculture may have started relatively independently Fertile crescent, especially the Levant, in Southwest Asia 9000 - 8000 BC wheat, barley, peas, lentils sheep, goats, cattle, pigs Sub-saharan Africa after 2000 BC rice, sorghum, millet Eastern North America by 1000 BC marsh elder, sunflower, goosefoot maize much later, an introduction from the south 9,000-8,500 BC: The Paleoindian Period Middle Paleoindian (9000 B.C. to 8500 B.C.) The second subperiod, the Middle Paleoindian, is characterized by a number of fluted and unfluted points, both larger and smaller than Clovis points. The point types of this subperiod in the Southeast are Cumberland, Redstone, Suwannee, Beaver Lake, Quad, Coldwater, and Simpson. This subperiod is viewed as a time when the population was adapting to optimum environmental resource zones instead of randomly moving throughout the Southeast. Concentration on specific zones and resources may account for the variation in the stone points of this subperiod. 8,500-7,900 BC: The Paleoindian Period Late Paleoindian (8500 B.C. to 7900 B.C.) The last subperiod, the Late Paleoindian, is characterized by Dalton and other side-notched-style points. The replacement of fluted point forms by nonfluted points is believed to reflect a change in the adaptive strategy, away from hunting Late Pleistocene megafauna toward a more generalized hunting of small, modern game, such as deer, and a collecting subsistence strategy within the southern pine forests as they replaced the boreal forests. Chert deposits may have attracted Paleoindian groups of this subperiod to specific locales in order to replenish their stone tools. Such a tendency may have constrained these groups to a specific landscape, setting the stage for the intensive regional specialization that characterized the succeeding Archaic Period. It is possible that large Paleoindian sites in the Southeast are permanent or semipermanent base camps from which resources of specific territories were exploited. Trade or transportation of stone tools appear to decrease as Late Paleoindian groups relied on local materials for their needs. 8,500 BC: The History of Cyprus in 90 Centuries "As a fertile island, Cyprus is unsurpassed, for it produces good wine, good oil and also enough corn for its own use. In Tamassos there are, moreover, a large number of copper mines, containing copper sulphates as well as copper oxide, which is suitable for medical purposes. Eratosthenes [3rd Cent BC] tells us that in ancient times the plains used to be covered with dense forest and, as a result, could not be cultivated, but the mines remedied the situation, for the inhabitants chopped down the trees in order to smelt copper and silver. Eratosthenes also says that shipbuilding was a further reason for deforestation, for the sea was a traffic route, sometimes for whole merchant fleets. Since the islanders were unable, in spite of this, to master the sheer extent of the forest on the island, they allowed anyone who was willing and able to fell trees to adopt the land thus won as their own property, without having to pay any taxes." - Strabo 14.6.5 [AD 19] - Strabo of Amasia, Greek historian and geographer Cyprus is a young forward looking country with its roots in the Classical Greek period and stretching back over 90 centuries into the mists of prehistory and legend. Cyprus lies at the crossroads of great civilisations. It has had a tumultuous past, its history is primarily that of occupation. The conquerors have had a strong influence on the Cypriot character, leaving an impression on the land, in the arts and forming the bedrock of Cypriot culture. Only in its recent history has Cyprus gained independence. An independence that has not been without a heavy price. Cyprus today is a divided island, with the northern part occupied by Turkey. Epipaleolithic 8500 - 7000 BC There is no hard evidence for the first human habitation on Cyprus. There is some evidence of communities existing before 6000 BC, but these seem to have come and gone leaving little trace of their existence. Contemporary with these communities were settled communities on the Syrian and Anatolian coasts dating back to before 7000 BC. The earliest known date of man on Cyprus is a tool kit found in a cave in the Akrotiri Peninsula. Radio carbon dating gives a date of 8500 BC. This could have been a passing hunter after pygmy hippopotami - now extinct. The Maya make astronomical inscriptions and constructions in Central America. [Hellemans p.6] A marked bone from this time (or as late as 6,500 BC) found in Ishango (Zaire) is probably used as a record of months and lunar phases. [Hellemans p.6] Goats and sheep are domesticated in Persia (Iran) and Afghanistan. [Hellemans p.7] Emmer wheat and barley are cultivated in Canaan (Israel). [Hellemans p.7]

8,000 BC to 7,000 BC

8,000-5,000 BC: The Anasazi's Ancestors from 8,000 to 5,000 B.C. by John Kantner The Early Holocene in the northern Southwest represents a long fluctuating trend of decreasing moisture. Mesic forests were gradually replaced by pinon and juniper woodlands while areas formally occupied by pinon and juniper gave way to grasslands and desert shrub. Paleoenvironmental data suggest that these changes were accompanied by a climate shift in which most moisture occurred in winter. Between 6,500 and 6,000 B.C., the rate of desiccation increased, and grasslands retreated towards the east to be replaced by semi-arid desert shrub. By 5,000 B.C., the climate in the northern Southwest was much like it is there today. Archaeologists label the period beginning in 8,000 B.C. as the "Early Archaic." Unlike the earlier Paleoindian mammoth and bison hunters, Archaic people became less mobile, more dependent on a wide variety of local food resources, and more culturally diverse. Through the entire Archaic, people tended to follow the pinon-juniper woodlands as they retreated towards the north and into the richer valleys and basins found at higher elevations. During the Early Archaic, a broad continuum of interacting cultures occupied a large area of the Southwest. Labeled the "Picosa Culture" by Cynthia Irwin-Williams, this early tradition was characterized by small sites with no structures. A study of projectile points by W. Wills of UNM suggests that people were increasingly focusing on local lithic materials, indicating a decrease in mobility, while the multipurpose and overdesigned quality of the points to a foraging lifestyle. Wills also notes that the designs of these points were consistent over a large area, indicating that Archaic populations were not competing with one another and not maintaining symbolic boundaries through the use of different projectile point styles. However, although people in the Southwest during this time shared many features, regional differences did begin to develop as decreasing mobility led people to focus on unique local environments. Archaeologists believe that by 7,000 B.C., different traditions emerged. In western Arizona, southern California, and southern Nevada, unspecialized hunter-gatherers formed the San Dieguito-Pinto Tradition, while in southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, people of the Cochise Tradition increasingly hunted small mammals and ate plant materials processed using milling stones. Most relevant to the prehistory of the Anasazi, however, was the development of the Oshara Tradition in the Four Corners area of the Southwest. There is some debate over the origins of the Oshara Tradition, for some archaeologists believe that the Cody Complex was gone by 6,000 B.C. and that the Oshara Tradition that emerges around 6,400 B.C. is so different from the Cody Complex that there must not be any connection between them. Whether this indicates actual population movements or not is difficult to determine with the available data, but there is some similarity between early Oshara cultural material and artifacts associated with Great Basin traditions to the north. The first phase of the Oshara Tradition is known as the Desha Complex, which lasted from 6,000 to 5,000 B.C. primarily in southern Utah and northern Arizona. Cultural material associated with Desha people includes elongated side-notched points, basketry and sandals, and some groundstone. This artifact assemblage suggests that the Desha were moving on a seasonal basis and eating a variety of plants and animals. This was confirmed by a study of over 200 coprolites, or preserved human feces, that were recovered from Dust Devil Cave in New Mexico. These coprolites were analyzed by archaeologist Van Ness (**), who found a wide variety of plant and animal remains that suggested that the cave was occupied in the winter or the spring. In addition to a diet high in rabbit, a variety of plants such as dropseed, prickly pear, chenopodium, sunflower, and pinon were found in the coprolites. In a similar study by Matson and Chisholm (1991), carbon isotope analyses of a Desha skeleton revealed a diet in which 40% of the protein came from C4 or CAM plants, perhaps from the many chenopod and cactus species found in the Southwest. Unfortunately, the study could not determine whether these proteins were obtained directly from the plants or from animals that ate C4 and CAM plants. The Desha pattern of seasonal mobility and localized adaptation is readily apparent when one looks at other sites from the Four Corners area. In Sudden Shelter in Utah, archaeologists discovered a large quantity of groundstone and a variety of small seeds including chenopod species, amaranths, grasses, and cacti. However, mammal remains were a major focus, with 70% of meat coming from mule deer. At Cowboy Cave, groundstone and plant remains dominated, while fewer mammal remains and chipped stone artifacts were recovered. The emphasis here appears too have been on the processing of plants, and a study of coprolites from the cave showed that people had been eating sunflower seeds and dropseed. Overall, the picture of Desha life suggests that these Early Archaic people tended to focus on hunting at the high-altitude sites and gathering plant foods at the low-altitude sites. This is a pattern known as "seasonal transhumance," in which a group of people seasonally moves between two different environmental zones. In the case of the Desha, the evidence suggests that even though they regularly returned to the same area, they did not routinely occupy the exact same sites every year and therefore were likely associated with fairly large territories. By the end of the Early Archaic period, attention shifted south to the central areas of the Colorado Plateau. Here a new tradition, the Jay Phase, developed between 5,500 and 4,800 B.C. Characterized by large, slightly shouldered points and well-made knives and scrapers, the Jay Phase represented a further decrease in mobility and a cessation of seasonal transhumance. People instead built base camps that were strategically situated at canyon-heads where three microhabitats converged, and they focused on the year-round exploitation of a fixed group of resources. As a result, their activities became more "logistical"; instead of wandering around and foraging for whatever food they might find, each excursion was more focused on obtaining a specific resource. For example, from their base camp, Jay Phase people might have focused on the low mesas to find grass seeds, or they might have gone to a specific pond in the mountains to hunt for deer, or they traveled to a special canyon to obtain raw material for making stone tools. The result was a series of specialized activity sites that were occupied very briefly and that now contain a very narrow range of artifacts, making it difficult for archaeologists to identify. One remaining point of interest regarding groups in the later Early Archaic period is that their projectile points were extremely consistent over a large area. Some archaeologists believe that this stylistic homogeneity may indicate a correspondingly homogeneous social organization. This evidence suggests that Jay Phase groups interacted with one another over a fairly large area, perhaps developing exchange relationships that allowed them to acquire resources from far away. Other Relevant Internet Resources: The Jay Phase Contact me if you know of any other appropriate resources. This page has been visited 3090 times since Thursday, September 9, 1999. It was last modified on Thursday, September 9, 1999. Copyright © John Kantner How to Cite Internet Resources References to web sites should read as follows: Author. "The title of the page." [the URL]. The date of your visit. So, references to this page should read: Kantner, John. "Sipapu--The Anasazi's Ancestors from 8,000 to 5,000 B.C.." [http://sipapu.ucsb.edu/timeline/]. 9/25/00. 7,000-6,200 BC: "climates warmer and often moister than today's" "A quick background to the last ice age" Potatoes are domesticated in Peru [Hellemans p.7] Beans are domesticated in Peru [Hellemans p.7] Pumpkins are domesticated in middle America [Hellemans p.7] Rice is domesticated in Indochina [Hellemans p.7] Floodwater agriculture is used in the Nile valley and in southwestern Asia [Hellemans p.7] c. 7,000: Beginning of Settled Agricultural Revolution in Mesopotamia [David W. Koeller] People in Mesopotamia use clay tokens to record numbers of animals and measures of grain; this practice gradually develops over the next 5,000 years into the first system of numeration and the first writing. [Hellemans p.7]

7,000 BC to 6,000 BC

7000 BC: Japan's Jomon Period Japan's new stone age The oldest pottery in the world (Jomon pottery) was discovered in Japan. The sources of livelihood: hunting, fishing, and gathering. 7000 - 3900 BC: Cyprus, Stone Age The History of Cyprus in 90 Centuries The first settlers came to Cyprus during the Neolithic or Stone Age, possibly on rafts from Asia Minor. One of the largest known settlements was at Khirokitia where the remains of 'beehive' stone houses can be found. Other remains can be found at Kastros and Tentra. 7000 - 4500 BC: Cyprus, Neolithic IA The History of Cyprus in 90 Centuries Known as the Aceramic. The settlement of Chirokitia dates from this period, also Kalvassos and Frenaros. 6,200 BC: "sudden cool and dry phase in many areas" "A quick background to the last ice age" The Pig and the water buffalo are domesticated in eastern Asia and China [Hellemans p.7] The chicken is domesticated in southern Asia [Hellemans p.7] Einkorn wheat is cultivated in Syria [Hellemans p.7] Durham (macaroni) wheat is cultivated in Anatolia (Turkey) [Hellemans p.7] Flax is cultivated in southwestern Asia [Hellemans p.7] Sugar cane is being grown in New Guinea [Hellemans p.7] Yams, bananas, coconuts are being grown in Indonesia [Hellemans p.7] Domesticated cattle are found in southeastern Anatolia (Turkey) [Hellemans p.7] Farming based on corn (maize), squash, beans, and peppers is practiced in the Tehuacan valley of Mexico [Hellemans p.7] 6,000 BC: Jericho [David W. Koeller] People at Jericho are now using mortar along with sun-dried bricks to build houses [Hellemans p.7] People in various sites in the Near East and what is now Turkey make pottery from clay. [Hellemans p.7] The oldest known woven mats are made in Beidha (Jordan); basketry probably began much earlier. [Hellemans p.7] Weaving of cloth is known in Anatolia (Turkey); the first known samples of cloth are from the early city Catal Huyuk. [Hellemans p.7] 6,000 BC: Beginning of Settled Agriculture in the Nile River Valley [David W. Koeller] 6,000 BC: Village of Ban Po in China [David W. Koeller] 6,000 BC: The first farmers: Theories and Old World evidence World Prehistory: Class 8 (c) Copyright Bruce Owen 2000 North-central China by 6000 BC: millet New Guinea maybe by 6000 BC, or earlier digging stick in field dated to 6000 BC... probably for yams c. 6,000 to 3,000: Settled Agriculture in India [David W. Koeller] c. 6,000 BC: The Tassili rock paintings, in what is now southeast Algeria, show a structured culture of herders (horses and cattle) and hunters; this was probably part of a civilization whose influenced covered much of what is today's Sahara desert. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788]

6,000 BC to 5,000 BC

6,000-2,500 BC: "climates somewhat warmer and moister than today's" "A quick background to the last ice age" Modern type domesticated bread wheat and lentils are cultivated in southwestern Asia. [Hellemans p.7] Citrus fruit is cultivated in Indochina. [Hellemans p.7] Bullrush millet is cultivated in southern Algeria. [Hellemans p.7] Finger millet is cultivated in Ethiopia. [Hellemans p.7] Foxtail millet and peaches are cultivated in central China. [Hellemans p.7] Squash is cultivated in Mexico. [Hellemans p.7] Irrigation is used in Mesopotamia. [Hellemans p.7] Chinchorro Indians on what is now the coastline of Chile and Peru produce human mummies that survive until today [Hellemans p.7] ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Found: Possible Pre-Flood Artifacts By Warren E. Leary The New York Times [September 13, 2000] WASHINGTON, Sept. 12 "Scientists said today that they had discovered remnants of human habitation under the Black Sea that they believe is the first proof that people thrived along an ancient shoreline before it was inundated by a great flood thousands of years ago." "Dr. Robert D. Ballard, the undersea explorer whose robotic devices have resolved many underwater mysteries, including the resting place of the Titanic, said an expedition he is leading had discovered a well-preserved structure that might be thousands of years old 12 miles off the coast of Turkey, near Sinop." "An underwater robot, scouting about 300 feet below the surface two days ago, found a rectangular area measuring about 12 feet by 45 feet on which there appeared to be a collapsed wood and clay structure." " 'Artifacts at the site are clearly well preserved, with carved wooden beams, wooden branches and stone tools collapsed amongst the mud matrix of the structure,' Dr. Ballard said." "The expedition, sponsored by the National Geographic Society and others, is part of a project to survey the coastal waters of northern Turkey for signs of human settlement around the time of a great flood. Some scholars believe that such a flood inspired the biblical story of Noah; it may also be the source of the flood tale in the Babylonian story of Gilgamesh." "Using sonar equipment, the expedition has mapped large areas of the coastline and found hundreds of potential targets to examine more closely with the underwater robots operated from the research ship Northern Horizon." "In a telephone interview from the ship, Dr. Ballard said the site near Sinop could be the first of many in the area that could answer questions about the habits and lifestyles of a little-known ancient culture suddenly uprooted and forced to flee by flooding water." "'Now that we know what these sites look like on sonar, now that we recognize their signatures, we're regrouping to continue the search,' he said, noting that the target area was about 200 square miles of what would have been livable terrain before the flood. Researchers have already identified a second site seven miles away. Pieces of ceramics suggest that it, too, may have been an inhabited area, he said." "Dr. Fredrik T. Hiebert of the University of Pennsylvania, chief archaeologist on the project, also was enthusiastic about the find, occurring two weeks into the five-week mission. 'This is a discovery of world importance,' Dr. Hiebert said from the ship. 'We have the first site with direct evidence of human occupation on the old coast.' "'Now we can say there were people living around the Black Sea when it was a freshwater lake before it was flooded.'" "Dr. Hiebert said the underwater structure closely resembled the wood-and-clay 'wattle and daub' buildings still common in the area. 'This style is distinctively Black Sea,' he said." "'This discovery will begin to rewrite the history of cultures in this key area between Europe, Asia and the ancient Middle East,' he said." "Dr. Ballard said earlier studies of seashells from the area helped to date the underwater coastline. Shells from an extinct type of freshwater creature are all 7,000 years old or older, and shells from saltwater shellfish date from 6,500 years ago.' "'We know that there was a sudden and dramatic change from a freshwater lake to a saltwater sea 7,000 years ago,' he said, 'And we know that as a result of that flood a vast amount of land went underwater.'" "Dr. William B. F. Ryan and Dr. Walter C. Pitman 3rd, two geologists at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., a branch of Columbia University, speculated in their 1997 book, Noah's Flood (Simon & Schuster), that melting European glaciers at the end of an ice age unleashed a great flood that changed a small freshwater lake into the saltwater Black Sea." "According to the book, melting glaciers raised the level of the Mediterranean, causing water to break through the narrow Bosporus and rapidly flood the lake. Water poured in so rapidly, the Columbia researchers said, that it would have widened the surface of the lake by as much as a mile a day, submerging the original shoreline and causing any population to flee." "Dr. Ryan said in an interview that he was thrilled to hear of Dr. Ballard's discovery and was surprised that evidence of human habitation on the old shore had been found so quickly." "Dr. Ryan likened the discovery to finding Pompeii, the ancient city buried by Mount Vesuvius. 'Peel away the ash of Vesuvius and you see life on the day of the eruption,' he said. 'Here you have Neolithic life on the day of the flood.'" "Dr. Ballard said that no artifacts had been removed from the first site and that it would not be disturbed until it was thoroughly mapped. The first priority, he said, is finding and mapping more sites." "'We're just beginning our work and understanding what we have here,' he said. 'At some point, after we fulfill all the requirements of mapping the site, we hope to recover some artifacts to learn what kind of people lived here.'" "Dr. Jerome L. Hall, president of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University, praised Dr. Ballard's work." "'According to the scientific method, you formulate a hypothesis, in this case the flood spillage theory for the Black Sea, and then you test it,' Dr. Hall said. "One test is finding remnants of a civilization that was affected and looking for evidence to support the flood theory. This is how you do good science.'" ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5,000 BC to 4,000 BC

See above millennium for evidence of what may have been Noah's Flood. c. 5,000 to 3,000 BC: Settled Agriculture in China [David W. Koeller] 5000 BC: The first farmers: Theories and Old World evidence World Prehistory: Class 8 (c) Copyright Bruce Owen 2000 Southern China and southeast Asia before 5000 BC rice probably also root crops, maybe even earlier Mexico before 5000 BC gourds, squash, avocados, peppers, beans, corn may not have needed much meat turkeys and dogs domesticated The Sumerians enter Mesopotamia and start a civilization that will introduce cuneiform writing to that region. [Hellemans p.8] The Egyptian calendar, the first known based on 365 days [12 months of 30 days and 5 days of festival, starting with the day that Sirius, the Dog Star, rises in line with the Sun in the morning, which coincides with the annual flood of the Nile] is possibly instituted (from astronomical evidence only) as early as 4,241 BC, although it may be about 1,500 years later. [Hellemans p.8] 5,000 to 2,700 BC: Yangshao culture in China [David W. Koeller] Yangshao Culture (chart) Arts of the Yangshao Period The llama and alpaca are domesticated in Peru [Hellemans p.9] Avocados are grown in Mexico [Hellemans p.9] Date palms are cultivated in India [Hellemans p.9] The horse is domesticated in the Ukraine [Hellemans p.9] Cotton is grown in Mexico [Hellemans p.9] Sailing ships are known in Mesopotamia. [Hellemans p.9] Stone is used to construct buildings in Guernsey, an island in the English channel [Hellemans p.9] The Egyptians mine copper ores and smelt them. [Hellemans p.9] 4950-4440 BC: Agriculture arose independently in New Guinea, "at least 6950-6440 calibrated years before present." ["Origins of Agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of New Guinea", T. P. Denham et al., Science, July 2003] 4500 - 3900 BC: Cyprus, Neolithic IB The History of Cyprus in 90 Centuries Also known as early ceramic. The first examples of ceramic art date from this period. Examples of settlements are found at Idalion and Troulloi. 4500 - 3900 BC: Cyprus, Neolithic II The History of Cyprus in 90 Centuries This is the ceramic period - ceramics display a distinctive combed decoration. Excavations at Sotira and Kalavassos suggest migrations from Syria, Palestine or Asia Minor.

4,000 BC to 3,500 BC

ca. 4000 BC: The Culture of Vra in Europe [David W. Koeller] 4000 BC: Farm villages along the Danube River crafted stone statues of gods. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788] 4000 BC: Northern China had villages, mostly occupied by farmers of surrounding fields. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788] 4000 BC: Native North- and South-Americans, descended from Asians who'd crossed the land bridge across the Bering Strait long ago, hunted and cultivated corn. Archaological evidence of Mastodons driven to extinction, and arrowheads and spear points found in caves in Clovis and Folsom, New Mexico, establish that these natives lived in the New World for millennia -- how many millennia is subject to debate. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788] 4000 BC: Urbadians, already settled in southern Mesopotamia, started towns on the Tigris-Euphrates plain, which prepared the way for the city of Ur; semitic nomads from what is now Syria and Arabia invaded, and their genes mixed with those of the Urbadians. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788] Sumerian city of Ur is founded in Mesopotamia (Iraq) [Hellemans p.8] 3900 - 2500 BC: Chalcolithic, Cyprus Copper discovered but not widely exploited. This is a transition phase between the Stone and Bronze Ages. 3,500 BC: Sumerians, possibly emigrating from Asia, established settlements along the Euphrates river, which became the backbone of a strengthening civilization. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788] 3,500 BC: Beginning of Sumerian city-states [David W. Koeller] People in Mesopotamia fire bricks in kilns, although sun-dried brick continues to be used for ordinary purposes. [Hellemans p.9] According to Marija Gimbutas, horsemen from the Kurgan culture of southern Russia migrate to east central Europe, bringing the Indo-European language and male gods and displacing the "Old Europeans," a matrilineal people whose religion revolves around the Venus figurines, statues of women with exaggerated female secondary-sexual characteristics. [Hellemans p.8] Pictograms with 2,000 signs are used in Erech, Sumeria [Hellemans p.9] Wine and domesticated grapes are known in Turkestan [Hellemans p.9] Beer is known in Mesopotamia (Iraq) [Hellemans p.8] Oil palm and sorghum are cultivated in Sudan [Hellemans p.9] Olives are cultivated in Crete [Hellemans p.9] Zebu cattle are domesticated in Thailand [Hellemans p.9] The ard, a primitive form of plow, is in use in China; plows pulled by cattle are known in northern Mesopotamia. [Hellemans p.9] The Egyptians and Sumerians smelt silver and gold [Hellemans p.9]

3,500 BC to 3,000 BC

3,500 to 2,000 BC: Longsham culture in China [David W. Koeller] The Minoan civilization in Crete begins [Hellemans p.8] Minoan Architecture: The Palaces Minoan Civilization: Bronze Age in Crete Menes unites the kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, becoming the first pharaoh. [Hellemans p.8] This might have been about 3,200 BC; and Menes established the capital at Memphis. [1979 Hammond Almanac, p.788] An early form of hieroglyphic writing is in use in Egypt; the first known hieroglyphs are those found on King Narmer's Palette [Hellemans p.8] The Egyptians develop their number system to the point where they can record numbers as large as necessary, although they still have to introduce new symbols as numbers grow larger. [Hellemans p.9] Sumerians introduce a new set of clay tokens in addition to the traditional tokens used throughout the Middle east to represent numbers of animals or measures of grain; the new tokens stand for finished merchandise -- clothing, jars of olive oil, loaves of bread, metal objects [Hellemans p.9] The potter's wheel is introduced in Mesopotamia [Hellemans p.9] Wheeled vehicles are used in Sumeria [Hellemans p.9] The Egyptians use papyrus to write on [Hellemans p.9] The Egyptians mine and process iron, using it mostly for utensils [Hellemans p.9] Sailing ships are used in Egypt [Hellemans p.9] Candles are in use. [Hellemans p.9] Metal mirrors are used in Egypt. [Hellemans p.9] The Egyptians and Babylonians make extensive use of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin; bronze will be the dominant metal until about 1,400 BC when the Hittites begin large-scale use of iron. [Hellemans p.9] A ziggurat in Ur (Mesopotamia) 12 meters high (36 feet) shows that Sumerians are familiar with columns, domes, arches, and vaults. [Hellemans p.9] Ziggurat (Columbia Encyclopedia) Mesopotamian Ziggurat (adapted from British Museum drawing) 3,100 - 2,700 BC: Old Kingdom Egypt [David W. Koeller] 3000 BC: Peruvian highlands by 3000 BC at least gourds, tomatoes, beans, potatoes llama, alpaca, guinea pig Earth in the Present, JPEG image for comparison with images of earlier era continental drift 2500 - 1050 BC: Bronze Age, Cyprus Migration from Anatolia and Mycenae. The discovery of copper is now widely exploited to create artefacts, the development of ceramics, trade with other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Link List for History of Science and Science Fiction |Introduction: Overview and Summary |Prehistory: Ancient Precursors |13,000,000,000 BC Big Bang |4,600,000,000 - 4,500,000,000 BC Planet Earth |4,600,000,000 - 3,800,000,000 BC Hadean Era |4,000,000,000 BC start of the Archean |4,000,000,000 - 2,500,000,000 BC Archean |2,500,000,000-543,000,000 BC Proterozoic |543,000,000 BC Precambrian/Cambrian Boundary |543,000,000-525,000,000 BC Cambrian |525,000,000-435,000,000 BC Ordivician |435,000,000-410,000,000 BC Silurian |410,000,000-365,000,000 BC Devonian |365,000,000-290,000,000 BC Carboniferous |290,000,000-245,000,000 BC Permian |245,000,000 BC Paleozoic/Mesozoic |245,000,000-210,000,000 BC Triassic |210,000,000-145,000,000 BC Jurassic |145,000,000-65,000,000 BC Cretaceous |65,000,000 BC Chixulub Extinction |65,000,000-56,500,000 BC Paleocene |56,500,000-33,500,000 BC Eocene |33,500,000-23,500,000 BC Oligocene |23,500,000-5,500,000 BC Miocene |5,500,000-1,800,000 BC Pliocene |3,200,000-3,100,000 BC pulse of cooling |3,000,000 BC to 2,000,000 BC Australopithecus africanus |2,000,000 BC to 1,000,000 BC Homo habilis |1,800,000-20,000? BC Quaternary, Pleistocene |500,000 BC to 100,000 BC start of Homo sapiens |100,000 BC to 80,000 BC Homo neanderthalensis |80,000 BC to 70,000 BC stone lamps |70,000 BC to 60,000 BC Early Wurm Glaciation |60,000 BC to 50,000 BC relatively warmer |50,000 BC to 40,000 BC reaching Australia |40,000 BC to 30,000 BC Cro-Magnons vs. Neanderthals |30,000 BC to 25,000 BC another big freeze-up |Foraging Societies: From 30,000 BC |25,000 BC to 20,000 BC full glacial world |20,000 BC to 10,000 BC Last Glacial Maximum |10,000 BC to 9,000 BC Beginnings of Settled Agriculture |9,000 BC to 8,000 BC |8,000 BC to 7,000 BC |6,000 BC to 5,000 BC |5,000 BC to 4,000 BC |4,000 BC to 3,500 BC |3,500 BC to 3,000 BC |3rd Millennium BC: {to be done} |2nd Millennium BC: {to be done} |9th Century BC: {to be done} |8th Century BC: {to be done} |7th Century BC: {to be done} |6th Century BC: {to be done} |5th Century BC: {to be done} |4th Century BC: {to be done} |3rd Century BC: {to be done} |2nd Century BC: {to be done} |1st Century BC: {to be done} |1st Century: {to be done} |2nd Century: {to be done} |3rd Century: {to be done} |4th Century: {to be done} |5th Century: {to be done} |6th Century: {to be done} |7th Century: {to be done} |8th Century: {to be done} |9th Century: {to be done} |10th Century: Arabs, Byzantium, China |11th Century: Khayyam, Gerbert, Alhazen |12th Century: Age of Translations |13th Century: Fibonacci and final flowering of Chivalry |14th Century: Dante, Marco Polo, and Clocks |15th Century: Dawn of Scientific Revolution |16th Century: Ariosto and Cyrano on the Moon |17th Century: Literary Dawn |18th Century: Literary Expansion |19th Century: Victorian Explosion |1890-1910: Into Our Century |1910-1920: The Silver Age |1920-1930: The Golden Age |1930-1940: The Aluminum Age |1940-1950: The Plutonium Age |1950-1960: The Threshold of Space |1960-1970: The New Wave |1970-1980: The Seventies |1980-1990: The Eighties |1990-2000: End of Millennium |2000-2010: Future Prizewinners

Where to Go for More

Useful Reference Books and Web Sites Beyond the World Wide Web... there is the library of old-fashioned books printed on paper. I strongly recommend that you start or follow-up your explorations of this web site by consulting any or all of these outstanding sources: Bibliography (books, articles, websites) This web page draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science", by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988]. It does not merely copy the TEXT of that fine and recommended reference, and has value added in correlating the scientific and literary production of the century, and in hotlinking to additonal resources. Other sources (cited where used) include: "Geological Time Scale" "Life's Origins Get Murkier and Messier", Nicholas Wade, Science Times, The New York Times, 13 June 2000, p.D1 "Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness" by Ian Tattersall, 1997 "Climate Forcing and the Origin of the Human Genus", Steven M. Stanley, Johns Hopkins U. "Daily Life in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Scotland", Kevin L. Callahan, Anthropology Dept. U. Minnestota "Neogene Ice Age in the North Atlantic Region: Climatic Changes, Biotic Effects, and Forcing Factors", Steven M. Stanley (Johns Hopkins) & William F. Rudderman [U.Virginia], in "Effects of Past Global Change on Life" [National Academy Press, 1995] Jay Cross' attempt at all-embracing chronology (fun, but lacking any citations or crosslinks). Another source of facts (not text) is "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" , ed. Martin A. Bacheller. et al. [Maplewood New Jersey: Hammond Almanac, Inc., 1978]

Selected References on Human Evolution and Paleoanthropology

Smithsonian's bibliography on human evolution Staff in the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology have prepared the following teacher bibliography on human evolution as a result of the many inquiries they receive in this broad area of research. Table of Contents: Introductory Readers Textbooks Advanced Reading History Fiction Biographical Teaching About Evolution Student Bibliography

Introductory Readers

American Museum of Natural History. The First Humans [volume 1 of The Illustrated History of Humankind]. Harper Collins, 1993. Andrews, Peter, and Christopher B. Stringer. Human Evolution: An Illustrated Guide. University Press, 1989. Berger, Lee. "The Dawn of Humans: Redrawing Our Family Tree?" National Geographic 194 (August 1998): 90-99. Bordes, Francois. A Tale of Two Caves. Harper and Row, 1972. Caird, Rod and Robert Foley, scientific ed. Apeman, The First Story of Human Evolution. S&S Trade, 1994. Based on the A&E television series. Cartmill, Matt. "Lucy in the Sand with Footnotes," Natural History (April 1981):90-95. Places the writing of LUCY within its historical context and explains the theoretical issues the book raises. Diamond, Jared. The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. Harper Collins,1992. Edey, Maitland A. and Donald C. Johanson. Blueprints: Solving the Mystery of Evolution. Viking, 1990. Gore, Rick. "Dawn of Humans: Expanding Worlds." National Geographic 191 (May 1997): 84-109. Gore, Rick. "Dawn of Humans: The First Europeans." National Geographic 192 (July 1997): 96-113. Gore, Rick. "Dawn of Humans: Tracing the First of Our Kind." National Geographic 192 (September 1997): 92-99. Gore, Rick. "Neanderthals." National Geographic 189 (January 1996): 2-35. Gowlett, John. Ascent to Civilization; The Archaeology of Early Humans. 2nd ed. McGraw, 1993. This heavily illustrated book gives up-to-date coverage of human development from the earliest evidence to the beginnings of cities. Isaac, Glynn L., ed. Human Ancestors. Scientific American. W. H. Freeman, 1980. Selected significant articles from Scientific American from 1960-90. Includes "The Food-Sharing Behavior of Protohuman Hominids" by Glynn Isaac, reviewing evidence that early erect-standing hominids made tools and carried food to a home base. Johanson, Donald, Lenora Johanson and Blake Edgar. Ancestors. In Search of Human Origins. Random, 1994. Companion volume to the NOVA television series. Johanson, Donald C. and James Shreeve. Lucy's Child: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor. Repr. ed. Avon: 1990. Johanson, Donald C. and Maitland Edey. Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind. S&S Trade, 1990. A highly readable book that describes the finding and significance of Lucy and her contemporaries. Johanson, Donald C. From Lucy to Language. Simon & Schuster, 1996. Johanson, Donald C. "Dawn of Humans." National Geographic 189 (March 1996):96-117. Jones, Steve, Robert Martin and David Pilbeam, eds. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994. Konner, Melvin. The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit. H Holt & Co, 1990. Konner, an anthropologist, explores the biological aspects and determinants of human behavior. Human thought, mood, and action are explored on many levels based on insights from the social sciences and the humanities. Lambert, David and the Diagram Group. Field Guide to Early Man. Facts on File, 1987. Leakey, Meave. "Dawn of Humans." National Geographic 188 (September 1995): 38-51. Leakey, Richard. The Origin of Humankind. (Science Masters Ser.) Basic Books, 1994. Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin. The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Human Kind. Doubleday, 1995. Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin. Origins Reconsidered in Search of What Makes Us Human. Doubleday,1993. Concentrating on the hominid line and his own point-of-view, this work is written in easy-to-read conversational style with colored pictures and diagrams. It traces human evolution and the physical and behavioral adaptation reflecting our social and cooperative nature. Lewin, Roger. Patterns of Evolution: The New Molecular View. WH Freeman, 1996. Lewin, Roger. The Origin of Modern Humans: A Scientific American Library Volume. W. H. Freeman, 1995. Lewin, Roger. Human Evolution; An Illustrated Introduction. 3rd ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993. Lewin, Roger. Thread of Life: The Smithsonian Looks at Evolution. Smithsonian, 1991. Lewin, Roger. In the Age of Mankind: A Smithsonian Book of Book Evolution. Foreword by Donald C. Johanson. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989. Maitland, Edey and Donald C. Johanson. Blueprints: Solving the Mystery of Evolution. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1989. Pfeiffer, John. The Creative Explosion: An Inquiry into the Origins of Art and Religion. Harper and Row, 1983. An excellent summary of the place of art in Upper Paleolithic life, and its relationship to the development of our own species. Pinker, Steven. How the Mind Works. W. W. Norton & Co., 1997. Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct. Harper Perennial Library, 1995. Potts, Richard. Humanity's Descent: The Consequences of an Ecological Instability. Morrow, 1996 Reader, John. Missing Links; The Hunt for Earliest Man. Little, Brown, and Co., 1981. The story of the search for human fossils, from the discovery of Neandertal to recent finds in East Africa. Color photographs. Rensberger, Boyce. "Facing the Past," Science 81 (October 1981):40-53. Describes how Jay Matternes puts muscle and flesh to a Neandertal skull. Schick, Kathy D. and Nicholas Toth. Making Silent Stones Speak, Human Evolution and the Dawn of Technology. Simon & Schuster, 1994. Shreve, James. The Neandertal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins . Morrow, 1995. Shreve, James. "Erectus Rising," Discover (September 1994):80-89. Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World: A Visual Chronology from the Origins of Life to A.D. 1500. Chris Scarre, editor-in-chief. Smithsonian Institution and A. Dorling Kindersley Books, 1993. Solecki, R. S. Shanidar: The First Flower People. Alfred A. Knopf, 1971. An account of the excavation of this important Neandertal site. Tattersall, Ian. The Fossil Trail: How We Know What We Think We Know About Human Evolution. Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Tattersall, Ian. The Last Neanderthal: The Rise, Success and Mysterious Extinction of Our Closest Human Relatives. Macmillan, 1995. Tattersall, Ian. The Human Odyssey. Four Million Years of Human Evolution. Prentice Hall, 1993. Based on the new hall of human biology and evolution at the American Museum of Natural History. Thomas, Herbert, Paul G. Bahn (translator), Sharon Avrutick (editor). Human Origins: The Search for Our Beginnings. Harry N. Abrams, 1995. Trinkaus, Erik and Pat Shipman. The Neandertals: Of Skeletons, Scientists, and Scandal. Vintage Books, 1994. Weaver, Kenneth F. "The Search for Our Ancestors," National Geographic 168(5), November 1985, pp. 560-623. An overview of the fossil finds and the paleoanthropological research that has contributed to our knowledge of hominid evolution. Includes photographs of nine fossil hominid skulls and illustrations by Jay H. Matternes distinguishing the physical characteristics of these hominids. Wolpoff, Milford H. and Rachel Caspari. Race and Human Evolution: A Fatal Attraction. S&S Trade, 1997. Zihlman, A. L. The Human Evolution Coloring Book. HarperC, 1982. Introduces earth history, evolution, genetics, anatomy, primates, and human evolution with an easy to understand text and diagrams that are an effective teaching aid.

Textbooks

Boaz, Noel T. and Alan J. Almquist. Biological Anthropology: A Synthetic Approach in Human Evolution. Prentice-Hall, 1996. Brace, C. Loring. The Stages of Human Evolution. 5th ed. Prentice-Hall, 1994. Brace, C. Loring, Harry Nelson, Nel Korn and Mary Brace. Atlas of Human Evolution. 2nd ed. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1979. Descriptive guide with excellent drawings of important representative skulls from the fossil record. Campbell, Bernard and James D. Loy, eds. Humankind Emerging. 7th ed. Addson-Wesley Educ., 1995. See also teacher edition. Fagan, Brian. The Journey from Eden: Peopling of Our World. Thames and Hudson, 1990. Fagan, Brian. People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory. 7th ed. Add-on-Wesley Educ., 1995.. Feder, Kenneth L. The Past in Perspective: An Introduction to Human Prehistory. Mayfield Pub., 1995. Howells, W. W. Getting Here: The Story of Human Evolution. New ed. Compass Press, 1997.

Advanced Reading

Aiello, Leslie C. and Phillip L. Wheeler. "The expensive tissue hypothesis: the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution," Current Anthropology 36(2):199-221, 1995. Aiello, Leslie C. and Christopher Dean, eds. An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy. Academic Press, 1990. Akazawa, Takeru, Kenichi, Aoki, and Ofer Bar-Yosef, eds. Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia. Plenum Publ. Corp., 1999. Brain, C. K. ed. Swartkrans. A Cave's Chronicle of Early Man. Transvaal Museum Monograph 8; 1993. Brain, C. K. The Hunters or the Hunted? An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. University of Chicago Press, 1981. Brown, Michael. The Search for Eve. Harper & Row, 1990. Byrne, Richard. The Thinking Ape: The Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Campbell, Bernard. Human Ecology:(Foundations of Human Behavior Series). 2nd ed. Aldine de Gruyter, 1995. Cartmill, Matt, William L. Hylander and James Shafland. Human Structure. Harvard Univ. Press, 1987. Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi and Francesco L. K. Cavalli-Sforza. The Great Human Diaspora: A History of Diversity and Evolution. (Foundations of Human Behavior Ser.) Add-on-Wesley, 1995. Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi, et al. The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton Univ. Press, 1993. Clark, J. Desmond. The Prehistory of Africa. Thames and Hudson, 1970. (outdated but only publication on this topic) Ciochon, R. L. & J. G. Fleagle eds. The Human Evolution Source Book. (Advances in Human Evolution.) Prentice Hall, College Div., 1993. Ciochon, Russell L. and John G. Fleagle, eds. Primate Evolution and Human Origins. Aldine de Gruyter, 1987. Conroy, Glenn C. Primate Evolution. W. W. Norton & Co., 1990. Day, Michael H. Guide to Fossil Man. 4th ed. Univ. of Chicago Press, 1986. A handy reference to early human fossils organized by country and sites where the fossils were found. Includes descriptions and often photographs of the fossils. Deacon, Terrance.W. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. W.W.Norton & Co., 1997. Delson, Eric, et al., eds. Paleoanthropology Annual. Vol. 1. Garland, 1990. Delson, Eric. Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. Alan R. Liss, 1985. Durant, John R., ed. Human Origins. Clarendon Press; Oxford Univ. Press, 1989. Falk, Dean. Braindance: New Discoveries About Human Brain Evolution. Henry Holt and Co., 1994. Foley, Robert. Another Unique Species: Patterns in Human Evolutionary Ecology. Longman, 1987. Gamble, Clive. Timewalkers: The Prehistory of Global Colonization. Harvard Univ. Press, 1996. Gibson, Kathleen R. and Tim Ingold, eds. Tools, Language, and Cognition in Human Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993. Goldsmith, Timothy H. The Biological Roots of Human Nature: Forging Links Between Evolution & Behavior. Oxford Univ. Press, 1994. Harding, Robert S. O., and Geza Teleki. Omnivorous primates: Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution. Columbia University Press, 1981. Hay, Richard L. and Mary D. Leakey. "The Fossil Footprints of Laetoli," Scientific American 246(2):50-57, 1982. Interesting, well-illustrated article reporting the discovery of fossilized footprint 3.6 million years old indicating that hominids walked erect a half of a million years before previously believed. Holloway, Ralph L. "The Casts of Fossil Hominid Brains," Scientific American (July 1974). Important article discussing the brain structure of the australopithecines as studied from endocast material. Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. The Woman That Never Evolved. Harvard University Press, 1983. Hrdy, a sociobiologist, focuses on nonhuman primate behavior, particularly monkeys, to demonstrate the wide diversity in primate social structure and behavior. According to Hrdy, primate social systems are dictated by how females space themselves and by the hierarchies they establish that are determined by the availability and utilization of resources. Her observations demonstrate that most female primates are more assertive and sexually active than previously supposed. Ingold, Tim. Evolution and Social Life. Cambridge University Press, 1986. Isaac, Glynn L. The Archaeology of Human Origins: Papers by Glynn Isaac. Cambridge Univ. Press,1990. Isaac, Glynn L. "Aspects of Human Evolution," In Essays on Evolution; A Darwin Centenary Volume, edited by D. S. Bendall. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983. A review of the major trends and transitions that have characterized human evolution with an emphasis on the changes studied by archeologists. Isaac, Glynn L. and Elizabeth McCown. Human Origins: Louis Leakey and the East African Evidence. W. A. Benjamin, Inc., 1976. Klein, Richard G. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins. 2nd ed. Univ. of Chicago Press, 1999. Lahr, Marta M. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity: A Study on Cranial Variation. (Studies in Biological Anthropology, no. 18.) Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996. Lieberman, Philip. The Biology and Evolution of Language. Harvard Univ. Press, 1984. Lovejoy, C. Owen. "The Origins of Man, " Science 211:341-350, 1981. Megarry, Tim. Society in Prehistory: The Origins of Human Culture. New York Univ. Press, 1995. Mellars, Paul, ed. The Emergence of Modern Humans: An Archĺological Perspective. Cornell Univ. Press, 1991. Mellars, Paul, ed.. The Emergence of Modern Humans: An Archaeological Perspective. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1990. Mellars, Paul and Christopher Stringer, eds. The Human Revolution: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans. Princeton Univ. Press, 1990. Mellars, Paul. The Neanderthal Legacy: An Archaeological Perspective from Western Europe. Princeton Univ. Press, 1995. Minthen Steven. The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion, and Science. Thames & Hudson, 1996. Phenice, T. W. and N. J. Sauer. Hominid Fossils: An Illustrated Key. 2nd ed. William C. Brown and Co., 1977. Handbook to the fossil record with excellent outline drawings of various fossils. Potts, Richard. Early Hominid Activities at Olduvai. (Foundations of Human Behavior Series) A. de Gruyter, 1988. Potts, Richard. "Home Bases and Early Hominids," American Scientist 72:338-347, 1984. Discusses new views about the earliest archeological sites and interpretations about early human behavior. Smith, Fred H. and Frank Spencer, eds. The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence. Alan R. Liss, 1984. A technical review of human evolution from 300,000 to 10,000 years ago, specifically the transition from archaic to modern Homo sapiens. Covers the fossil evidence and major interpretations of the fossils from Europe, the Near East, Africa, and Asia. Smith, Fred H. The Neanderthal Remains from Krapipna: A Descriptive and Comparative Study. Repr. ed. (Univ. Tennessee, Department of Anthropology, Report of Investigations Series, no. 15.) Bks Demand. Stringer, Christopher and Clive Gamble. In Search of the Neanderthals. Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 1993. Tattersall, Ian, Eric Delson, John Van Couvering, and Alison S. Brooks, eds. 2nd edition Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory. Garland Publishing, 1999. Trinkaus, Erik, ed. The Emergence of Modern Humans: Biological Adaptations in the Late Pleistocene. (School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series) Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990. Trinkaus, Erik. "The Neandertals and Modern Human Origins." Annual Review of Anthropology 15 (1986):193-218. Vrba, Elizabeth S., et al., eds. Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale Univ. Press, 1994. Wolpoff, Milford H. Paleoanthropology. 2nd ed. McGraw, 1996. College-level text about the evidence for human evolution with emphasis on the fossils and their interpretation. Wood, Bernard A., et al., eds. Major Topics in Primate and Human Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988.

History

Landan, Misia. Narratives of Human Evolution. Yale Univ. Press, 1991. Lewin, Roger. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. Simon & Schuster, 1987. McCown, Theodore D. and Kenneth A. R. Kennedy. Climbing Man's Family Tree: A Collection of Major Writings on Human Phylogeny, 1699 to 1971. Prentice Hall, 1972. A chronological collection of classic writings "dealing with the initial discoveries and descriptions of human fossils, the ideas concerning human antiquity and place of origin, and the philosophical speculations about man's place in nature." Each section is prefaced with an essay that clarifies the major concepts involved.

Fiction

(more Science Fiction {to be done} Auel, Jean M. The Clan of the Cave Bear. Crown Publishers, 1980. Sequels: Valley of the Horses, 1982. The Mammoth Hunters, 1985. Crown Pub. Group. Tells the tale of a band of Neandertal gatherers-hunters living on the Crimean peninsula near the shores of the Black Sea. The band adopts a 5 year old Cro-Magnon orphan. With many exciting passages the book captures the essence of that great and subtle gap between Neandertals and their successors. (high school) Crichton, Michael. Eaters of the Dead. Ballantine 1988. Golding, William. The Inheritors. Pocket Books, 1981. A novel about Neandertals and their terror of the "civilized" invaders. Also could use Lord of the Flies to discuss what are human characteristics and how much a social organization is necessary for altruism. (high school) Kurten, Bjorn. Dance of the Tiger: A Novel of the Ice Age. Univ. of California Press, 1995. A very engaging novel about the co-existence and possible fate of Neandertals and Cro-Magnons between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago. Kurtén provides excellent background details on the flora and fauna of the time from his background as a paleontologist. The dialogue is well paced and you quickly become engrossed in the plot. He intermingles the ideas of Hultkrantz, de Lumley, Solecki, Trinkaus and Howells in a very convincing manner. (high school) Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall. Reindeer Moon. Simon & Schuster, Pocket Books, 1991.

Biographical

Leakey, L. S. B. By the Evidence: Memoirs, 1932-1951. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1974. Memoirs of his middle career discussing anthropological finds, African wildlife, and Kikuyu tribal customs. Very readable. Leakey, Mary Douglas. Disclosing the Past. Doubleday, 1985. A fascinating autobiography which reveals much about Mary Leakey's personal life as well as her archaeological discoveries, told in a dramatic and highly readable style. Leakey, Richard. One Life: An Autobiography. Published by Salem House Ltd. Distributed by Merrimack Publishing, 1984. Morell, Virginia. Ancestral Passions: The Leakey Family & the Quest for Humankind's Beginnings. Touchstone Books, 1996. Willis, Delta. The Leakey Family: Leaders in Science for Human Origins. (Makers of Modern Science Ser.) Facts on File, 1992.

Teaching About Evolution

National Academy of Sciences. Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science (140 pp.) Available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., N. W., Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313. Also available online at Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science Chapters include: Why Teach Evolution?, Major Themes in Evolution, Evolution and the Nature of Science, Evolution and the National Science Education Standards, Frequently Asked Questions, Activities for Teaching, and Selecting Instructional Materials.

Student Bibliography

Collins, Desmond. The Human Revolution: From Ape to Artist. Phaidon - E. P. Dutton, 1976. Excellent illustrations. Cornell, James. Where Did They Come From? Scholastic Books, 1978. Dramatic reading about human evolution from the search for Peking Man to the seven cities of gold. Some outdated information. (junior high) Day, Michael H. Guide to Fossil Man. 4th ed. Univ. of Chicago Press, 1986. A short introductory booklet on the subject, good for secondary school students. Early Humans. Eyewitness Books. Alfred A. Knopf, 1989. Very well-illustrated with photographs. Elting, Mary and Franklin Folsom. The Wild Mammoth Hunters. Scholastic Books Services, 1968. (Jr. H.) Higham, Charles. Life in the Old Stone Age. (Cambridge Introduction to the History of Mankind Series.) Cambridge University Press, 1971. (high school) Johanson, Donald C. "Ethiopia Yields First 'Family' of Early Man." National Geographic (December 1976). Well-illustrated article describing the discovery of associated fossils representing adults and children -- possibly a 'family' 3 million years old. Leakey, Richard. Origin of Humankind. HarperC, 1996. Leakey, Richard and Alan Walker. "Homo Erectus Unearthed," National Geographic 168(5), November 1985, pp. 624-629. Discusses the 1984 find at Lake Turkana of the most complete early Homo skeleton thus far discovered (approximately 1.6 million years old). Lewin, Roger. Human Evolution; An Illustrated Introduction. Blackwell Scientific/ W. H. Freeman, 1984. Covers Aegyptopithecus, Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus, and Australopithecus and Homo. A very readable book. Man's Place in Evolution. British Museum (Natural History): Cambridge Univ. Press, 1980. Written in connection with a museum exhibition, this clearly written and superbly illustrated book discusses how human beings are related to primates and to various "fossil men." Patent, Dorothy Hinshaw. Evolution Goes on Every Day. Holiday House, 1977. (junior high - 10th) Patent's overview includes discussions of genes, DNA, mutations, formation of new species, natural and artificial selection, viruses, bacteria, human effects of evolution and even sociobiology. Adequately illustrated. Wolf, Josef. The Dawn of Man. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1978. Tells the story from apes to modern humans with many illustrations. (high school) ANTHROPOLOGY OUTREACH OFFICE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1999 NOTE: This publication [bibliography above, only) can be made available in Braille or audio cassette. To obtain a copy in one of these formats, please call or write : Smithsonian Information SI Building, Room 153 Washington, DC 20560-0010 202/357-2700 (voice); 202/357-1729 (TTY)
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